New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Criminology Chapter 6 Notes

by: Kathryn Hardison

Criminology Chapter 6 Notes 3600

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Sociology > 3600 > Criminology Chapter 6 Notes
Kathryn Hardison

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

notes of chapter 6
Andrew Fisher
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Criminology

Popular in Sociology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.


Reviews for Criminology Chapter 6 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/01/16
Criminology Chapter 6: Social Structure Theory  Social Structure Theory o Definitions  Social structure theory: social forces are the cause of crime and not  individual traits. Disadvantaged class positions are primary cause of  crime.  Social stratification: a system of structured inequality in which people  receive different amount of society’s valued resources.  Video on US distribution of wealth o Intersecting Stratification  Categories of class/habitus, race/ethnicity, and sex/gender are socially  constructed categories that reflect power structures of society (privilege  and oppression)  Classism  Racism  Sexism  Ideology of Isms o Society is naturally divided into parts o The different parts displayed intrinsically relate to one’s  nature o The different among natures are innate, not subject to  change, and on the basis of their legitimacy from Society,  some natures are innately superior to others o Theories  Social Disorganization theory  Poverty  Social disorganization  o Broken families/households may experience more crime o Anything that isn’t as “society” should be  Breakdown of traditions  Criminal areas  o Crime rates are elevated in commercial and residential  neighborhoods experiencing change (business closing,  buildings torn down or renovated)  o Columbia neighborhood experiences a high number of  shooting and they are paying a police officer to live there  Cultural transmission  Criminal careers o People will join criminal groups to get attachments and  social needs to feel less alienated o Gangs claim territory and have authority with lack of  external support or investments. People don’t care that  much and then crime grows. People become career  criminals  Shaw and McKay o Transitional neighborhoods: an area undergoing a shift in  population and structure, usually from middle­class  residential to lower­class mixed use o Studied Chicago o Explained that Chicago had developed into distinct  neighborhoods and poverty neighborhoods were unable to  come together as a community o Concentric zones  Crime rate as you leave downtown gets lower and  lower  Social Ecology o Community disorder  Crime rates are associated with community  deterioration. Areas with high percentage of  deserted and abandoned homes and businesses o Community fear  In neighborhoods where people interact with each  other, they are less likely to be afraid of crime  If they are a afraid, they’ll get scary dogs and put  bars on their windows o Siege mentality  Leads to sense of powerlessness and a hostile  worldview. They may think that police are there to  harass them, not to protect and serve o Community change  Can’t just be a poor community, but a poor,  unchanging community leads to the fear of crime o Collective efficacy o Informal social control  Neighbors disciplining other children and  disagreements being handled outside of the courts.  Ex: He stole my lawnmower so let’s get a neighbor  to help steal it back o Institutional social control  Institutions being a part of neighborhoods… schools and churches, for example, help prevent crime.  After school programs help monitor children.  Community centers and churches are often available o Public (formal) social control  Government services, clinics, police are often  ineffective in neighborhoods that are afraid of crime or are disorganized. Do police only monitor wealthy neighborhoods?  Strain theory  Suicide as a social fact o Social integration: the degree of attachments and  inclusiveness a member of society has relative to others  You’re included in society somehow  Altruistic integration  Too much integration to a degree that you  lose your self identity  Ex: kamakazi bombers who self­destruct  Egoistic  No integration... feeling lonely   Ex: jumping off the Golden Gate bridge o Social regulation: the degree to which rules, norms, and  values are expected to be followed by members of a society  Fatalistic  Too much regulation makes you feel  powerless and causes you to do harm  Anomie  The lack of regulation. You have so much  power and you end up doing harm to  yourself  Anomie­Strain theory o Anomie: a disconnect between socially defined and  universally mandated goals and the legitimate means and  reality to achieve these goals  You see the goals and you know you’re supposed to do it, but you are detached and feel strained. You  can’t do what you need to do o Strain: the difficulty in attaining positive social things o How do social structures exert positive pressure upon  certain parts of society to engage in nonconforming rather  than conforming conduct?  Deviance and conformity are both psychologically  normal o Assumptions of Anomie­Strain  We should all strive for the same goals  Failure is a way­station to ultimate success  Real failure consists only in lessening or withdrawal of ambition and goals o Culturally defined goals: the goals, purposes, and interests  seen as legitimate objectives for a group of people o Acceptable means: the normal ways of achieving cultural  goals  Institutional anomie theory o Devaluation of the noneconomic o Subordination to the economic o Penetration of the noneconomic by economic o There’s a drive for material wealth  o Changing our traditional values due to the desire to succeed o Ex: We used to go to school for education, but now we go  for economic reasons  Relative deprivation o A precursor to crime that incites envy, mistrust, and  aggression resulting from perceptions of economic and  social inequality o Being deprived of social status and wealth will make  people feel a certain way to make them commit crime o Ex: when you see people on vacation on Facebook  General Strain Theory (agnew) o Failure to achieve positively valued goals  Someone who aspires to wealth and fame but lacks  the resources to achieve those goals (financial,  personal, etc.)  Ex: You’re a good singer, you should apply for  American Idol… then they fail and go bankrupt and commit crime o Disjunction of expectations and achievements  Ex: Just sitting behind a desk all day when you were picturing something else o Removal of positive stimuli  The loss of a job or loved one might lead someone  to delinquency  A person may seek out the person who was  responsible for their loss o Presence of negative stimuli  Child abuse, victimization, conflicts, physical harm  Critiques of Strain theory o Assumes universality  Changing goals and means of society due to laws  and wealth o Class bias  Success and pressures to succeed is greatest for the  lower class but they don’t commit crime as much as high­end businesses. They may experience strain  o Simplicity of explanation  Why one would choose one adaptation than another. Are you a rebel or innovator? o Retreatism from one perspective  People often consume drugs whether conscious o Alternative perspectives  Strain theory can explain crime attached to goals and means  Cultural Deviance theory  Conceptual Hierarchy o Society o Culture o Institutions o Organizations o Groups o Individuals  Culture  o The expressive aspect  Norms  Values  Beliefs   Symbols o As a tool kit  A repertoire of habits, skills, and styles from which  people construct strategies of action  Ex: learning how to eat at a fancy dinner o The Location of Culture by Homi Bhabha (the time shared) o Subculture: a culture with different values and ideas than  the dominant culture it is embedded within without conflict o Counter­culture: a culture with conflicting values and ideas  of the dominant culture  Cultural Deviance theory o Focal concerns: values that have evolved specifically to fit  conditions of classed environments o Subcultures of violence (1950s gangs)  Trouble, toughness, smartness, luck/fate, autonomy o Delinquent subculture: a value system adopted by  individuals that is directly opposed to that of the larger  society o Differential opportunity the view that people whose  legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue  criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal  success goals  Criminal gangs  Conflict gangs  People who fight to fight  Retreatist gangs  Alcoholics or druggies who give up and run  away   Social structure and social policy  o Government spending vs. charity  Public assistance  Social stability  Community improvements


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.