Chapter 4: Development
Chapter 4: Development Psych 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Psych Chapter 4: Developing throughout the lifespan Developmental psychology examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span—focuses on 3 major issues: Nature and nurture o Genetics vs. environment o How does our genetic inheritance (nature) interact with our experiences (nurture) to influence our development? o Together sculpt our synapses Continuity and stages (discontinuity) o Changes in quantity/amount (more or something) (Skinner) and change to something/qualitative change (in type) (larva) (Piaget) o What parts of development are gradual and continuous? o What parts change abruptly in separate stages? o Those who emphasize learning and experience support continuity o Those who emphasize biological maturation support stages Stability and change o Which of our traits persist through life? o How do we change as we age? Difference vs. deficit o Different = something wrong o Deficit: person does not match the context “goodness to fit”— (sometimes can benefit from disadvantage or doesn’t matter at all) o Niche picking: picking context to match who you are Time o Variable in developmental psychology 3 areas: cognitive, socio-emotional, biological (physical) (all happens simultaneously) DOES NOT CORRELATE WITH TRIMESTERS (3 stages) Prenatal Development Conception (STARTS HERE) (WOMB TO TOMB) Germinal period: (fertilization-2 weeks) - Process starts when a woman’s ovary releases a mature egg - The 200 million or more sperm begin racing towards the egg - One sperm penetrates its coating and welcomed in - Before half a day elapses, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse (two become one) (becomes a zygote) (fallopian tubes) - Fewer than half of all fertilized eggs (zygotes) survive beyond the first two weeks - Cells then begin to multiply (cell division) (zygote divides) (makes exact copies of itself—same genetic material) o Monozygotic: identical twins (one egg) (100% genetic similarity) o Dizygotic: fraternal twins (piece of egg breaks off and duplicates) (possible for this to be from two different sperms…. (different daddies)) (50% genetic similarity) - Then cells begin to differentiate—to specialize in structure and function - 10 days after conception, the zygote attaches to the mother’s uterine wall (the host) (implantation) (ends here) Embryonic stage (2-8 weeks) (most important) - The zygote’s inner cell becomes the embryo and the outer cells become the placenta - The placenta is the life-link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to embryo (pulls nutrients from her and sends waste out of her) - Construction of support structures (placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac) - Development of major body structures (respiratory, alimentary, nervous system) - Most susceptible to environmental agents (teratogens) (things that come from the outside that can negatively effect the baby) o Alcohol #1 cause of problems (Fetal alcohol syndrome FAC) o Stress o Drugs o Pollutants o Maternal disease (STI’s, Ziko) - Effect of teratogens depends on o Timing (when in development stages) o Type (alcohol effects nervous system, etc.) o Amount (higher dosage = bigger effect) o Individual differences (genetic vulnerability) Fetal stage (8 weeks to birth) - By 9 weeks, an embryo looks unmistakably human and is now a fetus - Finishing touches - Growth andthefinement - During 6 month, organs such as stomach have developed (chance of survival if born prematurely) - Age of viability: ability to live outside of the host (22-28 weeks) (below 22, lungs not ready, can’t control body temperature, etc.) - By 6 month, fetus is responsive to sound of its mother’s muffled voice (why they prefer her voice) - Prefer hearing mother’s language, if she spoke two during pregnancy they display interest in both - Just after born, cries bear tuneful signature of their mother’s native tongue Other factors impacting prenatal development: - Maternal weight gain (25 pounds average) - Maternal age (over 35, birth issues/higher risk) (15 & under, birth complications/hips, diet, lifestyle) - Baby’s gender (boys are more vulnerable to genetic abnormalities and dying after birth) Motor Development - The developing brain enables physical coordination - As an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature, skills emerge - Physical (motor) development is universal - These behaviors reflect not imitation but a maturing nervous system (brain/spinal cord) - Genes guide motor development - Identical twins typically begin walking on the same day - Maturation (including the rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain) creates our readiness to learn walking at about the age of 1 (experience before that time has a limited effect) - With bowel and bladder control—before the necessary muscular and neural maturation, pleading or punishment will not produce successful toilet training - **** The sequence, but not the timing, is universal Brain Maturation and Infant Memory Infant amnesia: not remembering experiences as a young child - Average age of early conscious memory is 3.5 years - Going on 4 to 6 to 8, children become increasingly capable of remembering experiences - Brain