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Exam 3 Week 1 Notes

by: Mallori Wisuri

Exam 3 Week 1 Notes Biology 111

Marketplace > Ball State University > Biology 111 > Exam 3 Week 1 Notes
Mallori Wisuri
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Week one notes for Exam 3
Dr. Metzler
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallori Wisuri on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 111 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Metzler in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
Exam  3   Introduction  to  Metabolism   Ch.  8  Energy  and  Thermodynamics     2/23/2016     *Sole  reason  why  we  eat  and  breath!     Vocab  need  to  know!   -­‐Metabolism:  every  chemical  reaction  that  goes  into  your  body,  breaking  down  and   or  building  up.  Breaking  down  releases  energy  and  building  up  requires  energy.     -­‐Anabolism:  building  things;  taking  monomer  subunits  and  use  the  energy  released   when  breaking  things  down  to  build  new  substances.    Ex.  Anabolic  steroids   -­‐Catabolism:  bring  in  food  to  ‘break  things  down’  into  their  monomer  subunits.  Does   this  because  your  cell  wants  energy.  This  is  down  when  bonds  are  broken  because   energy  is  released  that  the  cell  can  use.  Some  energy  is  lost  as  heat  in  living   organism.  Heat  is  a  by-­‐product  cannot  be  used  in  metabolism.     -­‐Energy   -­‐Kinetic  Energy     -­‐Potential  Energy:  energy  being  stored     • Metabolism:  is  very  complex   -­‐Organized  into  metabolic  pathways     -­‐Every  thing  that  goes  on  inside  you  metabolically  is  very  connected     -­‐Organize  reactions  into  pathways  this  is  for  better  control  and  regulation  of   what  is  going  on     • Biology  and  Energy   -­‐Chemical  energy  in  bonds  is  of  most  importance     -­‐Energy  stored  in  bond  is  potential  energy.  This  energy  is  sitting  there  and   being  stored  in  the  cell.     -­‐Breaking  bonds  to  release  energy  so  cell  can  do  work   -­‐Building  bonds  to  store  energy  to  be  able  to  do  work  later   -­‐Ex.  Lynx  and  rabbit       • Thermodynamics:  study  of  energy  transformations   -­‐Study  a  system  (big  or  small)  that  you  are  studying     -­‐Closed  systems:  no  interactions  between  system  and  environment     -­‐Open  systems:  constant  exchange  between  system  and  environment.  Living   things  are  an  open  system.       o First  Law  of  Thermodynamics:  energy  cannot  be  created  nor   destroyed,  only  transferred  and  transformed     -­‐Transformed  means  to  convert  from  light  energy  to  chemical  energy   to  mechanical  energy     o Second  Law  of  Thermodynamics:  when  energy  is  converted  from  one   form  to  another;  some  useable  energy  is  converted  to  heat.     -­‐This  transformation  cannot  be  perfect/efficient     -­‐In  this  transformation  you  end  up  with  energy  in  2  forms.  There  is   useable  energy  for  the  system  and  also  unusable  energy(heat)  that  the   system  cannot  use     -­‐Every  energy  transformation  or  transfer  increases  the  entropy  of  the   universe   -­‐Entropy  is  the  measure  of  disorder  or  randomness   -­‐Universe  prefers  disorder     -­‐Living  things  giving  off  heat,  which  makes  things  moves  around   more,  which  is  more  disordered.  Thus  leading  to  more  disorder  of  the   universe     -­‐Ex.  Photosynthesis       o Entropy:  measurement  of  disorder  or  randomness  of  the  universe   -­‐In  the  equation  S  represents  entropy   -­‐Want  reaction  to  occur  spontaneously  must  increase  entropy       -­‐Universe  likes  entropy  because  it  doesn’t  cost  as  much  energy(lazy   mans  out).  Universe  moves  toward  entropy.       • Biology  and  Entropy   -­‐Living  things  are  very  ordered     -­‐Nonliving  things  we  have  to  maintain  and  take  care  of   -­‐Cell  maintains  order  but  taking  energy  in  and  gives  off  heat  to  increase   disorder  of  everything  around  us     LC:  How  is  it  that  living  things  can  create  all  the  order  and  not  break  laws?     -­‐Living  organisms  create  order  locally,  but  the  energy  transformation  generates   waste  heat  that  increases  the  entropy  of  the  universe.       