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APR 231: Chapters 12 and 13

by: Courtney Small

APR 231: Chapters 12 and 13 APR 231

Courtney Small

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About this Document

Covers topics discussed in lecture
Intro public relations
William J. Gozenbach
Class Notes
intro, public relations
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter  12:  PR  and  Law     Tuesday,  March  1,  2016   9:29  AM   PR  and  Law   •   Lawyer:  What  must  do   •   PR:  What  should  do     •   Weigh  the  two     •   Conspiracy:  liable  if  provide  advice  or  tacitly  support  an  illegal  activity  of  a  client  or   employer     •   Ex.  Bribe,  Font  groups,  illegal  counsel  to  do  action.  Ex.  295     Libel     •   Libel  vs.  Slander,  use  of  term  defamation     •   4  components:   1.   Defamation:  expose  to  hatred,  contempt,  or  ridicule;  lower  esteem  of  peers;   cause  to  be  shunned;  or  injure  business,  trade  or  profession  (injury  of  some  kind)   2.   Publication:  seen  by  person  other  than  writer  and  defamed   3.   Id:  must  be  able  to  identify  the  person     4.   Negligence:  Didn’t  follow  customary  standards   •   Public  Figure:  added  burden  of  false  and  reckless  disregard  for  the  truth,  actual  malice.   Held  to  a  higher  standard.     Defenses:   1.   Truth     2.   Privilege:  public  official  doing  public  action     3.   Fair  comment  and  criticism     Privacy:  4  major  areas     •   Employee  newsletters:  keep  organization  orientation,  not  personal     •   Photo  releases:  Sign  release,  file,  date,  context     •   Product  publicity  and  advertising:  release,  issue  of  misappropriation     •   Media  inquiries  about  employees:  Confirm  employee,  title/job,  begin/end  date,  bio   sheet,  employee  address  media;  no  personal  info     o   Also,  email  public;  whistleblower/  trade  secrets     Copyright     •   2  areas   •   Copyrighting  your  stuff     •   Using  other's  copy  righted  stuff     Copyright     •   Copyright:  exclusive  rights  of  original  work  of  authorship  fixed  in  a  tangible  medium  of   expression  now  known  or  later  developed     •   Work  include:   o   Copyright  symbol  (c  in  circle)  followed  by  copyright     o   Year  of  copyright     o   Name  of  copyright  owner     •   Individual:  Life  +70  years     •   For  hire:  95  years  from  publish.  45  years  added  for  Mickey  Mouse     Fair  use     •   Get  permission     •   Copyright  Clearance  Center   •   Issues  of  fair  use     1.   Purpose/character  of  use     2.   Nature  of  copyright  at  work     3.   Amount  used     4.   Effect  on  market  value     7  categories  of  authorship     •   Literary  works   •   Musical  works   •   Dramatic  works     •   Pantomimes  and  choreographic  works     •   Pictoral,  graphic  or  sculptural  works     •   Motion  pictures     •   Sound  recordings     Other  issues     •   Photos  :  photographer  own  photo  rights,  you  buy  copy  of  photo     •   Freelancers:  Reid  Case:  own,  buyer  gain  license     •   Talk,  agreement     •   Internet:  Copyright  like  other  venues     o   Download:  Burrelle  fee  to  use  story  prints     o   Upload:  Youtube  not  liable,  must  remove     o   Summary  pp.  310-­‐311   Trademarks     •   Word,  symbol,  slogan,  used  singly  or  in  combination,  that  identifies  a  product's  origin     •   R  in  circle  registered,  TM  in  small  caps  not  registered  (common  law),  SM  in  circle  service   mark  registered,  SM  not  registered  or  pending     •   Register  with  patent  office     1.   Application   2.   Drawing     3.   Fee  $175   4.   3  ex.  How  being  used     •   First:  5  years,  10  year  renewals     Trademarks     •   Protection  of  trademarks:  Kleenex;  no  verb  FedExed   •   Need  to  protect;  can  lose  it  Zipper     •   Misappropriation  of  personality:  The  king(Elvis),  CKX  $100  million;  Ali  $50  million     •   Right  to  publicity:  protection  to  cash  in  on  name     FTC     •   Regulate  advertising  and  publicity:  issues  of  deception  or  misleading     •   Ex.  