Abnormal Psychology Week 9 Day One Notes
Abnormal Psychology Week 9 Day One Notes Psyc 2500
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by lucy allen on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer M Joy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Personality Disorders -focus on symptoms versus treatments for test -many of the people with personality disorders do not realize they have them -psycho video -obsessive compulsive -antisocial personality disorder -narcissistic personality disorder -demonstrates the comorbidity across the 10 personality disorders we discussed Personality -a set of uniquely expressed characteristics that influence our behaviors, emotions, thoughts and interactions -flexible, allowing us to learn and adapt to new environments -personality in one scenario might be different than another (class versus bar) Personality Disorders -an enduring, rigid pattern of inner experience and outward behavior that impairs sense of self, emotional experience, goals and capacity for empathy and/or intimacy -can create issues with relationships (outward behaviors) -comorbidity is common -given the inadequacies of a categorical approach and the enthusiasm for a dimensional one, the framers of a dSM5 initially proposed significant changes -for the purposes of DSM-V we're using a categorical approach, meaning the disorders are divided into three groups Odd -suspiciousness, withdrawal, isolation -paranoid personality disorder -deep distrust and suspicion of others -inaccurate, usually not delusional -as a result of their mistrust, people with paranoid personality disorder often remain cold and distant -not delusional nature, but overgeneralized to the point of not trusting anyone -quick to point out an error you make -but very sensitive people to judgment or correction -hold grudges -can be combative of personal rights -theorists explanations -psychodynamic: demanding parents -cognitive: assumptions such as "people are evil and will attack you if given the chance" -biological theorists propose genetic causes/twin studies -do not typically think they need help -this population does not typically seek treatment -result: limited results and moves slowly -treatment approaches: object relations (work that focuses on building relationships), cognitive- behavioral, drugs (can have limited success but used for treatment of symptoms) -schizoid personality disorder -persistent avoidance of social relationships and limited emotional expression -do not have close ties with other people -genuinely prefer to be alone*** -different from all other disorders!!! no interest in interaction at all! -focus mainly on themselves -often seen as flat, cold, humorless or dull due to limited emotional expression -ex: ghost buster joke, people can't tell its a joke -theorists explanations -psychodynamic: unsatisfied need for human contact -cognitive: deficiencies in their thinking -maladaptive assumptions -this population does not seek treatment either -treatments -cognitive-behavioral: attempt to increase positive emotions and satisfying social interactions -group therapy -schizotypal personality disorder -range of interpersonal problems -extreme discomfort in close relationships -odd (even bizarre) ways of thinking -behavioral eccentricities -often the one that people think may be schizophrenia due to the thought processes taking place -the DSM tells you what to rule out -in schizotypal, schizophrenia must be ruled out first -magical thinking -only in this disorder -believe that if they focus on someone too directly they may make them fall down the stairs -symptoms resemble those of schizophrenia, so researchers believe the disorders are similar -family dysfunction -double-bind communication -misleading, 'damned if i do/if i don't' -tell child to come, have angry face -overly involved in peoples personal lives -conflict in the family -high dopamine activity -treatments -help clients 'reconnect' and recognize the limits of their thinking and powers -cognitive-behavioral: teach clients to objectively evaluate their thoughts and perceptions and teach social skills training -antipsychotic drugs: reduce certain thought problems Dramatic -key characteristics -emotional component and an attachment component involved in all four disorders -antisocial personality disorder -sociopath/psychopath -sometimes described as psychopaths or sociopaths -people who will persistently disregard and violate people and their rights with little remorse -we have some more understanding of these people because they are caught by the justice system -emotional component: lack of remorse -attachment component: -nobody is considered for diagnosis until at least 18 years -if under 18 years, diagnosed with conduct disorder -may develop antisocial personality disorder, may not -theorists explanations -psychodynamic: absence of parental love, leading to a lack of basic trust -behaviorists: modeling or unintentional reinforcement -see positive outcomes but no negative outcomes -unintentional reinforcement: do not see a negative outcome of the situation -cognitive: sufferers hold attitudes that trivialize the importance of other people's needs -biological factors: low serotonin, low arousal -treatment -typically ineffective -lack of conscience or desire to change -some cognitive therapists try to guide clients to think about moral issues and the needs of other people (empathy) -this is more effective for treating younger people, hence not very effective treatment for those with antisocial personality disorder -borderline personality disorder -most information we have for any of our populations -great instability -major shifts in mood -unstable self-image -unstable interpersonal relationships -impulsivity -impulsive, self-destructive behavior can include: -alcohol and substance abuse -reckless behavior, including driving, over- spending and unsafe sex -self-injurious or self-mutilation