Chapter 1 lecture notes
Chapter 1 lecture notes Chem 111
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Popular in Chemistry
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Notetaker on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111 at Colorado State University taught by Kerry Jane MacFarland in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chemistry CHAPTER 1 Chemistry study of the composition structure and properties of matter matter anything that has mass and occupies space Matter exists in three phases A Solid definite volume and shape B Liquid definite volume but no definite shape Takes shape pf container in which it is placed C Gas neither definite volume nor shape Expands to occupy entire volume and shape of its container Why do the states of matter have these properties The states of matter have these properties due to the particulate nature of matter and the behavior of the particles ln solids the particles are close to each other and they only vibrate in place In other words they are locked in place ln liquids the particles are close together but they have more space in between each other than solid particles so they move past each other ln gases the particles are far apart and have lots of space to move around freely So they do not have definite shape or volume Why are gases but not solids compressible Gases are compressible because of the distance between the particles which allows them to move about freely But in solids the particles are tightly packed so they can not move Hence they are not compressible In other words the empty space between the particles in gas account for the compressibility ofgases Matter can be transformed from one form to another through increase or decrease of temperature Matter is transformed from one phase to another by the addition or release of energy Deposition transformation of gas directly into solid Sublimation transformation of solid directly to gas Potential energy energy stored in an object because of its position or composition It increases with increase in height or increase in distance between the objects The closer the two objects get the more lower the value of PE gets that it can become negative as well Gravitational potential energy is a joint property of an object and the earth Electrostatic potential energy is a joint property of two charged particles Page 1 Kinetic energy energy of an object in motion due to its mass and speed It increases with an increase in either mass or speed or both Kinetic energy and potential energy are inversely proportional to each other That is they have an inverse relationship So when potential energy increases kinetic energy decreases and viceversa Law of conservation of energy energy can neither be created or destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another Work energy required to move an object through a given distance Matter can be classified into two basic categories Pure substances These substances have constant composition These can be further classified into Elements and Compounds Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances Compounds are pure substances that consist of two or more elements that cannot be physically separated from one another The elements are present in fixed proportions Mixtures These substances are composed of two or more pure substances in variable proportions They can be further classified into heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures Homogeneous mixtures are mixtures in which the components are distributed uniformly Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions Heterogeneous mixtures are those mixtures in which the components are not distributed uniformly Heterogeneous mixtures also include immiscible liquids Properties of substances can be classified into two basic categories Physical properties these properties can be observed without a change in the composition of the substance Example density Chemical properties these properties can only be observed by changing the composition of the substance Example Flammability The physical and chemical properties of a compound are different from those of the elements that combine to form it Scientific method an approach to acquiring knowledge based on observation of phenomena development of a testable hypothesis and additional experiments that test the validity of the hypothesis Scientific law a concise and generally applicable statement of a fundamental scientific principle Precision the extent to which repeated measurements of the same variable agree In other words how close repeated measurements are to each other Page 2 Accuracy agreement between an experimental value and true value In other words how close the experimental value is to the true value Significant Figures The number of significant figures used to report a value indicates how certain we are of a value For multiplication and division the answer has the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the fewest number of significant figures For addition and subtraction the answer has the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest decimal places Temperature conversions To convert temperatures from Fahrenheit to Celsius TC 59 TF 32 To convert temperatures from Celsius to Kelvin TK TC 27315 Absolute zero zero point on Kelvin temperature scale theoretically the lowest temperature possible Page 3