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Psychology 312 Week Ten Notes

by: Kristen Sturgeon

Psychology 312 Week Ten Notes 312

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Psychlogy > 312 > Psychology 312 Week Ten Notes
Kristen Sturgeon
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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Notes from March 17, 2016
Adolescent Psychology
Valenne MacGyvers
Class Notes
Psychology, MacGyvers, Adoloscents
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Sturgeon on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 312 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Valenne MacGyvers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
WEEK TEN MARCH 17, 2016 Friends and Peer Relationships Continued Friendship Continued Functions of friends   Fun!!!  Emotional support  Physical support, helps  Minor financial help  World knowledge  Reality checks  Reflection of self Developmental changes in peer interactions  Infants, toddlers: interesting stimuli, no friendly interactions  Preschool: Shared activities and play (fun!) o Transient friends based on shared activities o Best friend­one with whom played the most, today  Middle Childhood, Trust o Shared secrets, shared thoughts, feelings, etc. o Emergence of true best friendships Developmental changes  Early adolescence loyalty emerges as important friendship quality o Emergence of Chumships or cliques: a small group of individuals who share a  lasting friendship  Middle adolescence shifting to mixed gender cliques and emergent dating o Cliques become less important, more broad o Crowds are more often reference groups not friends  Late adolescence shift into more adult like friendships (couples, or singles) 1 | P a g e WEEK TEN MARCH 17, 2016  Remain important throughout the lifespan The Rules of Friendship (DO NOT NEED TO KNOW) Volunteer to help in times of need (moving) Respect your friend’s privacy Keep confidences (no gossiping) Stand up for your friends when they aren’t there Don’t criticize your friend in public Show emotional support Try to make your friends happy when you’re together Look your friend in the eye during conversations Don’t be jealous or critical of each other’s relationships Be tolerant of each other’s friends Share news of success with each other Ask for personal advice Engage in lighthearted joking and banter Repay debts, favors, and compliments Disclose personal feelings and problems to the friend Friendship  Gender differences  Males have more friends, less intense friendships  Females have fewer friends, more intense friendships  Like females, males more often have a confidant who is a female­they may marry their  best friend  Females more likely to have a best girlfriend outside the marriage  Males harder hit by loss of spouse as it includes loss of best friend, while this is not the  case for females 2 | P a g e WEEK TEN MARCH 17, 2016  While males do talk about important issues, they do so in the context of other activities.  They do NOT sit and take. Social Acceptance Scientific study of social acceptance is called “Sociometrics”  It is literally a scientific popularity contest!  Researchers ascertained that poor social acceptance in childhood was associated with  negative outcomes later in life o Dropping out of school o Involvement in criminal activities o Mental health issues  As these all cost society money, it is important to identify and prevent poor social  acceptance Assessing social acceptance involved two techniques, nominations and peer ratings Nominations can be either positive or negative  Give the child a roster with all their classmates and ask them to circle their 3 or 5 best  friends (positive)  Give the child a roster with all their classmates and ask them to circle the 3 or 5 people  they like the least (negative)  Negative nomination are problematic: o Parents and teachers feel it is wrong to focus on disliked people o However, most kids don’t tell others who they didn’t like o Children understand the idea of confidential Sociometric Status Groups Popular  High Positive Nominations  Low Negative Nominations Rejected 3 | P a g e WEEK TEN MARCH 17, 2016  Low Positive Nominations  High, Most Stable Negative Nominations Controversial  High Positive Nominations  High Negative Nominations Neglected (Overlooked)  Low Positive Nominations  Low, Least Stable Negative Nominations Average  Average Positive Nominations  Average Negative Nominations Peer Ratings Similar to Nominations in that the child is given a roster of classmates Child rates each classmates (using a Scale of 1­5) on how much they enjoy participating in  school activities with the individual  1 equals a “no! Oh please no!”  3 equals a “It’s ok”  5 equals a “Yes! All Right!” Ratings are more sensitive to Changes in Status A rating of “1” can be treated as a negative nomination, so Ratings combined with Positive  nominations replicate the Status groups. Causes of Acceptance Reputation effect or Response to Behavior? Move child to a new social group  If reputation effect, status should change in new social group  If response to behavior, status should remain the same, regardless of social group. 4 | P a g e WEEK TEN MARCH 17, 2016  Coie & Dodge, (1985), and Coie, Dodge & Kupersmidt (1990) found social competence  predicted social acceptance.   Opens the hope that social skill training may reduce poor peer relations. Behavior of Students in each Social Group Comparison Group is the Average Children Popular Children  Pro­social, active, supportive, friendly, leaders   Shared frame of reference, good communications skills  Have more fun Rejected  Aggressive, hostile, exclusive, solitary, inappropriate  Small play groups or with younger kids they can dominate  Hostile attribution bias and poor communications skills  Defensive, self­preservation goals Controversial  Active, never alone, supportive and exclusive, pro­social and hostile—they are great to  their own group, mean to outsiders. Neglected  Hover, quiet, withdrawn, voluntary time­out of the social scene  Good social skills not in use More on Rejected Children Three subtypes  Rejected­Aggressive  o Most common, most at risk for negative outcomes o More likely to be a bully o Associated with indulgent parents with poor conflict resolution skills 5 | P a g e WEEK TEN MARCH 17, 2016  Rejected­Withdrawn  o More likely to be unattractive or have mental impairment o More likely to be a whipping boy o Associated with indulgent overly protective parents  Rejected­Aggressive/Withdrawn o Fairly rare o Often victims of abuse, etc.  Hostile Attribution Bias An Attribution is a way of explaining why things happen, here because of Hostility on the part of others—they are “out to get you.” A bias is a preference for a particular response. When a cause is ambiguous, rejected children see hostility when others see accidents.   If you see more hostility, you respond with hostility.  Defensive hostility is a normal response to  deliberate meanness. If you perceive more hostility, you will get more hostile responses from others, especially when  there was no hostility in the first place. Acceptance and Friendships Peer rejection doesn’t mean they don’t have friends.  They may even have reciprocal best  friends. Rejected children are less satisfied with their friendships (because their friends tend to also be  rejected, and therefore lack good social skills). Rejected children are also the loneliest. But being popular doesn’t guarantee having a reciprocal best friend. Family Factors in Peer Acceptance Parents who play with their children  Foster emotional regulation and ability to read emotional cues Authoritative parents  Mothers who are directive with young children (leadership training) 6 | P a g e WEEK TEN MARCH 17, 2016  Fathers who play with children (physical activity) (emotional regulation) 7 | P a g e


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