Campbell's  soup:  heart  healthy     •   Hollywood  movie  critic  quotes   •   Kid  Food  marketing     •   See  p.  317  summary     SEC:  Top  3   •   Full  information  must  be  given  on  anything  that  might  materially  affect  the  company's   stock     •   Timely  disclosure  is  essential     •   Insider  trading  is  illegal     •   Mosaic  Doctrine:  "Overall  misleading  impression"     SEC   •   Fair  disclosure:  REG  FD  (2000):  broadly  disseminate  material  information;  not  just  to   brokers  and  analysts     •   Sarbanes-­‐Oxley  (2002):  CEO,  CFO  personally  certify;  no  claiming  ignorance     •   Examples  p.  319-­‐320   FCC   •   Control  broadcasting,  Increasingly  Internet     •   PR  VNR:  source  issues     •   Indecency:  Wardrobe  malfunction  fines   •   Internet  Policy:  Net  neutrality,  increasing  corporate  control  of  Internet  Service   Companies     FDA     •   Control  prescription  drugs,  OTC  drugs,  cosmetics     •   Info:  fair  balance,  limitations,  additional  full  prescribing  info     EEOC     •   No  discrimination  based  on  religion,  ethnic  background,  gender  or  even  english  skills     Corporate/  Employee  Free  Speech     •   Old  position:  Corporation  vs.  citizen,  not  same  1st  ammendment  protection     •   Nike  v.  Kasky  (2003):  Mix  political  with  commercial,  political  protected     •   Citizens  United  v.  Federal  Elections  Commissions:  corporations  can  spend  freely  for  or   against  a  candidate             Chapter  13:  Internet  and  Social  Media     The  Internet:    Pervasive  in  Lives   •   Digital:    0,1   •   Internet  hardware;  WWW  software   •   ARPA  (Advanced  Research  Projects  Agency)  early  1960   •   APRANET:    1969;  move  to  civiilian  use   •   1979:    like  ARPANET  but  support  discussion  groups   •   1979  Compuserve;  1989  AOL   •   1989  Tim  Berners-­‐Lee:    invent  WWW  software  system;  give  it  away   •   Internet  Access:    US  90%;  35  worldwide       Internet:    Pervasive  in  Lives   •   The  Internet  created  two  spheres  of  influence  that  are  constantly  interacting   o   Mediasphere   o   Blogosphere   •   Caused  the  democratization  of  information  around  the  world       Internet:    Pervasive  in  Lives   •   Characteristics  of  the  new  media  system   o   Old:    centralized,  costly,  gatekeepers,  1-­‐way   o   Widespread  broadband   o   Cheap/free,  easy-­‐to-­‐use  online  publishing  tools   o   New  distribution  channels   o   Mobile  devices   o   New  advertising  paradigms       World  Wide  Web   •   From  a  public  relations  standpoint,  a  website  is  literally  a  distribution  system  in   cyberspace   •   The  Web  has  become  a  major  source  of  information  for  journalists   •   Value  for  marketing  communications   •   Information  about  the  organization  and  reputation   •   A  list  of  product  lines   •   Technical  support   •   How  to  order  products  and  services   •   List  of  various  services  available       WWW  cont   •   Making  a  website  interactive   •   Pull,  not  push  model   •   WSJ:    3  of  24  respond  adequately   •   Managing  a  website   •   Requires  cross-­‐functional  teams   o   Brings  in  expertise  from  several  departments       Managing  the  Website     •   Ideally  lie  with  Corp  Comm   •   PR  People:    70%  believe  control  should  be  in  PR   •   Reality:    IT,  Marketing,  HR   •   Team  approach  needed             Webcasts     •   Any  event,  live  or  archived,  which  involves  the  transmission  of  information  from  a   person  or  organization  to  a  larger  audience  over  the  Internet   •   90%  of  public  companies  use   •   Ex.    Chocolate  Manufacturers  Assn.  (CMA):    Chocolate  samples   •   Ex.    US  Bureau  of  Engraving  and  Printing  (BEP):    $20  bill       Podcasts     •   A  podcast  is  a  digital  media  file,  or  a  series  of  such  files,  that  are  distributed  over  the   Internet  using  syndication  feeds  (RSS)  for  playback  on  portable  media  players  and   personal  computers   •   Primarily  audio,  moving  to  video  podcasts   •   Ex.    Whirlpool  “American  Family”  family  issues,  travel,  health;  Purina  Pet  Advice       WWW  cont.     •   Podcast   •   RSS  feeds   •   3  advantages   o   Cost-­‐effectiveness   o   24/7  access  by  users   o   Portability   •   Common  Purposes   o   News  about  company;  file  in  electronic  newsroom   o   In-­‐depth  interviews   o   Provide  insight  to  consumers  about  products/services   o   Employee  training   •   Webcast   -­‐Save  time,  $,  travel   -­‐Greater  attendance   •   Blogs:  Everyone  is  a  Journalist   o   Cost-­‐effective  PR  tool  to  reach  publics   o   3  main  types   •   Organizational  Blogs:    Company/PR  write   •   Employee  Blogs:    Employee  blog  on  behalf  of  co.:    id  self  in  co.;  personal   views   •   Third-­‐Party  Blogs:    Ex.    Food  bloggers  and  Weber  Shandwick   •   Wikis:  Saving  Trees   o   Invite  all  users  to  edit  any  page  within  the  site  using  a  basic  browser   o   Promote  meaningful  topic  association  among  different  pages   o   Involve  visitors  in  ongoing  process  of  creation  and  collaboration   o   Ex.    