Confuciamism and Daoism
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danae Sorensen on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDWLD101-01 at a university taught by Brother Yost in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Confucianism - Junzi: - a gentleman-sage - born in 551 BCE - one worthy or receiving the right to rule - end of Zhou Dynasty and beginning of Warring States - Duke Zhou showed willingness to serve and sacrificed Period his own ambition for the good of the people - taught that the solution to social breakdown was a - “a gentleman makes demands on himself, an inferior return to the golden age - saw himself as a “restorer of the past ideals that had man makes demands on others” - Failed to be a government official made the Zhou state so great in the first place - Private teacher and would only accept students that - philosophy was based upon the need for human virtue showed potential and morality - ren: - His teachings eventually became the foundations of Chinese political ideology and culture from the Han - all members of society must cultivate dynasty (200 BCE) to present day - humaneness or reciprocity - Mencius and Xunzi developed thoughts based off of - feeling of kindness and empathy Confucius - possessed by everyone but must be consistently - Confucianism is the most important and influential cultivated element of Chinese civilization - li: - ritual action Daoism - not just special ritual sacrifices - any form of ritual action and interaction that was - Origins are lost designed to create a harmonious society - Two primary figures: Laozi and Zhuangzi - Lao-Zhuang Daoism: earliest Daoist thought - taught that ritual action develops a person’s - Aozi: author of Dao De Jing- text of short aphorisms empathetic humaneness and strengthened human and sayings relationships - Started as a group of different thinker, authors, and - five primary relationships texts who all had similar ideas - ruler: subject - Zhuangzi - husband: wife - 4 century - father: son - after Confucius - elder brother: younger brother - minor official who declined the offer to become prime - friend: friend minister to retain his freedom - if each of these relationships are done right, there would be a peaceful and harmonious society - stories, jokes, and anecdotes involving everyday people and events - rectification of names: the performance of li and - Zhuangzi taught of a petty knowledge and a greater cultivation of ren rested on each individual knowledge - when the ruler is righteous, the people are righteous. - Petty knowledge: When the ruler is evil, the people are evil. - understanding that is limited and focuses on only particular languages and events - tunnel vision where a person is unable or unwilling to ourselves with wearisome labor, but don’t know what it look at the world from a different point of view all adds up to. Isn’t this lamentable?” - get caught up in the details of the moment - Fasting of the mind: - incapable of breaking the chains of habit or tradition - how can a person productively do anything? - Zhuangzi is critical of those that get in petty - before any action can be taken, we must achieve arguments unity with Dao - Great knowledge: - accomplished through the fasting of the mind - free flowing and broad thoughts - meditative practice when you cease from thought - moves beyond language and into actual life - once emptied of thought, the mind becomes open experiences - all dualities are based on perspective and reality of - sees the world as it is and not what they want it to DAO be. - relativism: an acknowledgement that such things as - can see limits in traditional tradition- Confucianism ‘this’ and ‘that’ or ‘good’ and ‘evil’ are dependent - forces the reader to see things in a different upon individual context and the needs of the moment. perspective - Transformation of things: - The goal of seeking great knowledge is union with dao - as union with Dao is achieved, personal ambitions - Dao: the way or path and desires fall away - the power that unites and controls all existence - Dao is in a state of constant change and motion - the flow of the universe - contradiction to teachings of Confucius, which argues - while it transcends the ordinary world, it can also be for strict observance to the unchanging laws of ritual found in each individual action - Symbolized by the transition of the seasons in the - unwillingness to transform and change as the natural world situation requires results in the disruption of Dao - 4 characteristics that allow for a union with the Dao - one should accepts change as it comes and move - Usefulness of uselessness - fasting of the mind freely along with such transformation - Perfection of Skill: - transformation of things - union with Dao results in perfection of skill - perfection of skill - story of Cook Ding: master chef who is praised by the - Usefulness of uselessness: - when we limit ourselves to the man made laws and kind for his skill in cutting up an ox - union with the Dao provides the capacity for the regulations then we limit our capacity as human perfection of skill beings - those rules are in the category of petty knowledge - Dao guides us so the “spirit moves as it pleases” - Dao De Jiing discusses Wu Wei and limited perspective - Wu Wei: non-action- - “In our strife and friction with other things, we gallop - Zhuangzis concern is with the individual and his forward on our course unable to stop. Is this not sad? relationship with the Dao We toil our life without seeing any results. We deplete - neither school, Daoist or Confucian philosophers, provided a successful plan for the states problems
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