o Enthalpy:  total  potential  energy  of  a  system   -­‐ In  the  equation  H  represents  enthalpy     -­‐ All  the  energy  something  can  go  after   -­‐ Thinking  of  this  as  bond  energy;  amount  of  energy  that  will  come   out  when  you  break  a  bond     o Free  energy:    amount  of  energy  available  to  do  work  in  a  biochemical   reaction   -­‐Energy  org  has  access  to,  to  do  work   -­‐ In  the  equation  G  represents  free  energy   -­‐ H=G  +  TS    ;  G=H  -­‐  TS   -­‐ T  stands  for  Temperature     -­‐ In  living  systems  temperature  does  NOT  have  an  influences;  can   maintain  a  constant  temperature.     -­‐ Entropy  influenced  by  the  random  motion  of  molecules,  which  is   controlled  by  the  temperature.     -­‐ This  equation  applies  to  any  type  of  energy  transformation     • Chemical  Reactions  and  Free  Energy   -­‐Δ???? = Δ???? − ????Δ????   -­‐Exergonic:  reaction  that  releases  energy;  reactants  more  energy  then   products;  Δ????  is  negative.  Typical  happens  when  you  break  a  bond.   Considered  spontaneous.  Energetically  favorable  to  the  cell  because  they  get   energy.     -­‐Endergonic:  reaction  puts  in  energy;  reactants  less  energy  then  products;  Δ????   is  positive.  Typical  happens  when  you  form  a  bond.  Considered   nonspontaneous.  Energetically  unfavorable  to  the  cell  because  they  need   energy.       LC:  If  enthalpy  is  negative  and  entropy  is  positive,  then  the  reaction  will  be…   -­‐Spontaneous  at  all  temperatures   -­‐  Δ???? = Δ???? − ????Δ????   -­‐  Δ???? = negative − ???? positive   -­‐  Δ???? = − − +   -­‐  Δ????  =  negative  number       • Concentrations  Matter   -­‐If  you  leave  reactions  alone  they  are  going  to  try  to  reach  equilibrium;  cells   don’t  want  to  reach  equilibrium.     -­‐Cells  manipulate  concentrations  to  let  reactions  move  in  the  way  they  want   them   -­‐Reactants  and  products   -­‐Reactions  will  try  to  reach  equilibrium   -­‐Cells  manipulate  concentrations       • ATP  and  Cellular  Work   -­‐Nucleic  acid  component   -­‐Pentose  sugar,  adenine  and  3  phosphate  groups     -­‐ATP  is  the  ‘gasoline’  of  humans   -­‐Takes  ATP  and  hydrolyze  it.  Hydrolysis  is  when  you  add  a  water  molecule  to   break  a  bond  between  the  3  and  2  phosphate.  This  is  an  exergonic   reaction  and  energy  is  released.  This  energy  is  used  to  do  work.     -­‐3  types  of  work:   1.  Chemical:  this  lets  your  cells  link  together  reactions.  We  call  this   reaction  coupling.  Linking  exergonic  reaction  an  endergonic  reactions.     2.  Transport   3.  Mechanical         2/25/2016   Ch.  8  Enzymes       • Reaction  Coupling:  Link  exergonic  reaction,  which  is  releasing  energy  and   hook  it  to  an  end  reaction  that  needs  energy.  Allowing  cell  to  power  this   reaction.   -­‐Convert  glutamic  acid  to  glutamine  you  need  to  add  ammonia  to  the   reaction.  This  reaction  has  a  positive  Δ????   -­‐Couples  it  with  hydrolysis  of  ATP,  which  has  a  negative  Δ????   -­‐This  provides  energy  necessary  for  ammonia  to  combine  with  glutamine     -­‐Endergonic  reactions  cannot  require  more  energy  then  the  exergonic   reaction  gives  off.  Need  to  find  the  overall  Δ????!       LC:  start  13  kcal/mol  and  got  to  28  kcal/mol.  Products  have  more  energy  then   reactants  so  it  is  an  endergonic  reaction.  Since  its  endergonic  reaction  it  is  non   spontaneous  and  energetically  unfavorable.       LC:  Which  following  reactions  does  NOT  need  coupled  to  a  second  energetically   favorable  reaction?   CORRECT  ANSWER   Glucose  +  O2  -­‐-­‐-­‐  CO2  +  H20   -­‐Breaking  glucose  down  (aerobic  respiration)   -­‐Catabolic       WRONG  ANSWERS   CO2  +  H2O  -­‐-­‐-­‐glucose  +  O2   Nucleotides  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐  DNA   ADP  +  P  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ATP     -­‐All  of  these  are  anabolic  and  forming  bonds       • ATP  Transport  and  Mechanical  Work   -­‐Transport  work:  transporting  molecules     -­‐Mechanical  work:  flagella/cilia  moving     • ATP  Cycle   -­‐In  catabolizing  food  energy  is  being  released.  