Chapter 11: Exercise
Chapter 11: Exercise HEA 102-060
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia Szlasa on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HEA 102-060 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Bamberger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro to Health and Wellness in Physical Education at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Improving Your Personal Fitness Professor: Bamberger Notes for week: 02/2 to 02/9 *Ch.11: Exercise sec▯on Note taker: Lydia Szlasa Email: email@example.com Physical Ac▯vity for Fitness – Physical Ac▯vity—bodily movement that involves muscle contrac▯ons and an increase in metabolism – Exercise—planned, structured, repe▯▯ve bodily movement – Physical ﬁtness —the ability to perform regular moderate to vigorous levels of physical ac▯vity without excessive fa▯gue Physical Ac▯vity for Performance Programs designed to increase speed, strength, endurance, or speciﬁc muscle strength • Plyometries —improves control and speed in changing direc▯ons • Interval Training—improves power and cardiovascular ﬁtness Beneﬁts of Exercise • Reduce risk of premature death • Lower high blood pressure • Lower risk for heart disease • Reduce risk of developing diabetes • Build/maintain healthy muscles • Reduce Depression and anxiety • Improve psychological well-‐being • Reduce or maintain body weight/body fat • Enhanced recrea▯on and sport performance • More eﬃcient metabolism • Improve immunity • Lower res▯ng heart rate • Increased HDL’s 5 Components of an Exercise Program • 1. Cardiovascular ﬁtness • 2. Muscular strength • 3. Muscular Endurance • 4. Flexibility • 5. Body Composi▯on Deﬁning the Components of Exercise • Cardio-‐respira▯on endurance– ability of body to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity. • Muscular Strength – amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum eﬀort. • Muscular endurance-‐ ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract a muscle over and over again. Deﬁning the Components of Exercise • Flexibility – ability to move the joint through their full range of mo▯on. • Body Composi▯on – the propor▯on of fat and fat free mass in the body. Cardio-‐respiratory Endurance • Aerobic -‐ refers to exe e, oxygen that involves or improves oxygen consump▯on by the body. Aerobic means ”free oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen in the body's metabolic or -‐ genera▯ng process. • What are diﬀerent types of cardiovascular exercise? Running (long/short dura▯on, low/high intensity) F.I.T.T: Frequency, Intensity, Time & Type • How do you determine one’s cardiovascular endurance level? Frequency – 3.5(5)/wk. Types of Cardiovascular Endurance Tes▯ng • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. Basic recommenda▯ons from ACSM and AHA: Do moderately intense cardio 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week Or Do vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week And Do eight to 10 strength-‐training exercises, eight to 12 repe▯▯ons of each exercise twice a week. Designing a Cardiovascular Endurance Program • Acronym – F___ I___ T___ T___ • F requency • I ntensity • T ime • T ype Determine Intensity • Target heart rate • Borg’s ra▯ng of perceived exer▯on (RPE) is another method of determining intensity. • The talk test is the easiest but least scien▯ﬁc method of measuring cardiorespiratory exercise intensity. Determining Target Heart Rate (THR) ***First determine Res▯ng Heart Rate(RHR) What arteries are most commonly used to check your pulse? Caro▯d or radial Karvonen Formula 220 – AGE = 200 (Max HR) 200 – RHR (60) = 140 140 x .6 = A (84) 140 x .9 = B (126) A + RHR =THR (84 + 60 = 144) B + RHR =THR (126 + 60 = 186) Muscular Strength/Endurance Anaerobic training is shorter than aerobic training in dura▯on (less than two minutes), in which oxygen is not a limi▯ng factor in performance, and requires energy from anaerobic sources. It is used by athletes in non-‐ endurance sports to build muscle mass and by body builders to build power. Muscles trained under anaerobic condi▯ons develop diﬀerently, leading to greater performance in short dura▯on, high intensity ac▯vi▯es, which last up to about 2 minutes. Beneﬁts of strength training * Decrease risk of injury * Prevent bone loss * Postpone loss of muscle ▯ssue due