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Week 2 Notes

by: TigerGirl2019

Week 2 Notes BIO_SC 1500 - 01

Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory
David Schulz

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About this Document

This document includes the second week of notes with notes over the video that was assigned to be watched.
Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory
David Schulz
Class Notes
Biology notes; week 2
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by TigerGirl2019 on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO_SC 1500 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by David Schulz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Systems with Laboratory in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/08/15
Biology 1500 Week 2 Important Content to Know 0 Cells can be found in all shapes and sizes that are speci c for their function 0 Proteins also come in different shapes and sizes and they are also specialized for their function 0 The instructions to make proteins are encoded in DNA Central Dogma cell builds proteins it needs from the DNA Transcription 0 Every gene has its own promoter where transcription for a particular gene behinds 0 Before RNA polymerase can bind transcription factors bind to the DNA of the promoter 0 Inside the RNA polymerase the DNA has its hydrogen bonds broken so that two separate strands are formed and one can be used for template The nontemplate or coding strand is the strand not used in transcription It is called the coding strand because its letter sequence will match that of the RNA created from the other strand The template strand is the DNA strand being used in transcription RNA is made from 539 to 339 As the RNA is being made hydrogen bonds form between the RNA and the DNA to ensure the RNA is in place and bases can be matched appropriately In the linkage of bases two phosphates groups are released from the incoming ribonucleotide to release the energy to bind the bases of the RNA together 0 The 339 OH with the help of the polymerase enzyme breaks the bond to release the two phosphates Enzyme works by lowering the activation energy 0 Two atoms must be placed perfectly to bond 0 Particles are sped up so that they move faster and collide to react o Enzymes are break bonds to gain energy polymerase breaks off the two phosphates to covalently bond the ribonucleotides Polymerase rewinds DNA as it leaves the enzyme 0 DNA is unchanged from the process of transcription Nontemplate strands leave polymerase during the process to prevent the competition for bonds between the strands One strand is always the template strand and the other is not particularly used 0 mRNA has a relatively short life span and is retrotranscribed when needed 0 When gene is turned on hundreds of RNA are made at a time 0 After transcription introns are removed from the premature mRNA lntrons do not contribute to the RNA and exons are kept for the translation Introns are removed by spliceosomes small nuclear RNP Splicing o snRNPs bind to the RNA snRNPs assemble correctly Introns are cut and the ends are binded Introns are released and the exons are joined together into one strand lntrons are broken down and recycled into component parts Introns are recognized by certain sequences and are then removed from the RNA Caps and Tails 0 G residue is added to the 539 side of the mRNA It is a 539 methyl g cap 0 Poly A tail is added to the 339 end Tail is a long stream of A39s 0 After additions mRNA is mature and can leave the nucleus oz Essentials 0 All proteins are composed of the same 20 amino acids and are the most abundant and versatile macromolecules of life 0 Amino Acids 20 different kinds and differ only in the unique Rgroup that is attached to the central carbon Properties vary because of the different Rgroups Rgroups are ionized nonionized polar nonpolar or electrically charged Monomer monomer peptide bonding from condensation reaction between carboxyl and amino group from two different amino acids 0 Polypeptides proteins Linear polypeptide simple and most basic protein Every protein is unique in the order and number of amino acids End terminus Nterminus left or rst Cterminus right or last Proteins are generally hundreds of amino acids long Proteins start off linear and then begin folding Changing shape can start or silence a protein and can be necessary for a protein to begin its function OOOO Protein Structure 0 Proteins are very diverse in their individual functions because of their chemical structure 0 Four levels of structure Primary the sequence of amino acids in a linear pattern that is unresponsive until folded Video Notes o It is encoded in a gene of the DNA and is written out as letter Secondary is the formation of ahelices alpha helices and B beta pleated sheets in the polypeptide that result from the interactions in the backbone The interactions between different elements in the primary structure causes the change in shape with attractions and repulsions There can be many helices and sheets in a single protein Tertiary is the three dimensional shape that is functional and able to perform in the organism The R groups interact to determine the next shape changes that occur There are hydrogen bonds ionic bonds disul de bonds hydrophobic interactions and van der Waals forces that can determine the shape Molecular chaperones other proteins also assist in the folding of the new protein 0 The order of the amino acids determines the amount of helices and sheets in the protein Quaternary shape that forms from the combination of several polypeptides intertwined Not all functional proteins have a quaternary structure but generally all proteins that are functional have a tertiary structure 0 Hydrogen bonds form to hold together the quaternary structure because these bonds can be easily broken Proteins are different via their structural difference 0 Structure function 0 This is based on the amino acids 0 Watson and Crick Discoveries of the helical structure of DNA came by laying the bases of DNA together and seeing that they looked the same and noticing that they could also be stacked This led to seeing how the sides of DNA were complimentary and how DNA is passed to offspring DNA copying Idea Everything is made of molecules arranged in a certain way DNA Copying Helicase quickly spins and separates the two strands of DNA 0 One strand is copied easily and the other must be copied backwards because of its opposite directional orientation 0 DNA is drawn out in loops by the protein and copied section by section for opposite strand 0 In the end there are two new DNA molecules c There are also processes that check and x mistakes after DNA replication has been completed Proteins Proteins as enzymes carry out chemical processes because there are thousands of types 0 They are all made up of 20 different amino acids in 3 amino acid long combinations 0 Central Dogma DNA gt Protein 0 Creating proteins 0 Factors attach to DNA 0 RNA polymerase goes down the DNA unzipping copying and rezipping the DNA as it goes Transcription 0 RNA leaves the nucleus and is attached to a ribosome in the cytoplasm o tRNA brings speci c amino acids to the ribosomes 0 RNA enters the ribosome and is read one three sequence code after another tRNA is connected to the complimentary sequence on the RNA and the amino acid it carries is added to the growing protein


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