Urban Government Week 4 Notes
Urban Government Week 4 Notes posc 305
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ariel Kamen on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to posc 305 at Towson University taught by James H. Glenn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
3/2/16 Democratic Dominance Why Dems • only 10% of voters live in urban core today it used to be a lot larger (1932 too 11 cities account for 27% of vote) • during this time power brokers happen to come from Democratic Party • urban voters voted Democrat because the programs initiated by the Democratic Party • parties are about building coalitions so the Dem ’s Big Tent included Unions, African Americans, Southern (who were reliably Democrat until recently) • all groups received benefits from Government programs • alliance was uneasy but finally broke apart over race. Cities lost political clout Immigrants Matter • machines (and immigrants) were drawn from local issues into national ones • prohibition was aimed at immigrant cultures • crime, nation origin and liquor were all intertwined and aimed at immigrants (and Catholics) • attacking cultural norms allowed Americans to pretend to care about issues like crime, but really all they cared about was political and cultural dominance (where do we see this today?) Religion • religion was very important Catholics were despised • they had certain ceremonies; robes; and a defined structure • people became fearful of the Catholic Church and were convinced that it ’s goal was to subvert America • JFK had to address his religion in 1960 Ku Klux Klan • largely we think Congress Responds • congress responds with the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and National Origins Act of 1924 • immigrations dropped from 805,228 (1920) to 309,556 (1922) • immigrants fight back through protests, increasing their voters registration numbers, establishing themselves as a political force Partisans Divides in 1930s • initially republicans are the party of business, low taxes (same) and high tariffs (changed), privatization (same). Liberal use of federal troops, popular because of economic growth • democrats dominated the South, and people who do not like east coast money • during this period Republicans dominate winning 14 of 18 presidential elections between 1860 and 1928 • in 1928 Democrats nominate Al Smith • Smith loses 1928 elections badly but he as a Catholic, and opponent of the Klan and Prohibition he is an important political shift for Democrats • Great Depression sweeps America • the economic growth which helped the Republican Party was gone; now the economy is an anchor • Democrats accuse Republicans of doing too little about the economy • Hoover felt the role of government was to not get involved, the market would take care of itself (sound familiar???) • FD Roosevelt (the Dem nominee) promises action through a number of new government programs • TVA Tennessee Valley Authority • CCC Civilian Conservation Corps • CWA Civil Works Administration • PWA Public Works Administration • FERA Federal Emergency Relief Act • during this time Democratic politicians support cities Cities receive federal help because: 1. A fiscal and social crisis cities were out of money yet needed additional services desperation made cities turn to the federal government 2. Overall indifference of the states states cute their budgets, harming cities voting districts overrepresented rural areas 3. Alliance between cities and federal government many new deal programs had an urban government Fed Urban Relations • first urban appropriation came from Congress in 1892 • first housing came in 1928 with War effort to help workers live near factories • slowly issues like slums are seen not as local but national problems • government gets in to housing business eventually working with state and local authorities • government housing become controversial since it was only allowed to target the poor • the Great Depression fundamentally changed politics because it established a role for federal action with other levels of government Dahl Who Governs • believed studying cities allowed researchers to study government on a manageable scale • ambiguity is key influence can be difficult to observe • relationship between leaders and constituents is reciprocal leaders influence constituents, but leaders consider what their constituents will prefer 1. Slack Resources actual vs potential influence 2. Small Core of Professionals most people use and develop little political skill, a few develop a great deal of skill 3. Builtin system limitation the presence of slack amongst others prevents one person or group from dominating the system Stone Looking Back to Look Forward • pluralism (as described by Dahl) is flawed • urban regime analysis asserts that a threshold must be met before you can participate in politics • a contentious point is the role of elections. Stone argues that elections only determine part (but not all) of public policy • stone believes that pluralism asserts all issues occur in the same space • governing comes from strategic connections: 1. An agenda to address distinct problems 2. A governing coalition consisting of governmental and nongovernmental actors 3. Resources to pursue the agenda 4. If absence of command a scheme of cooperation • pluralism asserts politics is open to anyone while urban Regime says that relationships have to be formed and structured • a criticism on urban regime analysis is that it is elite drive and does not allow for mass opinion • urban regime analysis also focuses ons mall opportunities. Most people stay inside their circle and do not expend energy to constantly build new relationships • even when there is an overarching them, the goal is reached through small interactions over time • small interactions also allow humans to focus on the immediate goal in front of them (humans excel at this) • this combined with how people form relationships and who they know (not random) reinforce inequality. The disadvantaged are weakly connected to the powerful
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