Medieval Art History, Week 6
Medieval Art History, Week 6 ART 483, Art History
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Mason on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 483, Art History at Fort Hays State University taught by Erica Bittel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Medieval Art History in Art at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Feb. 22 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 3: Early Byzantine Period Textbook pages 4574, continued… Istanbul (Not Constantinople) – Tiny Toons – video Exam: Monday, March 7 th Church of San Vitale (from the presbytery apse – image of Emperor Justinian), 548, mosaic, Ravenna, Italy o Halo = his right to rule was given by God o Purple Robe = royalty o Gold Patten = held the bread/body of God for communion Church of San Vitale (from the presbytery apse – image of Empress Theodora), 548, mosaic, Ravenna, Italy o Halo o Purple robe o Gold chalice = hold the blood of Christ o It’s believed that Theodora was and “entertainer” They are eternally able to worship in San Vitale because their images are there NeoPlatonic = The higher up images are the more sacred the person is o Christ at the top center of the apse o Then Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora Video – khanacademy.org – San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy Byzantine Mosaics Byzantine art combined the earthly realism of ancient art with the spiritual goals of Christianity and NeoPlatonism, thus creating the first truly medieval style Two different but equally important modes of perception form the foundation of the Byzantine style: o Naturalistic illusionism o Hieratic abstraction Religious art was viewed as an aid to meditation and had to be rendered in such a way that allowed the worshipper to partake in the spiritual world o The static, timeless quality of the image took precedence over narrative elements o The NeoPlatonic emphasis on light and color offered a transcendental environment of the celebration of the Mass Church of Sant’Apollinaire Nuovo, before 526, Ravenna, Italy o Built by Empress Theodora o Originally built for Christ Arian cycle – above the clerestory windows Holy Woman at the Tomb, from the Church of Sant’Apollinaire Nuovo, before 526, mosaic on upper nave, Ravenna, Italy o Very symmetrical o Only things that give space: rock, tomb, green lines Christ Enthroned, from the Church of Sant’Apollinaire Nuovo, mosaic o Older looking o Longer hair o More humanlike Virgin and Child, from the Church of Sant’Apollinaire Nuovo, mosaic Church of Sant’Apollinaire Nuovo (from the mosaic program on left side of nave), Ravenna, Italy, mosaic o Female martyrs – have halos Church of Sant’Apollinaire Nuovo (from the mosaic program on right side of nave), Ravenna, Italy, mosaic o Male martyrs o Lead by St. Martin Feb. 24 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 3: Early Byzantine Period Textbook pages 4574, continued… The Transfiguration from the Church of Sant’Apollinaire in Classe, 549, apse mosaic, Ravenna, Italy th o May 9 , 549 o Marble quarried specifically for this church o Top: Symbolic transformation from earthly to a heavenly divine Showing himself to Peter, James, and John (sheep) Moses and Elijah (saints) Flank the cross o Salvatore Mundi – Savior of the World o Below cross – St. Apollinaris as a standin for earthly Christ Floor mosaic from Beth Alpha Synagogue, ca. 518, Galilee, Israel o 92 feet long, 46 feet wide o Origin and fulfillment of God’s people (Detail of sacrifice of Isaac) (Detail of the zodiac and Helios) o Four women = four seasons o Zodiac signs o Helios – God of the Sun – riding his Chariot through the moon and stars (Detail of the Ark) St. Michael, early 6 century, ivory diptych, right panel o Classically inspired o Longest lasting Byzantine ivory work of art o Composite capital o Archangel St. Michael o Wreaths – victory over death Given to Olympic competitors Sumptuary Arts – especially luxurious and extravagance What do we see that is classically and Greek inspired? o Attention to drapery and body underneath o Wreath above o Youthful face o Curly hair o Architecture Byzantine? o Forward facing o Feet – looks like he’s floating o No sense of rational space o Excess of decoration at the top o Eyes Khanacademy.com/Ivory panel with Archangel th Feb. 26 , 2016 Medieval Art – Chapter 3: Early Byzantine Period Textbook pages 4574, continued… Discorids receiving a mandrake root, from Materia Medica Dioscorides, 6 th st century copy of the 1 – century original th st Blackberry from Materia Medica Dioscorides, 6 – century copy of the 1 – century original o 1,000 pages o Given to Princess Anicia Julianna o It was a medicinal plant reference Portrait of the author at Work with an assistant and Inspiration, from Materia Medica Dioscorides, 6 century copy of the 1 – century original o Right – Dioscorides looking over book o Middle – Muse, inspiration holding the mandrake root o Left – Assistant/artist working As the manuscript has been passed along to many it has been translated to different languages It is now located in the Vienna Library today Rebecca at the Well, from the Vienna Genesis, 6 century, purple vellum o Vellum – usually skin from a calf, very thin o One of the longest lasting illustrated manuscripts that have lasted today o From the book of Genesis o The Well is a seminude woman, Rebecca making her journey to the well The Ascension from the Rabbula Gospels, ca. 586, vellum o Likely inspired by an apse mosaic o Mary with halo in the bottom panel o Not all of these manuscripts were made for royalty o Ascensio, last judgment, apocalypse all in one Crucifixion and Holy Women at the Tomb from the Rabbula Gospels, ca. 586, vellum o Passion cycle Bundle of narrative and detail helped tell Christ’s Salvation Icons and Iconoclasm Icon – Greek for “image” or “painting” and during the Medieval period, this meant a religious image on a wooden pane used for prayer and devotion Iconoclasm – refers to the destruction of images or hostility toward visual representations in general Iconoclastic Controversy – images were removed from Churches and subsequently destroyed; a civil war putting the empire against the Orthodox Church
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