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Introduction to Biology Notes: Chapter 7- Membrane Structure and Function

by: Cheyenne prather

Introduction to Biology Notes: Chapter 7- Membrane Structure and Function Biology 1107

Marketplace > East Georgia State College > Biological Sciences > Biology 1107 > Introduction to Biology Notes Chapter 7 Membrane Structure and Function
Cheyenne prather

GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Membrane structure and function, chapter 7 notes that goes over needed information and definitions.
General Biology
Dr. Silva
Class Notes
Introduction to Biology, Biology, notes, membrane structure, membrane function, chapter 7, Cell
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne prather on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1107 at East Georgia State College taught by Dr. Silva in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at East Georgia State College.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Introduction to Biology Notes: Chapter 7­ Membrane Structure and Function  Plasma Membrane: boundary that separates the living cell from its surroundings - It is selective permeable  Selective Permeable: allows some substances to cross it more easily than others  Cellular Membranes: fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins  Amphipathic: contains hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions  Fluid Mosaic Model: states that a membrane is a fluid structure with a “mosaic” of  various proteins embedded in it Factors that Affect Membrane Fluidity - Temperature - Cholesterol Membrane Protein: - Peripheral Proteins: bound to the surface of the membrane - Integral Proteins: penetrate the hydrophobic core  Transmembrane Proteins: integral proteins that span the membrane 6 Major Functions of Membrane Proteins: a. Transport b. Enzymatic activity c. Signal transduction d. Cell­cell recognition e. Intercellular joining  f. Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix Role of Membrane Carbohydrates - Cell recognition  Aquaporins: facilitate the passage of water Transport Across Plasma Membrane - Passive transport o Diffusion o Osmosis o Facilitated diffusion - Active transport o Cotransport - Bulk transport o Exocytosis o Endocytosis  Passive Transport: substances diffuse down their concentration gradient with no energy  investment  Dynamic Equilibrium: many molecules cross the membrane in one direction as in the  other  Osmosis: diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane Water Balance of Cells Without Cell Walls  Tonicity: the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water  Isotonic Solution: solute concentration is the same as that inside the cell; no net water  movement across the plasma membrane  Hypertonic Solution: solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses  water  Hypotonic Solution: solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water  Osmoregulation: the control of solute concentrations and water balance, is a necessary  adaptation for life in such environments Water Balance of Cells Without Cell Walls  Turgid (firm): a plant cell in a hypotonic solution swells until the wall opposes uptake  Flaccid (limp): if a plant cell and its surroundings are isotonic, there is no net movement  of water into the cell  Plasmolysis: in a hypertonic environment, plant cell loses water, the membrane pulls  away from the cell wall causing the plant to shrink  Facilitated Diffusion: transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across  the plasma membrane Transport Proteins: - Channel proteins (ion channels) - Carrier proteins - Aquaporins  Active Transport: moves substances against their concentration gradients, requires energy usually in ATP form  Cotransport: when active transport of a solute indirectly drives transport of other  substances; active transport driven by a concentration gradient  Bulk Transport: requires energy and occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis  Exocytosis: cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane 3 Types of Endocytosis - Phagocytosis - Pinocytosis - Receptor­mediated endocytosis  Phagocytosis: cell engulfs a particle in a vacuole, which then fuses with a lysosome to  digest the particle  Pinocytosis: molecules dissolved in droplets are taken up when extracellular fluid is  “gulped” into tiny vesicles  Receptor­Mediated Endocytosis: binding of ligands to receptors triggers vesicle  formation  Ligand: any molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule


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