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Ansc 211 Week One Notes

by: randomchic12

Ansc 211 Week One Notes 211

Marketplace > Louisiana Tech University > 211 > Ansc 211 Week One Notes
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About this Document

First week of notes for Animal Science 211 taught by Dr. Laura Gentry at Louisiana Tech University. This includes: The History of The Horse.
Intro to equine
Dr. Laura Gentry
Class Notes
Animal Science, Horse, history, horse history, equine




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Laura Gentry in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
1 Ansc 211 Week One Notes History of the Horse ­Classification ­kingdom: Animalia ­phylum: chordata ­subphylum: vertebrata ­class: mammalia ­order: Perissodactyla (perissodactyle­ strange/odd toed) ­family: equidae ­genus: equus ­species: caballus (horse); asinus (donkey/ass) ­Perissodactyla (order) ­3 families ­equidae ­tapriridae ­rhinocerotidae ­Introduction ­hunter­gathersfarmersagriculture ­4000­3000 B.C.­ horse domesticated on the Stepps north of the Black Sea ­Mesopotamia: the oxen yoked; asses & onagers harnessed ­domestication: tamed or gentled for use by man ­adapt the behavior of animals to fit the needs of people ­taming vs domestication:  ­taming: animal can go back to wild state ­domestication: years of changing genetics, behavior; adapting and  changing animal ­Evolution ­over long periods of time, living things change in form, intelligence and distribution  such that every living thing is suited to take full advantage of conditions surrounding it 2 ­not a straight line, more like a branching bush ­equus­ only surviving branch and equus caballus is today’s true horse ­earth is estimated to be approximately 4.570 years old ­earliest ancestor of present horse ~50 million years ago in the Eocene Epoch ­Eohippus (Hyraco thorium) ­earliest ancestor of the day horse ­Eocence Epoch (time period) ­aka “dawn horse” ­overall size­ 50 lb dog; 10­20 inches tall; about the size of a fox/dog ­4 front toes/3 hind toes ­44 low crowned teeth (browser) ­Mesohippus ­Oligocene Epoch ~35 million years ago ­larger than Eohippus; long neck; browser; looked like taller dog ­3 front toes/3 hind toes ­teeth more evolved ­Merychippus ­Miocene Epoch ~20 million years ago ­earth more plains, less swamps, and body more adapted to land/terrain ­beginning of grazing horse of today ­gregarious/herds ­back not as rounded ­complicated grinding teeth similar to present horses ­Pliohippus ­Pliocene Epoch ~5 million years ago st ­1  true monodactyl (one­toed animal) ­teeth/limbs most similar to present horse ­faster because out in open (grasslands not swamplands) ­1 toe (hooved, evolved from middle toe) 3 ­Equus ­Pleistocene Epoch ~1 million years ago ­horse of today ­true grazers ­different branches but not all branches survived ­descendants of eohippus (Eocene) were distributed throughout Europe as well as America ­some migrated from North America to other continents and some became extinct ­other descendants went across strait to Asia/Europe ­Equus migrated to South America and became extinct while others migrated to others areas and  survived ­during Ice Age (Glacial Period), horse became extinct in North America ­Columbus brought horses with him to North America ­Early Horse Types ­forest types ­heavy, large, forest browsers ­large hooves, dense coats, long feathers on fetlocks ­not built for speed but power ­closest relative= Draft Horse ­steppe type ­large head/ears, stiff mane, strong compact body ­hooves long/narrow ­quick and agile ­best represented by Przewalski’s horse ­plateau type ­lighter build than forest or steppes ­smaller, refined head, long slender legs ­medium sized horses 4 ­though to give rise to many light/pony breeds ­tundra type ­coarse head, wide/long back, sturdy legs ­thick fur and long mane/tail ­roamed NE Europe ­closest relative= native ponies of Siberia ­Early Influences:  ­Scythians ­archers/nomads ­invaded the Near East ~800 B.C. ­had first recorded “geldings” (castrated male horse) ­wealth measured in horses ­Chinese ­first used horse­drawn war chariots (1450­1050 B.C.) ­Chinese “light cavalry”­ refined use of riding with saddle rd ­3  century B.C.­ used in great numbers th ­7  century A.D.­ considered complete horsemen ­Roman Army ­existed for more than four centuries ­infantrycavalry ­Middle Ages ­fall of Roman Empire ~476 A.D.; lasted ~700 years ­dark ages­ early portion of the period ­learning/invention stagnated ­horse used for battle/hunting, eventually adapted to new roles,  particularly in agriculture ­Renaissance 5 ­period between 1450­1650 A.D. ­cultural rebirth ­horses assumed a more prominent role in transporting goods and people ­Modern American Horses ­Early 1500’s ­Coronado set out for North America with several hundred horsemen ­DeSoto’s expedition with several hundred horses ­first governor of Mexico had 1500 horses ­1800’s­ Colonization and Settlement ­hauled goods ­pulled cabs and carriages ­plowed fields ­essential part of economy ­demand for mules increased also for use in heavy farm machinery/coal mines ­Urban American ­horse powered mass transits ­hauled cargo from railroads, steamships, canal boats (draft horses) ­fire protection ­pleasure wagon ­Agriculture ­Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)­ passed by Congress and led to establishment of state  agriculture colleges ­Recreation/Sports/Shows ­racing ­national horse show 1883 ­rodeo (paid attendance)­1886 ­Draft Horses declined in mid 1950’s ­Modern American Horses 6 ­1950­ 2 million horses in U.S. ­2005­ 5.3­9.2 million ­2007­ 13.8 million ­(horse population increase over the years for recreational purposes and as pets)


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