Medieval Art History, Week 3
Medieval Art History, Week 3 ART 483, Art History
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Mason on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 483, Art History at Fort Hays State University taught by Erica Bittel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Medieval Art History in Art at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
st Feb. 1 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 2: Early Christian Period Continued… Early Christian Architecture The symbolic nature of Christianity demanded that the Church signify both the house of God and the tomb of Christ o Needed to be able to accommodate the entire Christian community o Architects rejected Roman temples and focused instead on the civil basilica and the tomb for inspiration Roman secular basilicas were large, rectangular structures that served as places for public gathering o At its most basic, a basilica was a simple hall with a trussed timber roof o Could be extended by colonnades and aisles as well as a clerestory o The basilica also had one or more semicircular apses projecting beyond the walls Colonnades – repetition of columns Clerestory – upper part of windows that allow light in Apse – semicircular space for clergy and the alter For Church architecture, Christians adopted the basilica form to suit their own purpose o At the end of the hall, an apse housed the clergy and the alter o The hall served the congregation o The entrance was placed opposite the apse, drawing the eye toward the alter o This longitudinal orientation also provided space for religious processions Churches were located outside of Rome’s city walls, and placed near shrines of Christian martyrs o Often constructed on imperial property o The emperor likely wanted to avoid offending the pagan Romans who still held a great deal of political and economic power Church of Santa Sabina (exterior), 422432, Rome Church of Santa Sabina (detail of nave), 422432, Rome Triforium – covered the space formed by the slopping roofs of the ailes Triumphal Arch – signifies the triumph of Christ, take place symbolically at the alter during the Ukaris, juncture between the apse and the nave wall Baldacchino/Ciborium – canopy over the alter Narthax – enterance Atrium – gathering place Feb. 3 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 2: Early Christian Period Continued… Church of St. John Lateran, ca. 312318, Rome. o Baldacchino o Pope’s throne (seat) o Constantine donated the palace of the Laterany to the Roman Church o Gold leafs on the ceiling. Elaborate interior. o Mother Church of all Catholic Churches in the world o It is not the original building Christian ritual also came to include the saints and martyrs who sacrificed their lives for the Christian faith o Relics – the venerated remains of saints or objects associated with saints o Martyria – shrines dedicated to martyrs Protect the relics Plan of Church of Santa Costanza, ca. 350, Rome. Ambulatory – allows worshipers to walk around the alter but at the same time would protect the relics Mausoleum – Constantina’s tomb (Costanza), Constantine’s daughter Vintaging Putti from the Church of Santa Costanza, ca. 350, mosaic, Rome. Sarcophagus of Constantina from the Church of Santa Costanza, ca. 350, porphyry, Rome. Porphyry – very hard to carve, imported in from Egypt Feb. 5 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 2: Early Christian Period Continued… Crosssection of St. Peter’s Basilica Trophy – shrine commemorating St. Peter’s victory as a martyr (Trophy of Gaius) Model of the Trophy of Gaius over the burial place of St. Peter’s Plan of Old St. Peter’s Basilica, 4th century, Vatican City, Italy Transept – was added to accommodate pilgrims, forms a Tshaped cross Exterior drawing of the crosssection of the Old St. Peter’s Basilica The Roman Empire in the Fifth Century Western Roman Empire o Rome as the spiritual capital of the West o Unified under the Pope o The administrative and commercial capital of the Western Empire moved a number of times over the next century (Rome, Milan, Ravenna) o Threatened by foreign invaders (Goths & Vandels) Eastern Roman Empire o Ruled from Constantinople o Politically peaceful, stable, and prosperous o However, the Eastern Church faced a number of religious heresies and wars The Church had both internal and external conflicts The Crucifixion and the Suicide of Judas, 420430, from Rome or Southern Gaul, ivory o Continuous narrative Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, (view of the façade from the east), 432440, Rome o Within the city of Rome there are 83 churches dedicated to the Virgin Mary Mary appeared to Pope Sixus III on August 5th and told him to build a church on the spot it would snow the following day (Legend: “Our Lady of the Snow”) Infancy of Christ from the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, 432440, mosaic, Rome Rebellion Against Moses from the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, 432440, mosaic, Rome o From the Nave
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