Intro to Philosophy: Greek Foundations Notes Week Five
Intro to Philosophy: Greek Foundations Notes Week Five Philosophy 10200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Gendron on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Philosophy 10200 at Ithaca College taught by Prof. Robert Klee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy Greek Foundations in PHIL-Philosophy at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Intro to Philosophy: Greek Foundations Notes Week Five Paramenides o Limits to what reason can uncover Paradoxes His poem alleges that he received it in a kind of divine revelation o This concept puts him back in time, moving away from the progress that philosophers before him made toward naturalism and trying to explain things in a non- mythological way The Goddess revealed to him two “ways” o The way of Truth o The way of Opinion She is unusual by way of goddesses because she makes arguments for what she reveals o Gods usually simply announce things, they never argued for what they were saying it was just supposed to be taken as fact o The arguments she gives are questionable and controversial- not something that one would expect for a supposedly all-knowing goddess Way of Truth- Episteme = Knowledge, Fact Way of Opinion- Doxa = Orthodoxa, used their opinion Why is The One motionless, continuous, the same everywhere, and ungenerated (never was created, it is infinitely old) o Goddess argued reality could not have been generated, it could not have had a beginning o It then would have had to be generated out of nothing at all Ex nihilo nihil fit (Latin) – From nothing, nothing comes The universe is infinitely old and has no beginning Deists- A dead religion that believes that god can’t hear you so they don’t pray Cosmogony- Story of how the universe came to be Early Christians played up the distinguishment between Christianity and Philosophy so sharply o Christians believe that the world came from nothing and that God created it from nothing, while the Philosophers believed that nothing could come from nothing so the Earth was either formed from a pre-existing matter before the formation of this planet or, the more common belief that it is infinitely old and has always existed The goddess told him that it is impossible to even think about something that does not exist o The act of thinking about it would be impossible- How can there be (in thought) what has no being at all (does not exist)? Called “The Problem of Non-being” Zeno Distrust of sensory experiences Monist- Someone who believes there is only one kind of reality in the world Paradox- An opinion that when you first encounter it it seems strange and out of the ordinary 1.) Motion does not exist (ie. Movement is impossible and therefore apparent motion is illusory) 2.) There cannot be many different things, but only one thing: The One (so apparent plurality is illusory) 3.) Nothing ever changes, but rather reality always stays the same (so apparent change is illusory) o These conclusions are argued for using several ingenious thought experiments- hypothetical situations Zeno invents but involve ordinary experiences anyone could have Although it is clear Zeno’s conclusions are true it is difficult to say when exactly he makes mistakes in his thought experiments Aristotle critiques Zeno’s argument by being infinite in quantity (extent) with being infinite in division (number of subparts) Infinity in division is not the same as infinity in length Anaxgoras of Clazomenae c. 500 B.C.E. – 428 B.C.E The Pluralists Goal: Show how the empirically obvious facts of motion, change, and plurality can be features of the world while giving the assumed-to-be impeccable logic of the Eleatics its due respect He was an Ionian from the city of Clazomenae He was also interested in what the world was ‘made of’ a la the Milesians He was highly influenced by Paramenides, and sought to keep his views consistent with his logical critique (a feat that many render impossible) He was convicted and exiled from Athens to Lampsacus where he dies in 428 B.C.E. He claimed that the sun was in fact a fiery stone and not a god o This belief is what led to his exile He wrote a single book which was on the Cosmos He was renowned for his solid character and wisdom The elders of Lampsacus created an annual holiday in his name for children that is said to have lasted for a few centuries He had no interest in politics or “practical matters” which was strange in Greek culture He was the first person to figure out the cause of solar eclipses are the moon moving in front of the sun He argued that the universe is a mixture of “all things in all things” o The one exception is Nous, which can mean soul, mind, and intelligence