Then  this  energy  is  used  in  the  cell   to  phosphorylate  ADP  to  ATP  (endergonic-­‐bond  forming).     -­‐This  ATP  that  is  made  is  then  hydrolyzed  to  release  energy,  this  energy  is  used   to  power  reactions     -­‐ATP  is  never  stored;  energy  is  stored  as  fat.   -­‐ATP  once  made  is  used     *Why  does  the  cell  maintain  high  ATP  to  ADP  ratio?     Cell  manipulating  what  is  going  on,  reaction  cell  wants  is  to  hydrolyze  ATP  to  get   energy.  Keeps  the  reaction  going  in  the  direction  of  breaking  down  ATP  to  ADP.       Vocab  need  to  know!   -­‐Active  site:  region  on  the  enzymes  where  the  substrate  binds.   -­‐Substrate:     -­‐Cofactor:  substances  that  help  enzyme  work  better.  Inorganic  substances!  Ex.  Metal   ions   -­‐Coenzyme:  substances  that  help  enzyme  work  better.  Organic  substances!  Ex.   Vitamins     • Enzymes   -­‐Biological  catalyst:  speeds  up  the  rate  of  the  reaction  and  does  NOT  cause  the   reaction  to  happen   -­‐Highly  specific  so  an  enzyme  has  only  1  molecule  it  interacts  with   -­‐Enzymes  end  in  ‘-­‐ase’     -­‐Tell  what  an  enzyme  does  by  its  name  Ex.  Sucrase  is  an  enzyme  that  breaks   down  sucrose   -­‐Enzyme  interacts  with  its  substrates.  Substrates  bind  in  the  region  of  the   enzyme  called  an  active  site.  This  forms  the  Enzyme-­‐Substrate  complex.  Enzyme   has  a  subtle  conformational  change  and  holds  onto  the  substrate  a  little  tighter.   This  is  called  Induced  Fit!     -­‐Enzyme  +  Substrate-­‐-­‐-­‐ES  complex-­‐-­‐-­‐Enzyme  +  Substrate   -­‐3D  shape  of  proteins  is  very  important!  This  is  because  if  enzyme  denatures  it   will  lose  functionality  because  the  active  site  will  be  gone.  Then  there  will  be  no   place  for  the  substrate  to  bind   1.  Substrates  enters  active  site   2.  Substrates  are  held  in  the  active  site  by  weak  interactions   3.  Active  site  can  lower  activation  energy  and  speed  up  reactions   4.  Substrates  are  converted  to  products   5.  Products  are  released   6.  Active  site  is  now  available  for  two  new  substrate  molecules     -­‐Enzymes  lower  Activation  energy.  Stresses  reactants  and  puts  them  into  their   transition  state!     -­‐Enzymes  never  affect  Δ????  only  increase  the  rate  of  the  reaction       • Factors  affect  enzyme  activity   1.  Concentrations   2.  Environmental  Factors   3.  Cofactors/Coenzymes  (SEE  VOCAB  TO  KNOW)   4.  Regulation       o Concentrations   1.  Enzyme  concentration  vs  Rate  of  reaction  graph   -­‐Add  more  enzymes  over  time  and  if  there  is  a  set  amount  of  substrate   available  the  reaction  goes  up       2.  Substrate  concentration  vs  Rate  of  reaction  graph   -­‐If  the  enzyme  concentration  is  held  steady  initially  the  rate  of  the   reaction  goes  up  and  then  it  reaches  a  plateau.  This  is  called  the   saturation  effect  of  the  enzyme.  Every  single  active  site  of  an  enzyme   is  occupied!       o Environmental  Factors     1. Temperature   2. pH   -­‐Every  organism  has  its  own  optimal  pH  and  temperature     -­‐Different  compartments  in  our  body  with  different  pH’s     -­‐Temperature  goes  down  from  the  optimal  temperature  then  the  enzyme   activity  goes  down   -­‐Temperature  goes  up  from  the  optimal  temperature  then  the  enzyme   activity  goes  down;  because  the  enzymes  have  denatured   -­‐Be  aware  of  the  environment!       o Regulation   1. Control  amount  of  enzyme  present   -­‐Increase  production  of  enzyme   -­‐Degrade  the  enzyme         2.  Controlling  activity  of  enzyme   -­‐Feedback  inhibition:  put  things  in  pathway,  each  step  of  pathway  is   catalyzed  by  an  enzyme.  Product  will  go  back  and  inhibit  its  own   production.  Inhibit  the  enzyme  at  the  beginning  of  the  pathway.   -­‐Allosteric  regulation:  does  not  directly  involve  anything  binding  to   active  site.  Molecule  can  come  in  bind  to  the  allosteric  site,  which   affects  the  shape  of  the  enzyme  thus  affecting  the  shape  of  active  site.          


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