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CHEM 1030 Week 7 Notes

by: Alyssa Anderson

CHEM 1030 Week 7 Notes CHEM 1030

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Alyssa Anderson

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These notes cover what we went over in class on week 7.
Fundamentals Chemistry I
Dr. Streit
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 at a university taught by Dr. Streit in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
CHEM 1030 Week 7 Notes Ionic Compound Bonding- refers to the electrostatic attraction that holds oppositely charged ions together in an ionic compound A. Metals- low ionization energies lose electrons very easily B. Nonmetals- high electron affinity accepts electrons very easily C. Ionic Compounds 1. Lewis Dot Symbol + - 2. Na (dot) —> Na + e A 3-dimensional array of oppositely-charged ions is called a lattice. Lattice energyis the amount of energy required to convert a mole of ionic solid to its constituent ions in the gas phase. The resulting electrically neutral compound, sodium chloride, is represented with the chemical formula NaCl The magnitude of lattice energy is a measure of an ionic compounds stability Lattice energy depends on magnitudes of the charge and on the distance between them If they have the same charges, the only thing they have that differs one from another is the distance between them *Know how to arrange ionic compounds in order of increasing/decreasing lattice energy (opposite of atomic radius)* NOTE: big atomic radius means low lattice energy Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds A. A monoatomic cation is named by adding the word ION to the name of the element B. A monoatomic anion is named by changing the ending of the elements name to IDE, such as oxide, carbide, sulfide C. Some metals can form cations of more than one possible charge (especially true for elements of D-block) 2+ 1. Fe : ferrous ion [Fe(II)] 2. Fe : ferric ion [Fe(III)] 3. Mn : magnese (II) ion 3+ 4. Mn : magnese (III) ion 5. Mn : magnese (IV) ion Formulas of Ionic Compounds A. Ionic compounds are electronegatively neutral 1. In order for ionic compounds to be electrically neutral, the sum of the charges of the cation and anion in each formula must be zero 2. Example: aluminum oxide. 2(+3) + 3(-2) = 0 B. To name ions and ionic compounds: 1. Name the cation by omitting the word ion and using a roman numeral if the cation can have more than one charge 2. Name the anion by adding the word IDE 3. Examples a. NaBr —> Sodium Bromide b. CaO —> Calcium Oxide c. Mg 3 —2 Manganese Nitride d. Fe S —> Iron(III) Sulfide 2 3 NOTE: the subscript of the anion is the charge of the cation NOTE: the subscript of the cation is the charge of the anion Covalent Bonding and Molecules A. When compounds form between elements with similar properties with similar properties, electrons are not transferred from one electron to another but instead are shared in order to give each atoms a noble gas configuration B. This approach is known as the Lewis Theory of Bonding, named for its proponent, Gilbert Lewis C. Lewis Theory depicts bond formation is H2 D. A molecule may be an element or a compound E. Different samples of a given compound always contain the same ratio, known as the law of definite proportions F. Amolecule is a combination of at least two atoms in a specific arrangement held together by chemical forces (chemical bonds) G. A molecule may be an element or a compound H. Different samples of a given compound always contain the same ratio. This is known as the law of definite proportions. I. If two elements can form two or more different compounds, the law of multipile proportions tells us that when the masses of two elements when combined with each other to form more than one compound are in a ratio of small whole numbers J. The mass of ratio of oxygen to carbon dioxide is 2.66:1, and the ratio of oxygen to carbon in carbon monoxide is 1.33:1 K. The ratio of two such mass rations can be expressed as small whole numbers L. Diatomic molecules contain two atoms and may either be heteronuclear or homonuclear (a) would be homonuclear diatomic but ti has more than two so it is not diatomic. Imagine the same colors but with only two atoms bonded. (b) is polyatomic (c) is heteronuclear diatomic A chemical formula denotes the composition of the substance A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms in each element in a molecule Some elements have two or more distant forms known as allotropes, such as oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) are allotropes of oxygen A structural formula shows not only the elemental composition but also the general arrangements. An empirical formula uses whole-number ratios of elements to get the smallest bit of information that we can get from observation. While, the molecular formulas tell us the actual number of atoms (the true formula), the empirical formula gives the simplest formula. Sometimes the true formula IS the empirical formula, like with H2O. A. Molecular formula: N2H2 B. Empirical formula: NH2 C. Look at the worked example 5.6 Naming Molecular Compounds A. Remember: binary molecular compounds are substances that consist of just two different elements B. Nomenclature 1. Name the first element that appears in the formula 2. Name the second element that appears in the formula, change ending to IDE C. Greek prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms of each element present 1. mono- is usually omitted for the first element 2. For ease of pronunciation, we usually eliminate the last letter of a prefix that ends in “o” or “a” when naming an oxide 3. Worked example a. NF 3 nitrogen trifluoride b. N2O 4 dinitrogen tetroxide c. Sulfur tetrafluoride ▯ SF 4 D. Compounds containing hydrogen 1. The names of molecular compounds containing hydrogen do not usually conform to the systematic nomenclature guidelines 2. Many are called by the common, nonsystematic names or by names that do not indicate explicitly the number of H atoms present a. B2H 6 Diborane b. SiH 4 Silane c. NH 3 Ammonia d. PH 3 Phosphine e. H2O ▯ water f. H2S ▯ hydrogen sulfide E. One definition of an acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions (H ) + when dissolved in water (HCl is an example of a binary compound that is an acid when dissolved in water) 1. To name these acids: a. Remove the –gen ending from hydrogen b. Change the –ide ending to on the second element to –ic ( Hydrogen chloride ▯ hydrochloric acid) 2. A compound must contain at least one ionizable hydrogen atom to be an acid upon dissolving Organic Compounds A. Our nomenclature discussion so far as focused on inorganic compounds, generally defined as those without carbon B. Organic compounds contain carbon and hydrogen, sometimes in combination with other atoms C. Hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen D. The simplest hydrocarbons are called alkanes . E Many organic compounds contain groups of atoms known as functional groups, which often determine a molecule’s reactivity Covalent Bonding in Ionic Species A. Polyatomic ionsconsist of a combination of two or more atoms B. Formulas are determined following the same rule as for ionic compounds containing only monatomic ions: ions must combine in a ratio that gives a neutral formula overall C. Oxoanions are polyatomic anions that contain one or more oxygen atoms and one atom (the central atom) of another element D. Starting with the oxoanions that end in –ate, we can name these ions as follows: 1. The ion with one MORE O atom atom than the –ate ion is called the per…ate ion. (ie ClO3- is the chlorate ion, so CLO4- is the perchlorate ion) 2. The ion with one LESS O atom than the -ate ion is called the –ite ion. (ie ClO 2 is the chlorite ion) 3. The in with TWO FEWER O atom than the -ate ion is called the hypo…ite ion. (ie ClO- is the hypochlorite ion) E. Oxoanions 1. percholate ClO 4 2. chlorate ClO - 3 3. chlorite ClO - 2 4. hypochlorite ClO- 5. nitrate NO - 3 6. nitrite NO -2 7. phosphate PO 43- 8. phosphite PO 33- 9. sulfate SO 42 2- 10. sulfite SO 3 F. Oxoacids, when dissolved in water, produce hydrogen ions and the corresponding oxoanions 1. An acid based on at –ate ion is called ……. ic acid (HClO ▯ chlo3ic acid) 2. An acid based on an –ite ion is called …….. ous acid (HClO ▯ chlor2us acid) 3. Prefixes in oxoanion names are retained in naming oxoacids 4. Oxoacids, can be monoprotic (one ionizable hydrogen) or polyprotic (more than one ionizable hydrogen)


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