American Government and Politics Today Chapter 9 Notes
American Government and Politics Today Chapter 9 Notes Pols 1101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pols 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Schaefer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
American Government 2/29/16- 3/4/16 Chapter 9 Finance Chairperson is the campaign professional who directs fundraising, campaign spending, and compliance with campaign finance laws and reporting requirements Pollster is the person or firm who conducts public opinion polls for the campaign Communications Director is a professional specialist who plans the communications strategy and advertising campaign for the candidate Press secretary is the individual who interacts directly with the journalists covering the campaign Get Out the Vote (GOTV); this phrase describes the multiple efforts expended by campaigns to get voters out to the polls on election day Tracking polls are a poll taken for the candidate on nearly daily basis as Election Day approaches. Focus group is a small group of individuals who are led in discussion by a professional consultant I order to gather opinions on and responses to candidates and issues Corrupt Practices Act is a series of acts passed by Congress in an attempt to limit and regulate the size and sources of contributions and expenditures in political campaigns Hatch Act is an act passed in 1939 that restricted the political activities of government employees. It also prohibited a political group form spending more than $3 million in any campaign and limited individual contributes to a campaign committee to $5,000 The Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 replaced all past campaign finance laws. It’s based on the three principles: there should be limits on individual contributions, disclosure of all contributions to the public, and there should be public funding of presidential campaigns The act placed no limit on overall spending, but restricted the total amount that could be spent on mass-media advertising Reforms to act included 1. The creation of the Federal Election Commission, 2. Provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, 3. Limited presidential campaign spending, 4. Limited contributions, and 5. Required disclosure. Hard money refers to political contributions and campaign spending that is recorded under the regulations set forth in law and by the Federal Election Commission Political Action Committee (PACs) is the committee that set up by and representing a corporation, labor union, or special-interest group. PACs raise and give campaign donations Soft Money; campaign contributions unregulated by federal or state law, usually given to parties and party committees to help fund general party activities Issue Advocacy Advertising is advertising paid for by interest groups that support or oppose a candidate or a candidate’s position on an issue without mentioning voting or elections Super PAC is a political committee that can accept unlimited contributions from individuals and corporations to spend supporting a candidate as long as its efforts are not coordinated with the candidate’s own campaign Independent Expenditures are nonregulated contributions from PACs, organizations, and individuals. The funds may be spent on advertising or other campaign activities, so long as those expenditures are not coordinated with those of a candidate Presidential Primary (Hey that was today!:)) is the statewide primary election of delegates to a political party’s national convention, held to determine a party’s presidential nominee “Beauty Contests”; a presidential primary in which contending candidates compete for popular votes but the results do no control the selection of delegates to the national convention Superdelegates is a party leader or elected official who is given the right to vote at the party’s national convention. They are no elected at the state level Front-runner is the presidential candidate who appears to be ahead at a given time in the primary season Front-loading is the practice of moving presidential primary elections to the early part of the campaign to maximize the impact of these primaries on the nomination Credentials committee is a committee used by political parties at their national conventions to determine which delegates may participate. The committee inspects the claim of each prospective delegate to be seated as a legitimate representative of his or her state Battleground states is a state likely to be so closely fought that the campaigns devote exceptional effort to winning the popular and electoral vote there Voter turnout is the percentage of citizens taking part in the election process; the number of eligible voters who actually “turn out” on election day to cast their ballots Rational Ignorance Effect is an effect produced when people purposely and rationally decide not to become informed on an issue because they believe that their vote on the issue is not likely to be a deciding one; a lack of incentive to seek the necessary information to cast an intelligent vote. Registration is the entry of a person’s name onto the list of registered voters for elections. To register, a person must meet certain legal requirements of age, citizenship, and residency Caucus is a meeting of party members designed to select candidates and propose policies Closed Primary is a type of primary in which the voter is limited to choosing candidates of the party of which he or she is a member Open Primary is a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but must vote for candidates of only one party). Australian Ballot is a secret ballot prepared, distributed, and tabulated by government officials at public expense. Since 1888, all U.S. states have used the Australian ballot rather than an open, public ballot Office-Block Massachusetts ballot is a form of general election ballot in which candidates for elective office are grouped together under the title of each of office. It emphasizes voting for the individual candidate, rather than the party Party- column or Indiana ballot is a form of general- election ballot in which all party’s candidates for elective office are arranged in one column under the party’s label and symbol. It emphasizes voting for the party, rather than the office or the individual Coat-tail effect is the influence of a popular candidate on the electoral success of other candidates on the same party ticket. The effect is increased by the party’s column ballot, which encourages straight-ticket voting Electors are members of the Electoral College, which selects the president and vice president. Each state’s electors are chosen in each presidential election year according to state laws