Week 7 Notes PSCH 315
Week 7 Notes PSCH 315 PSCH 315
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCH 315 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Karina Reyes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Women and Gender in Psychlogy at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Week 7 Notes Ch. 7 From Infancy to Old Age: Development Across the Lifespan Cont. Athletics o 1972: Title IX prohibited gender discrimination in any federally funded educational program Protections against discrimination Not just athletics Covered all levels of education Today, discrimination isn’t allowed under any circumstances – this includes private schools Identity o Eric Erickson claims that adolescents focus on finding/discovering their identity He worked with males in 1950 Claimed that men are focused on preparing to provide for their families by devoting themselves to their careers in adulthood Said females were in a state of identity suspension until they got married, as their identity was based on wifehood/motherhood (false!) Androcentric Identity development supposedly postponed until marriage o Feminists believe that females develop identity through interpersonal relationships while boys focus on their independence o There’s actually a lot of variation in how women define their own identities Jeffrey Arnett and Emerging Adulthood o This comes before young adulthood during the time between/after college o Emerging adulthood influenced by 4 revolutions/movements: Technology Revolution: The transition from a manufacturing economy to a knowledge economy Lots of people worked manually and in factories in the 1960s, but with technological advancements we can use tech to increase manufacturing but use less people Lots of people put out of manual jobs because computers can now do them Now you have to use your knowledge to complete jobs The best new jobs require education beyond high school Sexual Revolution The introduction of birth control and contraception The link between sexuality and marriage was broken for the first time (marriage age increases while sexual age decreases) It changes what the late teens and 20s are like Women’s Movement In the 1960s, women were focused on finding husbands because job opportunities were limited It changed how young women think about and plan their lives – they’re now more focused on their careers Today, 52% of undergrads are female Youth Movement Started in the 1960s70s Young people are now less in a hurry to join adulthood o These 4 major changes resulted in life changes in modern emerging adulthood It used to be that people set up a stable structure of adult life by age 20 Now people have the mindset of “30 is the new 20” o Lots of older generations are unhappy about this change – they think something is wrong with emerging adults o It is not true that something is wrong with them o It takes longer to prepare for a knowledge economy than a manufacturing economy – it is a much more complex economy o The women’s movement opened up a wide range of opportunities for women, and both genders must work on developing skills for the workplace o People are more likely to make better choices on spouses and be better parents at a later age o The modern emerging adulthood gives young people unprecedented/unparalleled periods of freedom that is rare and brief – no one depends on you Adulthood o Heterosexual Marriage 92% of women marry heterosexually The average marriage age now is 25 as opposed to 20.3 in 1950 Cohabitation has only become popular more recently 1972: Jesse Bernard’s study that marriage benefits men and hurts women – but is this really true in modern day? On average, marriage truly benefits both partners Marriage quality is more influential than whether or not you’re married o Pregnancy and Childbirth st 1960s: Women had 1 child at 21 on average, but now at 24 3 trimesters Pregnant women really aren’t that emotional Pregnancy urges women to focus on family and its harmony Pregnancy and childbirth medicalized in the US and Western countries Women are often treated like clueless children th Mid20 century: women had little control over the birth, but that has changed o Motherhood Greater psychological distress Motherhood Mandate: Societal belief that women’s purpose/goal should be to be mothers 90% of married US women have at least one child Psychologists traditionally blamed moms for children’s problems Intensive Mothering: Societal pressure to be an exceptional mom Mother Wars: Society pits stayathome moms against working moms Most women are satisfied by motherhood Some women are voluntarily childless/childfree o Divorce 50% divorce rate, but remarriage rate is at 7075% for women Ethnic variations in these rates Mixed results for which gender suffers more psychologically from divorce Postdivorce = women have greater financial stress and men have less o Single Women 21% of US women are single and never married (increase from 1960) Greater freedom, selfsufficiency, and competence 25% regret not having kids Society favors couples There is possibility for loneliness Middle Age o Empty Nest Syndrome: Depression when kids leave home Not really true – women are happy and successful The women’s movement opened more jobs and opportunities for them o Some argue that this is the prime of their life o Mothers and Daughters