Memory Vocab Psych 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test Relearning: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning Storage: the retention of encoded information out of memory storage Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system—includes knowledge, skills, and experiences Working memory: a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory Explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” (also called declarative memory) Effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings Implicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection (also called nondeclarative memory) Iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second Echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled 3 or 4 seconds Chunking: organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices Spacing effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice yield better long- term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice Testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information (sometimes referred to as retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning) Shallow processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words Deep processing: encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention Hippocampus: a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage Flashbulb memory: a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Long-term potentiation (LTP): an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation—believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory Mood-congruent memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood Serial position effect: our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect) and first items (a primacy effect) in a list Anterograde amnesia: an inability to form new memories Retrograde amnesia: an inability to retrieve information from one’s past Proactive interference: the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall or new information Retroactive interference: the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information Repression: in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories Misinformation effect: incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event Source amnesia: attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (also called source misattribution) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories Deja vu: that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before”—cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
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