GM  Centennial  Celebration       Tsunami  of  Social  Media     •   3  major  changes  for  public  relations   o   Increased  opportunities  for  two-­‐way  dialogue   o   Communication  must  be  more  authentic  and  credible   o   Social  media  as  fully  integrated  PR  tactic       Facebook:    King  in  Social  Media   •   Over  1.5  billion  users   o   70%  are  outside  of  the  U.S.   •   150  million  daily  US  visitors   •   Why  PR  should  make  use  of  Facebook   o   Gaining  consumer  insights   o   Building  brand  awareness   o   Creating  customer  loyalty       Snapshot  of  Facebook:    2013   •   700  million  log  on  in  world  each  day   •   53%  female,  47%  male   •   4.75  billion  pieces  of  content  shared  daily   •   50%  of  18-­‐24  go  on  when  they  wakeup   •   Average  visit:    20  minutes   •   25-­‐34  most  common  age  group  (30%)   •   Over  50%  of  population  in  N.  America  use       Twitter   •   Form  of  texting  messaging  140  characters,  followers   •   Web  based  so  posts  are  indexed  by  Google  and  available    to  anyone  with  Internet  access   •   Getting  more  robust:    Annotations:  Possible  platform  to  share  anything  on  Twitter   •   85%  of  world’s  largest  companies  have  active  accounts   •   Use  examples:    p.  348   •   Basic  guidelines  for  PR  professionals   o   Think  outside  the  box   o   Tell  as  story   o   Avoid  bulletin  board  syndrome   o   Don’t  be  a  “twammer”   o   Update  on  a  daily  basis   o   Use  Twitter  in  a  crisis   o   Think  twice  before  posting       LinkedIn:    Professional  Network   •   200  million  users   o   50%  in  U.S.   •   How  it  works   o   Allows  individuals  to  connect  with  other  professionals  in  their  fields   o   Resource  for  finding  jobs/promotions   •   Employers  often  check  résumés  against  LinkedIn  profiles           Youtube   •   2  most  popular  search  engine  site  after  Google   •   Some  things  to  consider   o   Over  80%  of  companies  use  online  video  in  their  marketing  programs   o   Photos  and  videos  drive  engagement   o   Consumers  are  more  likely  to  buy  after  seeing  video   •   Organizations  develop  dedicated  YouTube  channels   o   Often  employ  humor,  but  don’t  have  to       Sharing  Photos   •   Flickr   o   6  billion  photos   o   50  million  users   o   Uses  for  PR   •   Find  photos  or  videos  to  use  on  organization’s  sites   •   Make  photos  available  for  possible  use  by  other  individuals   •   Instagram   o   100  million  users   o   Owned  by  Facebook   o   Primarily  used  on  mobile  devices  to  share  photos  on  SNSs;  expanding  to  web     o   Uses  for  PR   •   Allow  users  access  to  content  via  mobile  devices   •   Top  brands:    MTV  1.14  million,  Starbucks  1.1  million       Pinterest     •   Highly  integrated  with  other  SNSs   •   Allows  users  to  express  preferences  across  broad  array  of  topics  and  content   •   Tips  for  PR   o   Use  high-­‐quality,  creative  photos   o   Write  short  (20-­‐word)  descriptions   o   Transform  data  into  visual  infographics   o   Integrate  with  Facebook,  Twitter,  blogs,  etc.       Rise  of  Mobile-­‐Enabled  Content     •   Increased  use  of  smartphones   o   45%  of  U.S.  population  has  smartphone   •   Projected  to  be  70%  by  2017   o   1  billion  smartphone  users  worldwide   •   Projected  to  be  2  billion  by  2015   •   Smartphone  usage  patterns  and  considerations   o   2+  hours  daily  communicating  and  using  social  media   o   80%  check  smartphone  with  15  minutes  of  waking  up   o   80%  have  phone  on  or  near  them  during  waking  day   o   “Connectedness”  most  common  sentiment   •   An  ocean  of  apps   o   80%  of  time  on  mobile  devices  using  apps   o   40  billion  yearly  app  downloads   •   Tips  for  creating  app   o   Simple  to  use   o   Meets  consumer  needs   o   Original   o   Promotes  interactivity   o   Well-­‐publicized   •   *10  most  popular   o   E-­‐mail   o   Web  browsing   o   Facebook   o   Maps/directions   o   Games   o   General  search   o   Share/post  photos   o   Read  news,  sports   o   Local  search   o   Watch  TV/video   •   Quick  Response  Codes   o   QR  codes  connect  mobile  users  to  organizational  content   o   Often  used  in  media  relations  content   •   Texting       Texting:    A  Way  of  Life   •   75%  of  mobile  phone  users  text  daily   •   Organizations:    3  Types   o   Broadcast  text:    brief  message,  memo   o   Subscription:    User  sign  up;  like  RSS  on  computer   o   One-­‐Off:    Send  text  to  source  to  get  answer       o   Good  ex.  of  texting:    SD  Office  of  Tourism  Ski  report    


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