to aging and sedentary lifestyle * Boosts metabolism * Enhances muscle deﬁni▯on and improves personal appearance Assessing Muscular Strength and Endurance • How do you test for muscular strength? • bench press • dead li▯ • squats • Almost any exercise, such as the leg extension machine, can be adapted to test for muscular strength. • How do you test for muscular endurance? • Sit-‐ups • Pushups • pull-‐ups Principles of Strength Development Overload – founda▯on of strength training. Requiring muscles to do more than they are use to. • Speciﬁcity-‐of-‐training– only muscle or group of muscles you exercise responds to demands of exercise • Varia▯on– fundamental principle in strength training. • Reversibility– “use it or lose it”. Strength Training Elements Exercise Selec▯on– chose both single joint and mul▯ple joint exercises. Exercise order– large before small muscles, mul▯ple joint before single joint. Sets & repe▯▯ons-‐ depends on goals of program. Rest Periods– 2-‐3 minutes for large muscles/mul▯-‐joint 1-‐2 minutes for small muscle/single joint Exercise Frequently – 8-‐10 exercises, 2-‐3 ▯mes per week. Programs • exercise hi▯ng major muscle groups • Strength, strength and endurance ▯mes or endurance/ toning • Strength Program – high wt – low reps 1-‐6/2-‐6 sets • Strength/endurance – moderate wt – 8-‐12 reps/ 2-‐3 sets • Endurance – low wt – 15-‐25 reps/ 2-‐3 sets • 2-‐4 sets of each exercise – rest enough between sets to allow muscles to recover, usually 2-‐3 mins. Intensity • Based on1 RM • For muscular strength, use a resistance of more than 60 percent of your 1 RM performing sets with 8–12 repe▯▯ons per set. • For muscular endurance, use less than 50 percent of your 1 RM, 1–2 sets of 15-‐25 repe▯▯ons. Core Strength Training • Strengthen the deep-‐back muscles and abdominal that a▯ach to the spine and pelvis • It is recommended to do core strengthening ac▯vi▯es at least three ▯mes per week. Flexibility Types of stretching *sta▯c– slow, gradual stretching of muscle. if done a▯er cardio rou▯ne gradually increasing speed and reach lowly through a range of mo▯on and • Sta▯c Exercises • Sta▯c done during cool down • Hold stretches for 15-‐30 secs. • Do 2-‐3 reps of each stretch • No bouncing – sta▯c stretching Dynamic Stretching • Uses controlled leg movements to improve range of mo▯on, loosens up muscles and increases heart rate, body temperature, and blood ﬂow • Studies show that sta▯c stretching—holding a muscle in an elongated, ﬁxed posi▯on for 30 seconds or more —could hurt performance if done before a workout. • Dynamic stretching is most eﬀec▯ve when it's speciﬁc. • Start slowly, focusing on form; as the exercises get easier, pick up speed. Use small movements for the ﬁrst few reps, and increase the range of mo▯on as you go. Skill-‐Related Components of Physical Fitness • Agility • Balance • Coordina▯on • Power • Speed • Reac▯on ▯me Crea▯ng Your Own Fitness Program • Step 1 -‐ Overcoming Common obstacles to Exercise • Step 2 -‐ Iden▯fy Your ﬁtness goals • Step 3 -‐ Designing Your Program – Choose appropriate and fun ac▯vi▯es. – Try something NEW! – Be speciﬁc . – Fitness goals and ac▯on plan a▯er 30 days. Fitness Program Components Warm up – 5 min. ac▯vity, at a slower pace. Light stretching Cardio-‐respira▯on-‐ per guidelines of ACSM and AHA Resistance training– ACSM guidelines discussed Cool down– 5 minutes long, gradually slowing down. Best ▯me to stretch. Exercising in the Heat – Acclimate – usually 10-‐14 s – Avoid dehydra▯on-‐consume 14-‐22oz of water 2hrs prior to exercise – Consume 6-‐12oz every 15-‐20 minutes with intense exercise – Wear appropriate clothing. – Use common sense. • Three Heat Stress Illnesses – Heat cramps – Heat exhaus▯on – Heat stroke Exercise in the Cold – Hypothermia -‐poten▯ally fatal condi▯on from abnormally low body core temperature • consider-‐ the weather • Wear layers • Hydrate • Exercise with a friend Fitness-‐Related Injuries • Trauma▯c – Broken bones – Torn ligaments – Contusions • Common Overuse Injuries – Runner’s knee – Shin splints – plantar fascii▯s Managing Injuries • R-‐est.– Stop using injured area • I-‐ce– Apply ice to injury. Apply up to 20mins • C-‐ompression – ace bandage area • E-‐leva▯on– Raise injured area above heart to decrease blood supply to area
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