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Week 7

by: Victoria Notetaker
Victoria Notetaker

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Lecture notes for 03-01 only due to Exam 03-03
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Al Dahwi
Class Notes
BIOL 2311
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2311 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Al Dahwi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter 4 Tissue: The Living Fabric 03-01-2016 Announcements:  No longer brings scantrons o If you do not have Exam 1 scantron pick it up from her office  Outline for Exam 2 is still the same  The skin functions will be sent by tomorrow  Honors contracts can be picked up from the honors house o Professor does not have the contract o Honors house determines if you are eligible  Exam 2 will cover: o Chapter 5 Integumentary System (pg. 150-164)  Exceptions (WILL NOT be on the test):  Types and Growth of the hair  Hair thinning and baldness  Homeostatic Imbalances Cartilage Refer to Table 4.1 Comparison of Classes of Connective Tissues (pg. 126)  Special connective tissue o Cartilage:  Avascular: no blood supply  No nerve endings  Surrounded by the perichondrium: membrane  Peri: around  Made up of two layers and internal and external layer o External layer: Fibrous layer of perichondrium  Dense irregular connective tissue  Contains good amount of blood supply o Inner layer: Chondrogenic layer  Made of chondrogenic cells Perichondri  Stem cells: chondroblasts>>chondrocyt es Fibrou s Chondrogeni c Refer to Figure 4.8 (g) Cartilage: Hyaline (pg. 134)  Cellular elements: o Immature resident cells types: chondroblasts  Responsible for the release of the ground substance and fibers o Mature resident cell types: chondrocytes 2  Usually located in small cavities: lacuna  Fibers: Will find one specific fiber type in each cartilage type o Run between cells  Ground substance: will see proteoglycans o Made up of glycosaminoglycan  Chondroitin sulfate o Interstitial fluid: 80% water  Reason why cartilage has resiliency (most cartilage but NOT all)  Bounce back after compression o Hyaline cartilage: MOST ABUNDANT  Makes up embryonic skeleton until roughly 8 weeks (fetal stage- formation of bone tissue)  Collagen fibers: do not appear under microscope (unknown reasons)  Resiliency: returns to shape after compression  Ground substance: chondroitin sulfate and water  Function: very tough and provides protection  Costal cartilages: connect ribs to sternum  Respiratory pathways 3  Epiphyseal Plate: lengthening of the long bones takes place at this location (childhood)  Epiphyseal Line: Adulthood  Joint cavities of long bones  Tip of nose Refer to Figure 4.8 (h) Cartilage: elastic (pg. 134) o Elastic cartilage:  Predominant elastic fiber  Stretch ability: returns to shape after stretching Refer to Figure 4.8 (i) Cartilage: fibrocartilage (pg. 136) o Fibrocartilage:  Intermediate between Dense regular connective tissue and cartilage tissue  Resistant to high pressure  Most stress in lower back  Meniscus: most weight of body on the knees Refer to drawn figure: Growth process occurs in all types of cartilage. 4  Appositional: Process of growth associated with the release of cartilage on the external surface of existing cartilage matrix o Increases the diameter (thickness) of the cartilage section o Due to chondroblasts from chondrogenic layer of perichondrium  Interstitial: process of growth o Lengthens the cartilage o Due to the chondrocytes: dividing in lacuna into daughter cells  Mature resident cell can go revert to immature type to complete mitotic cell division in instances of damage and growth 5


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