behavior -suicidal threats and actions -extreme emotional shifts -can go through many jobs -dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) -mindfulness -relationship skills, emotional regulation and tolerance -was born as a support for people with BPD, but now used much more widely -theorists explanations -psychodynamic: fear of abandonment from early parental relationships: lack of early acceptance or abuse/neglect by parents -biological: overly reactive amygdala (emotional) and an underactive prefrontal cortex (self-control, planning, regulation of emotions) -this population is the one that does tend to seek treatment -treatment -focuses on the patient's central relationship disturbance, poor sense of self and pervasive loneliness and emptiness -dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) -developed by Marsha Linehan -particularly efficacious with patients with BPD -validate the patient's behavior and beliefs while informing them that some of them are maladaptive -core skills include mindfulness, interpersonal communication, and tolerating emotions/self- reflection -antidepressant, antibipolar, antianxiety and antipsychotic drugs have helped some individuals to calm their emotional and aggressive storms -histrionic personality disorder -extremely emotional -continually seek to be the center of attention -excessive need for approval and praise -often described as vain, self-centered and demanding -theorists explanations -psychodynamic: unhealthy child-parent relationships/cold parents left them feeling unloved and afraid of abandonment -cognitive: lack of substance, extreme suggestibility -sociocultural and multicultural: society's norms and expectations -reality TV, social media -seek out support but do not benefit from it much -want approval of the therapist -may attempt to be provocative or seductive -working with them can be difficult because of their demands, tantrums, seductiveness and attempts to please the therapist -cognitive: decrease helplessness, teach problem- solving skills -psychodynamic therapy and group therapy help with their dependency -narcissistic personality disorder -generally grandiose -need much admiration -often for small or tiny things -feel no empathy with others -exaggerate their achievements and talents -often appear arrogant -theorists explanations -psychodynamic: cold, rejecting parents -cognitive-behavioral: people are treated too positively rather than too negatively in early life -overcompensating for negative early life -or person was treated very well and they expect it still -sociocultural: "eras of narcissism" in society -not likely to seek treatment -one of the most difficult to treat -may come for a related disorder (depression, people do not like you as much as they should) -try to manipulate the therapist -none of the major treatment approaches have had much success Anxious -key characteristics: fear and inadequacy -avoidant personality disorder -very uncomfortable and inhibited in social situations -overwhelmed by feelings of inadequacy -extremely sensitive to negative evaluation -often have few close friends -unlike other cases, do want to go out and have social interactions, but are afraid of the situation and being sub-par -theorists explanations -similar to anxiety disorders, including: -early trauma -conditioned fears -upsetting beliefs -biochemical abnormalities -research has not directly tied the personality disorder to the anxiety disorders -psychodynamic: focus on shame -cognitive: harsh criticism and rejection in early childhood may lead people to assume that their environment will always judge them negatively -behavioral: fail to develop normal social skills -treatment -good for group therapy, everyone feels inadequate, may feel more comfortable trying new things with others who feel the same -with cognitive-behavioral principles, provide practice in social interactions -antianxiety and antidepressant drugs are also sometimes useful -dependent personality disorder -pervasive, excessive need to be taken care of -described as clinging and obedient -rely on others to make their decisions -central feature of the disorder is a difficulty with separation -quick to initiate relationships, hard time ending them -deferring your needs to other peoples' -theorists explanations -psychodynamic explanations similar to those for depression -behaviorists*: unintentionally rewarded their children's clinging and 'loyal' behavior while punishing acts of independence -cognitive: two maladaptive attitudes: -"I am inadequate and helpless to deal with the world" -"I must find a person to provide protection so I can cope" -treatment can be moderately successful -psychodynamic therapy focuses on depression -cognitive-behavioral: challenge feelings of helplessness and provide assertiveness training -antidepressant drugs when depression is present -group therapy can be helpful -support from peers -models of success -obsessive-compulsive personality disorder -so preoccupied with order, perfection and control that they lose all flexibility, openness and efficiency -they set unreasonably high standards for themselves and others -rigid and stubborn -trouble expressing affection and their relationships -theorists explanations -borrow heavily from those of obsessive compulsive disorder, despite doubts concerning a link between the two -Freudian theorists- anal regressive phase - -cognitive theorists have little to say about the origins of the disorder, but they do propose that illogical thinking processes help maintain it -treatments -do not usually believe there is anything wrong with them -often appear to respond well to psychodynamic or cognitive therapy -a number of clinicians report success with SSRIs -better ways to classify personality disorders -leading criticism of DSM-V's approach to personality disorders is that the classification uses categories rather than dimensions of personality