Relationship popularly seen as critical (especially in psychoanalytic theory and social learning theory) They generally contribute positively to each other’s psychological well being overall Old Age o Double Standard of Aging: Society believes men’s status increases with age women’s decreases In media, older men are often coupled with much younger women (example of James Bond) o Physical Health Women live longer but have more chronic illnesses The femaledeficit explanation is that women are just more neurotic and whiny Another explanation is that men don’t report their illnesses as much There are larger gender ratios over time – women are more likely to be widowed o Grandmotherhood Study showed the following traits of grandmotherhood: Centrality: Being a grandmother is a central part of her identity Valued Elder: She passes on traditions and wisdom Immortality through clan: She lives on through descendants Reinvolvement with personal past: Relive earlier life Indulgence: She spoils grandkids Grandmother role varies ethnically Some raise their grandkids – rewarding but stressful o Retirement Lots of androcentric research Women more likely to retire because spouse does or spouse gets sick Professional women and selfemployed women will retire later Women dissatisfied with Social Security checks (less money than men) Social Security based on income – wage gap Ch. 10 Biological Influences on Women’s Behavior Chapter about biological gender differences – not about gender identity o Do our biological differences contribute to psychological differences? Epigenetics: Field looking at how genes express themselves o Which of our parents’ genes express themselves (show up) in us and when? o Not everything in our inherited DNA will show up in us Basic Physiological Processes o Males and females differ in a few basic physiological processes Metabolism After puberty, boys get more muscle mass which uses up energy (fat) Muscle mass metabolizes faster than fat, and they end up with less body fat than females Drug Absorption Males have 2 times the level of the protein that’s involved in transporting drugs out of cells So drugs have quicker effects on males Do these affect behavior? Not really Only exception is that women are more sensitive to pain Other Biological Factors: Hormones – especially sex hormones o Very powerful chemicals o Produced by endocrine glands Endocrine glands: Gonads (ovaries and testes), pituitary glands, and thyroids They secrete hormones into bloodstream o Androgens produced by testes and estrogen/progesterone by ovaries o Both sexes have androgens and estrogen/progesterone, but males have more androgens and women have more estrogen/progesterone o Hormones can affect the body before birth (prenatal) Hormone changes in pregnant mom can affect fetus o Hormones affect the body during/after puberty (adulthood) *Know the 2 times hormones affect the body for exam* Organizing Effects: Cause permanent effects on some system of body prenatally Activating Effects: When hormones affect body during puberty/adulthood – turn on certain behaviors and turn off others Prenatal Sex Hormone Effects (Organizing Effects) o Prenatal sex hormones affect 2 behaviors: sex behavior and aggressive behavior o Sex Behavior: Guinea pig research Pregnant guinea pigs were given high doses of testosterone Girl babies couldn’t perform correct sexual behavior (couldn’t arch their bodies) – couldn’t reproduce Girls had masculinized genitals Hormones changed the reproductive system Girls exposed to high levels of prenatal testosterone could be born with double genitals Boy babies were chemically castrated Boys demonstrated female sexual behavior (couldn’t mount) so they couldn’t reproduce Genitals organized in female direction o Aggressive Behavior: Early testosterone exposure led to increased fighting behavior later in life o We can only do animal experiments, but we can look at accidental human cases Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A rare genetic condition that causes fetal adrenal glands to produce abnormally large amounts of testosterone More masculinized reproductive system o Prenatal effects last through postnatal Hormone Effects in Adulthood o Sex hormones in women fluctuate over the menstrual cycle They have to fluctuate in order to complete the cycle Causes fluctuations in mood and other psychological characteristics o Women have a lot less testosterone than males, and vice versa with estrogen o Testosterone and Sex Drive Castrated men on average have decreased sexual drives (deactivating effect) Testosterone has an activating effect in maintaining sexual desire in men It’s considered an activating effect and not an organizing effect because sexual behavior is not happening prenatally When you remove androgens and ovaries from women, they have decreased sexual desire (deactivating effect) We can look at people who go through sex reassignment o Behavior and experience can influence hormone production/secretion The Brain o Some research shows that men’s brains are larger in volume and weight – people interpret this as men are smarter o Most scientists agree that it’s larger because men’s bodies are larger o Females criticize that some researchers didn’t directly measure brain size o Overall, the evidence is inconclusive
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