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What is Life?

by: Emily Liescheidt

What is Life? bio120

Emily Liescheidt
General Biology

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Hey!! Biology can be hard, but NOTES ARE EASY TO RETRIEVE! Enjoy these notes from week one of Biology 120!
General Biology
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Liescheidt on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to bio120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Simon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 09/08/15
Wednesday September 2 2015 What is Life Evolutionary adaptations and composition of cells only two specifically in life forms 25 elements are essential for life Most common elements found in living carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen Talking of phosphorus even though not in big four makes compounds chemically reactive Difference between element and atom Element substance that can t be broken down by chemical reactions atom smallest unit of an element molecular on atmospheric 02 H2 N2 Will not find these singular at least not in gaseous forms Subatomic particles Electrons Protons Neutrons neutral Isotope Doesn t have equal of protons to neutrons Carbon 14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons in nucleus Chemical behavior of an atom Down periodic table electrons increase Wednesday September 2 2015 e in shells or orbits each additional electron shell has a greater amount of stored energy e of outer most shell are valence electrons 1st electron shell wants 2 electrons to be happysatisfied 2nd and 3rd e shells want 8 electrons each to be happysatisfied bonding occurs when valence electrons aren t full satisfiedcorrect of valence e Elements in final column are considered inert gases noble gases Type of bonds lonic bonds when two atoms are unequal in their attraction for valence electrons more electronegative atom removessteals eectrons from other atoms Electrons are transferred The greater the atomic weight the more electronegative the further away the electrons are from the atom the more electronegative Electrons are not shared by the atoms cation anion ions of opposite charge remain associated with one another ionic bond ex magnets north and south poles are associated with each other through attraction Covalent bonds valence electrons are shared by the atoms formed by nonmetals sharing makes the atoms happy correct of valence e 2 electrons shared is a single bond two hydrogen atoms 4 electrons shared is a double bond Wednesday September 2 2015 OO Nonpolar covalent bonds because electrons are shared equally polar covalent bonds electrons are not shared equally e more closely associated with more electronegative atomO is more electronegative than H so shared electrons are pulled more toward oxygen O is partial charge H is partial charge Hydrogen bond forms between partially Hydrogen of one polar compound and the Partially atom of another polar compound Types of atoms present determine how bond is formed which in turn determines shape of molecule shape of molecule determines function Molecular mimicry Morphine mimics endorphins heroine also mimics endorphins Reading chemical reactions 3H2 N2 is reverse reaction with 2NH3 Chemical reactions break and make chemical bonds results in change in composition of matter delta symbol means change Matter is not created or destroyedequation is balanced Chapter 3 Water Solvent liquid medium in which something can be dissolved Solute what is dissolved in the solvent solution combination of solvent and solute Aqueous means solvent is water Characteristics of water Wednesday September 2 2015 Water is polar Cohesion water molecules stick together because of Hydrogen bonds formed between the water moleculesintermolecular forces cause water to be attracted to itself ex water drops on a penny Plants have xylem water can travel up xylem Adhesion water forms hydrogen bonds with different surface ex water can stick to a straw hydrogen bonds are made and broken as water moves up the xylem allows water to resist the downward force of gravity Surface tension measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid water has high surface tension surface of water is difficult to break or stretch reason why water striders glide on surface of water Moderates temperature because water has high specific heat means a large amount of heat must be lost or absorbed for water to change temperature requires a large loss or gain of heat for water to change temperature ex temp of ocean throughout season changes solvent of life to carry out cellular activities water is necessary Hydrophilic substance dissolves in water lonic compounds compounds that have ionic bondsthese are hydrophilic polar compound compounds that have polar covalent bonds will hydrogen bond with water Wednesday September 2 2015 Hydrophobicwater hating substances do not dissolve in water covalent compounds compounds that consist of covalent bonds non polar Ex vegetable oil doesn t dissolve in water Acids and Bases Hydrogen atom of a water molecule is participating in a hydrogen bond with another water molecule shifts and bonds to the other water or leaves its electron behind hydroxide ion has a negative charge hydronium ion has a positive charge hydrogen ionproton H OH reactive pure H20 H OH H is not equal to OH acids increase the hydrogen dissolving in water when placed in water it produces two ions hydrogen ion and chlorine ion Bases increase number of hydroxide ions remove ions from the solution directly bonding excess H ions that are in the solution ex NH3ammonia can bond hydrogen ions H and produce ammoniumNH4 ammonia acts as a base indirectly base breaks down to produce hydroxide ions OH H produces H20 NaOH acts as a base produces Na OH pH scale pH lower than 7 represents acid the lower the number the greater the number of hydrogen ions pH higher than 7 are basic the higher the number the more hydroxide ions Wednesday September 2 2015 for every increase of one on the pH scale there is a 10 fold change in the number of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions Buffers substances that minimize change in pH presence of two allows for maintenance help maintain the normal pH buffer system consists of a weak acid and its corresponding weak base Carbonic acid responds to a rise or decrease in pH with a bicarbonate ion and a hydrogen ion H donor is the weak acid H acceptor is the weak base Weak acids DO NOT completely dissociate in water


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