areas underlying memory (hippocampus and frontal lobes) continue to mature into adolescence - Although we remember little from age 4, brain was processing and store information during the early years - Babies are capable of learning (string tied on foot to move crib) - Also capable of remembering original things and recognizing the difference (different mobiles) - Can remember for a period of time (a month later recognized original mobile and began kicking) - Traces of forgotten childhood language can persist - What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous system and our two-track mind somehow remembers Cognitive Development Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication - 1920 Jean Piaget intrigued by similar wrong answers among same-age children - From that ^, we understand children reason differently than adults - A child’s mind develops through a series of stages (Piaget) - The driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences (Piaget) - The maturing brain builds schemas: concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences (ways of making sense of experiences) and represent knowledge—by adulthood we have built countless schemas (ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love) (first are physical reflexes) - Equilibrium: (balance) o Cold-shivers o Hot-sweat cool down - Disequilibrium: (out of balance) o Necessary for development o Organization (rearrange to make sense) and adaptation (changing the system to make world make sense) - Piaget proposed two concepts (to explain how we use and adjust our schemas): o We assimilate new experiences—interpreting them in terms of our current understandings (already existing schemas) (what you already know) o We accommodate (adjust) our schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences (new schemas are created or old ones radically adjusted) - Children construct their understanding of the world while interacting with it (Piaget) - Children’s minds experience spurts of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive plateau to the next, each with distinctive characteristics that permit specific kinds of thinking: - Sensorimotor Stage (birth to nearly age 2): o Take in the world through their senses (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, grasping) o As hands and limbs begin to move, they learn to make things happen o Infants live in the present (out of sight, out of mind) o Infants lack object permanence: the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived o By 8 months, they begin exhibiting memory for things no longer seen o Today’s researchers believe object permanence unfolds gradually— they see development more continuous than Piaget did o Also believe Piaget and his followers underestimated young children’s competence: (The “whoa!” look) infants stare longer at an unexpected and unfamiliar scene of a car seeming to pass through a solid object, a ball stopping in midair, an object violating object permanence by magically disappearing Wynn showed 5-month olds one or two objects, she then hid them and visibly removed or added object. When shown to the infant they did a double take, staring longer when shown a wrong number of objects Babies’ number sense extends to larger numbers, to ratios, and to such things as drum beats and motions If accustomed to a Daffy Duck puppet jumping three times on stage, they showed surprise if it jumped only once - Preoperational Stage (until about age 6 or 7): o Too young to form mental operations (imagining an action and mentally reversing it) o Children lack the concept of conservation: quantity remains the same despite changes in shape o A child who can form mental operations can think in symbols and pretend plays (ability to mentally represent things) o Develop language o Symbolic thinking appears at an earlier age than Piaget supposed o Piaget contended preschool children are egocentric: have difficulty perceiving things from another’s point of view (Adults can be as well (curse of knowledge)—assuming other’s share are opinions and perspectives or that if something is clear to us, it’s clear to everyone) o Theory of mind (David Premack/Guy Woodruff): people’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states, ability to infer others— preschoolers begin to understand this and begin to tease, empathize, persuade, and anticipation o Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty understand that another’s state of mind differs from their own - Concrete operational stage (by age 6 or 7): o Given concrete (physical) materials, they begin to grasp conservation —change in form does not mean change in quantity o Piaget believed children become able to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation o Ability to see others’ point of view o Logical thinking (if this, then that) but lack ability to think abstractly (logic limited to their experience) o Deductive reasoning: reasoning from general to specific - Formal operational stage (age 12): o Reasoning expands, encompasses abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols instead of concrete) o Ability to argue o Many become capable of thinking more like scientists: pondering hypothetical propositions, deducing consequences, systematic