Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes CSCI 230 - 01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Terri (TJ) Bailey on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSCI 230 - 01 at University of Indianapolis taught by Douglas L Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Computer Architecture in ComputerScienence at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Computer Architecture Douglas Miller Organization Physical computing hardware control circuits signals memory Architecture Structure and behavior ogica design of the system how the pieces interact This is a combination of actual physical hardware and the ISA Instruction Set Architecture ISA Instruction Set Architecture The instructions that can be executed machine interface between software and hardware Note some processors can support different lSA s Three Parts Execution of the Program Processor memory for data and instructions input and output system IOS Processor Two main parts control unit and processor unit Memory Contains program instructions and data no real distinction between the two It contains a memory controller that handles the data that goes in and out storage registers and a memory bus used to be a bundle of wires that pass information along Mostly made up of RAM and ROM stores data in binary 0 and 1 InputOutput Called a channel Off of each channel there are multiple peripherals these don t connect directly to the processor that retrieve the info Binary Binary digit bits Bits are aggregated into bytes which is equal to 8 bits Bytes travel across the information chips instead of loading one chip and moving on to the next Bytes are aggregated into words which are equal to 2 4 or 8 bytes They tell you how many bits can be moved at one time during one operation across the memory bus The context must be given in order to know what the byte is referring to Eg 0101 0001 could mean anything and cannot determine its purpose without the context 1 Kilobyte 1KB 10quot2 bytes or 10quot2 1 Megabyte 1MB 10quot6 bytes or 2quot20 1 Gigabyte 168 10quot9 bytes or 2quot30 1 Terabyte 1TB 10quot12 bytes or 2quot40 1 Petabyte 10quot15 bytes or 2quot50 1 Exabyte 10quot18 bytes or 2quot60 1 Zettabyte 10quot21 bytes or 2quot70 1 Yottabyte 10quot24 bytes or 2quot80 Reciprocal Prefixes Milli 10quot3 Micro 10quot6 Nano 10quot9 Pico 10quot12 Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software Anything that can be done in one can be done in the other Pros and Cons Hardware vs Software Hardware is faster than software but more expensive Software is much more exible Hardware has patents Lastsl7 years but has a stronger value Software has copyright and sometimes also has patents Lasts 50 years after the death of the inventor Generations These are the generational changes technology has gone through over time Generation 0 Mechanical Computers Slide Rules rst mechanical computer late 1950 s Abacus PascaHne Leibnitz Wheel Babbage s Difference engine polynomial calculator and Analytical Engine general purpose OOOOO Generation 1 Electrical NOT electronic electromagnetic 0 Complete automation using relays o Bulky and slow 0 Use a lot of power 0 Generate a lot of heat 0 Relays replaced with vacuum tubes consisted of three or more electronic components inside 0 Faster o More reliable o No moving parts 0 Size of a jalapeno Generation 2 Transistors Electronic Transistors replaced vacuum tubes Much smaller size of a pea Low power requirements Faster More reliable Much less heat generated OOOOOO Generation 3 Integrated Circuits 0 Integrated circuits 0 First computer used this in 1965 Generation 4 VLSI o VLSI Very large scale integration 0 Millions of transistors t onto one chip 0 First PC IBM PCXTIntel 8088 Moore39s Law Processing power doubles every 18 months
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