New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bisc 132 Week 1 Notes

by: randomchic12

Bisc 132 Week 1 Notes BISC 132

Marketplace > Louisiana Tech University > Biology > BISC 132 > Bisc 132 Week 1 Notes
LA Tech
GPA 3.8
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for The Diversity of Life

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive The Diversity of Life notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

First week's notes for Biological Sciences taught by Dr. Kemege at Louisiana Tech University. This includes: -Diversity of Life (CH 26) -Viruses (CH 27) -Prokaryotes (CH 28) (not complete chapte...
The Diversity of Life
Dr. Kyle Kemege
Class Notes
Biology, diversity, Viruses, prokaryotes, Week One




Popular in The Diversity of Life

Popular in Biology

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 132 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kyle Kemege in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see The Diversity of Life in Biology at Louisiana Tech University.


Reviews for Bisc 132 Week 1 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/01/16
1 Biological Sciences 132­ Diversity of Life December 2, 2015 Diversity of Life (Ch 26) ­Phylogenetic trees ­evolutionary trees ­inferred evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms ­based on physical differences and/or genetic differences  ­rRNA­ sequence changes slowly ­clades= complete branches  ­ancestor and all descendants feature Bacteria eukarya archaea introns N Y Some Organelles N Y N Nucleus N Y N RNA polymerase One Several Several peptidoglycan Y N n ­introns: sequences of DNA that are transcribed but are then spliced out of mRNA­ not translated ­Archaea: several characteristics in common with bacteria and eukarya  ­own, distinct domain ­prokaryote ­pro= before, preceding ­karyon= kernel ­does not have a nuclear envelope ­bacteria and archaea are both prokaryotes ­"cell type", not a domain 2 ­4 kingdoms of eukarya (see table) trait Protista plantae fungi Animalia chloroplasts some y n n cell wall yes; various cellulose chitin n mode of nutrition photosynthetic Photosynthesis Absorption ingestion and/or heterotrophic multicellularity mostly no y mostly yes y nervous system mostly no some n n y, complex primitive ­Biological Taxonomy ­the science of classification of living things ­common names can be misleading ­binomial nomenclature ­2­word naming ­rules: always in italics or underlined in handwriting          ­first word is always capitalized; second word is never capitalized ­e.g. Homo sapiens ­8 levels of classification ­each level is a taxon ­taxa= plural ­1. domain D ­2. kingdom K ­3. phylum P ­4. class C ­5. order O ­6. family F 3 ­7. genus G ­8. species S ­Dr. Kemege Please Come Over For Greek Salad ­some (not all) organisms have subtaxa ­final two taxa (genus and species) are the binomial name of an organism Viruses (Ch 27) ­virus traits ­viruses are not alive ­not composed of cells ­"parasitic macromolecules" ­DNA or RNA in a protein shell ­capable of evolution ­"obligate intracellular parasites" ­require a host to replicate  ­no ribosomes (translation) ­usually, no DNA or RNA Polymerase ­hijack host cell ­machinery (enzymes) and steal ATP (energy) ­harmful to host ­host range: a given virus will only infect a specific species or group of species ­tissue tropism: viruses target specific types of cells ­capsid: protein shell of a virus ­common capsid morphologies ­helical capsid ­hollow tube ­icosahedral capsid 4 ­icosahedron­ 20 sides ­binal symmetry ­helical and icosahedral capsids ­some viruses are enveloped ­surrounded by membrane ­also have capsid inside December 4, 2015 ­bacteriophage: viruses that infect bacteria ­aka phage ­lytic cycle ­attachment: specific protein­protein interactions ­penetration: injection – capsid does not enter ­synthesis: proteins are synthesized, new genomes are made ­assembly: protein components come together to form capsid­ genome inside ­release: by cell lysis ­lysogenic cycle ­attachment ­penetration ­integration: phage genome sealed into bacterial chromosome ­phage gene expression is off ­prophage= bacterium w/ phage DNA in chromosome ­propagation: phage DNA replicated w/ rest of chromosome ­induction: stress triggers lytic cycle ­phage gene expression turned on ­synthesis ­assembly 5 ­release ­HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) ­enveloped ­RNA genome ­host range: humans ­tissue tropism: T cells & macrophages (part of the immune system) ­causes AIDS= Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome ­HIV infection cycle ­attachment: protein­ protein specificity which ensures tissue tropism ­entry: endocytosis ­entire capsid enters cell ­reverse transcription­ brings from single stranded RNAdouble stranded DNA ­error prone (enzyme that does this) ­integration: in host chromosome ­transcription, translation of viral proteins ­one big HIV protein is cleaved into smaller functional proteins ­by enzyme protease ­assembly ­exit by budding ­HIV drug targets ­entry: prevent attachment or fusion of proteins ­replication: blocks reverse transcriptase ­prevent integration ­block integrase enzyme ­prevent maturation (protease chops up proteins into smaller pieces) ­block protease 6 ­problems with HIV ­no model organism  ­non­human organism on which to test drugs ­reverse transcriptase is error prone ­mutation rates are high ­changes faster than our immune system can adapt ­targets immune system cells ­most successful treatment: ­cocktail of drugs (3+) targeting different things ­neurological diseases ­Examples: ­bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ­aka “mad cow disease” ­scrapie­ found in sheep ­kuru aka Creutzfeidt­ Jakob disease ­humans ­transmitted by cannibalism of brain ­not poison/ toxin­ is infectious  ­irradiate brain matter to destroy DNA & RNA ­still causes disease ­not bacteria, eukaryote, or virus ­caused by a misfolded protein called a prion C  ­we all have prion protein called PrP SC ­disease­causing protein called PrP ­when PrP comes into contact with PrP , converts it to PrP SC  ­PrP (either version) is required for disease 7 December 7, 2015 Prokaryotes (Ch 28) Bacteria and Archaea ­prokaryotes are basically everywhere ­many (not all) archaea are extremophiles­live in environments of extreme heat, pH, or salt levels ­much more is known about bacteria than archaea ­3 common bacterial cell morphologies ­bacillus: rod ­coccus: spheres ­spirillum: corkscrews ­may or may not have: ­pilli: short extensions ­aid in movement or attachment to surfaces ­flagella: long extensions ­allow for motility (getting from one place to another) ­cells with spirillum morphology have endoflagella­ flagella inside of cell ­2 major groups of bacteria ­Gram positive bacteria are monoderms­ single plasma membrane ­thick layer of peptidoglycan on outside ­peptidoglycan acts as cell wall (structural support) ­Gram negative bacteria are diderms­ two plasma membranes ­inner membrane, thin peptidoglycan, outer membrane ­thin peptidoglycan & outer membrane form cell wall (structural support) ­Gram stain ­1. Purple dye binds to peptidoglycan ­2. Iodine fixes purple dye in place 8 ­3. Ethanol washes away dye + iodine from G­ (Gram negative) because less total  peptidoglycan ­dye stays in G+ (Gram positive) ­more total peptidoglycan ­4. Red dye stains G­ ­so they can be visualized ­mistakes using Gram stain system ­G+ ­No iodine: misidentify as G­ ­No wash: no effect ­No red dye: no effect ­G­ ­No iodine: no effect ­No wash: misidentify as G+ ­No red dye: couldn’t see bacteria ­plasmids: extra chromosomal DNA ­circular ­smaller than chromosome ­non­essential genes ­often have genes for antibiotic resistance ­3 mechanisms for bacterial genetic exchange ­1. Conjugation ­direct transfer of plasmid DNA from one cell to another ­through conjugative pilus­ hollow tube ­replicates as it transfers ­allows antibiotic resistance genes to spread quickly through populations 9 ­2. Transduction ­spread of DNA via phage ­phage infects bacterium, mis­packages bacteria DNA into phage particle ­can then inject bacterial DNA into new bacterium ­new bacterium may incorporate into genome ­3. Transformation ­bacterium takes up DNA from environment ­may incorporate into genome ­natural transformation: bacteria have own proteins that aid in DNA uptake ­not all bacteria transform naturally ­artificial transformation ­part of genetic engineering


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.