reasoning (decide which on to act on/pursue) o Formal operation thinking: people begin to think logically about abstract concepts - Piaget did not view the stage transitions as abrupt shifts - Piaget emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with physical environment Adolescence - A transitional phase/stage between childhood and adulthood - Every society defines the end of adolescence differently - Begins with puberty (sexual maturity) (no age because individual differences) (rapid growth associated with adolescence) (girls first menstruation (menarche), boys spermarche (sperm in urine)) - Secular trend: the gradual lowering of the age in which people become sexually mature o People are getting younger and younger o Only occurred in industrialized countries (goes down with famine) o Nutrition and medical care o Secular trend has bottomed out (9/10) - Primary sex characteristics: directly involved with reproduction o Women: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina o Men: testicles, penis, (all involved in sperm production) scrotum, seminal vesicles, prostate gland - Secondary sex characteristics o Women: breasts, pubic hair, change in voice/skin, width and depth of pelvis o Men: pubic hair, change in voice/skin, facial hair, muscular development, broadening of shoulders Emerging adulthood: (new stage) (school longer, parenting pushed off) period from age 18 to the mid-twenties and beyond (up to time of social independence) (not yet assumed full adult responsibilities and independence, feel “in between”) Adulthood: (most places when fertile) American society, when you become financially independent Life span: the maximum # of years a member of the species can live Life expectancy: how long an average person in that society will live Declination: Every sense declines (especially ears) Can’t say aging is all about decline (some things get better) (domain specific: ability to learn new words, etc.) Most people do not notice decline (compensation: adjustment to the declines) Declines may happen because one has to adapt to a lifestyle People of all ages report to have similar levels of happiness Lev Vygotsky - Russian developmental psychologist - Studied how children think and learn and how child’s mind feeds on the language of social interaction - By age 7, they increasingly think in words and use words to solve problems— they do this by internalizing their culture’s language and relying on inner speech - Parents who say “No, no!” when pulling a child’s hands away from the cake are giving the child a self-control tool—later when child needs to resist temptation they may say “No, no” nd - 2 rdgraders who muttered to themselves while doing math problems grasped 3 grade math better the following year - (out loud or audibly) Talking to themselves helps children control their behavior and emotions and master new skills - he emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with social environment - By mentoring children and giving them new words, parents and others provide a scaffold from which children can step to higher levels of thinking - Language, an important ingredient of social mentoring, provides the building blocks for thinking Erik Erikson - Erikson disagreed with emphasis on sex - Focused on individual and society - Primary task during adolescence is forming an identity - Each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs a solution - Crisis: represent tasks throughout life-span—each crisis must be dealt with and it effects you for the rest of your life (NEED balance) - Psychosocial crisis model Born-1 year: Trust vs. Mistrust Develop that Mom cannot do everything for you Also develop caution/fear 1-3 years: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt You are separate from your mom—you can effect the world separately Shame and doubt comes from the inside You can fail and break stuff (but never try if too much) (but also have limits) 3-6 years: Initiative vs. Guilt Goals (internalized) What you think is wrong—can’t live up to it 6-12 years (latency period) (school): Industry vs. Inferiority Have to perfect Can’t handle failure, never try Never will be as good as anyone else Balance: try, win some, lose some and can handle both ***12-19 years (adolescence): Identity vs. Role Confusion If something threatens identity, messes up everything (badly) Doesn’t know how to fit into society 19-25 years (early adulthood): Intimacy vs. Isolation Sharing yourself with others too much—giving up too much of your identity/self Not being able to compromise about anything (my way or highway) 25-50 years (adulthood): Generativity vs. Stagnation Being a mentor/giving back what you’ve learned back to the world You stop learning and give to no one 50 years or older: Ego Integrity vs. Despair Ability to die happy with yourself—accept negatives and positives Too much, don’t accept weaknesses and think you were a great everything You sucked at everything, might as well leave now More on Identity by Erikson: 3 components of Identity Crisis A) A quest to be unique B) Continuity of experience with past (childhood) C) Solidarity with a group’s ideals (belonging in larger context) A + C = conflict Marcia’s Identity Statuses NO YES NO 1 2 YES 3 4 1: Diffusion No desire to