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Environment 101

by: Lauren Vagnoni

Environment 101 ENVIR 101 002

Lauren Vagnoni
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Chapter 11 Lecture notes
Intro to Environment
Daniel Taylor Brantley (P)
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Vagnoni on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVIR 101 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Daniel Taylor Brantley (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 349 views. For similar materials see Intro to Environment in Art at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter 11 Lecture 03/01/2016 ▯ Central Case Study: Mining for… Cell phones? ▯ Cell phones and other high-tech products contain tantalum  Coltan:co/umbite + tantalum ▯ Soldiers controlled mining operations and forced farmers and others to work, while taking most of the ore  People entered national parks, killing wildlife and clearing rainforests, causing ecological ▯ ▯ Geology: the physical basis for environmental science ▯ We extract raw minerals from beneath our planet’s surface  Turn them into products we use everyday Geology  The study of Earth’s physical features, processes, and history ▯ ▯ Earth consists of layers ▯ Core  Solid iron in the center  Molten iron in the outer core Mantle  Less dense, elastic rock  Asthenosphere o Very soft of melted rock ▯ Lithosphere  Harder rock than contains crust ▯ ▯ Plate tectonics: movement of lithospheric plates  Heat from inner Earth drives convection currents  Pushes the mantle’s soft rock up (as it warms) and down (as it cools) like a conveyor belt  The moving mantle drags the lithosphere ▯ Continents have combined, seperted, and recombined over millions of years  Pangaea ▯ ▯ Convergent plate boundaries  Where plates collide ▯ Subduction  One plate slides beneath another  Molten rock erupts through the surface in volcanoes  Ocean crust slides beneath ▯ Tectonics builds mountains  Shapes the geography of oceans, islands, and continents  Some large lakes formed in immense valley floors ▯ Topography created by tectonics shapes climate  Alters patterns of rain, wind, currents, heating, cooler  Affect evolution ▯ ▯ The rock cycle alter rocks  Rock cycle  Rock  Mineral  Rocks help determine soil characteristics ▯ Different types of rocks  Sediments  Sedimentary rock  Metamorphic rock ▯ ▯ Geologic and natural hazards  Some consequences of plate tectonics are geologic hazards o Earthquakes and volcanoes  Circum-pacific belt, or the “ring of fire” o An arc of subduction zones and fault systems o Most of Earth’s volcanoes and earthquakes occur along the “ring of fire” ▯ Earthquakes result from movement at plate boundaries and faults  Earthquakes o A release of pressure along plate boundaries and faults  Some can do tremendous damage to life and property o Especially with loose or saturated soils o Cities built on landfills are vulnerable  Building can be built or retrofitted to decrease damage ▯ ▯ Volcanoes arise from rifts, subduction zones, or hotspots  Volcano o Molten rock, hot gas, or ask erupts through Earth’s urface o Can cool and create a mountain  Lava can exit in rift valleys, ocean ridges, subduction zones, or hotspots (holes in the crust) o Lava can flow slowly or erupt suddenly o Pyrcoclastic flow  Fast moving ▯ Volcanoes exert environmental impacts  Ash blocks sunlight  Sulfur emissions lead to sulfuric acid ▯ ▯ We worsen or lessen the impacts of natural hazards  We also face other natural hazards  Overpopulation  We choose to live in attractive but vulnerable areas  Engineered landscapes increase frequency or severity of hazards  Changing climate through greenhouse gases changes rainfall patterns, increases drought, fire, flooding, storms ▯ Earth’s mineral rsources  We mine and process mineral resources for countless products ▯ We obtain minerals by mining  We obtain minerals through the process of mining  Mining o In the broad sense, it is the extraction of any nonrenewable resource o Fossil fuels, groundwater, and minerals  We use mined materials extensively o We don’t notice how many mined resources we use ▯ Metals are extracted from ores  Economically valuable metals from ore include: o Copper o Iron o Lead o Gold o Aluminum  Most minerals must be processed after mining  After the ore is mined, rock is crushed, and the metals are isolated by chemical or physical means ▯


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