change, no aspirations, no crisis (exploration) 2. Foreclosure Premature identity formation (no crisis) Decide early on and never though about anything else 3. Moratorium Middle of crisis (2 years of college) Time to experiment without consequences, a time out 4. Identity Achievement Deliberate commitment to an identity or course of action Went through crisis - Erikson observed that the adult struggles to attain intimacy and generativity Emotions: Attachment (Klaus and Kennell) - Bonding does not exist between parents and infants - Came from nursing and studying goats - They say: critical period for touch with mother and child, if doesn’t happen then no relationship - No critical period - Child contribution: none - Mother contribution: none (biologically 0, but can be psychologically 100%) - If mother believes she missed window, will treat child different b/c of that belief Theories of Attachment Psychoanalytic (Freudian) “I love you because you feed me” Learning Theory (Skinner) “I love you because your reinforcing” (pretty much same as Freud’s) Contact Comfort (Harlow) “I love you because you make me feel secure/safe/comfy” Ethological (Bowlby) “I love you because I was born to love” (biologically predisposed to be that way) Skinner vs. Harlow (Food vs. Contact Comfort) (monkey experiments) o No matter which “mother” had food/nourishment, they preferred the cuddly, comforting one o Security from monster o Will explore/able to learn when comforting mother was around o What to take from this: becomes template for relationships when you get older Attachment: an active reciprocal (BOTH) relationship between 2 people as opposed to all others How do we measure attachment in Humans? (Ainsworth: strange situation) (Behaviors of Interest) o Exploration (secure base-mom) o Proximity seeking o Contact maintaining/resisting o Comfortability (how quickly are they comforted when mom/dad comes back) Attachment classifications o Secure attachment (play happily when mom is there, when mom leaves, become distressed and when returns seek contact with her) o Avoidant attachment (not need mom) o Ambivalent attachment/insecure resistance attachment (desperately feel the need of security) (I want you but I hate you/anger/remain upset when returns) o Disorganized/disoriented attachment (doesn’t know if mom/dad loves them or not—freezes when they leave the room) These all contribute to working model of SELF Autism spectrum disorder: Poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to let us take another’s viewpoint Said to have an impaired theory of mind They have difficulty inferring others’ thoughts and feelings, do not appreciate that playmates parents might view things differently, have difficulty mind reading (what most of us find intuitive—smirks, sneers) Has differing levels of severity—“high-functioning” individuals have normal intelligence, and often have exceptional talent/skill, but lack social and communication skills and tend to become distracted by minor/unimportant stimuli (those at the spectrum’s lower end are unable to use language at all) Boys are systemizers (rules or laws, mathematical and mechanical systems Girls are empathizers (reading facial expressions and gestures) Children exposed to high levels of the male sex hormone testosterone in the womb may develop more masculine and autistic traits Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Goslings, ducks, and chicks have this Humans do not imprint—they do though become attached to what they’ve known Mere exposure to people and things fosters fondness (familiarity is a safety signal) Temperament: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity From the first few weeks of life, infants differ in their characteristic emotional reactions, with some infants being intense and anxious, while others are easygoing and relaxed (these are differences in their temperament) Genetically influenced (physiological differences) Helps form our enduring personality Tends to remain stable throughout life Developing Morality - Two crucial tasks of childhood/adolescence are discerning right from wrong and developing character - Think morally and act accordingly - Piaget and Kohlberg: moral reasoning guides moral actions - Piaget believed that children’s moral judgments build on their cognitive development (Kohlberg agreed) - Kohlberg posed moral dilemmas and asked children, adolescents, and adults whether the action was right or wrong - Their answers led him to propose three basic levels of moral thinking: preconventional (self-interest, obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards), conventional (uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order), and postconventional (actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles) - Haidt believed that much of our morality is rooted in our moral intuitions - These led to moral paradoxes (trolley problems) Studies: Cross-sectional Compare people of different ages Longitudinal Restudy and retest the same people over a long period of time Parenting styles 1) Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience 2) Permissive: parents submit to their children’s desires 3) Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive
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