Biol 3000 Graze Notes from 2/24/16, 2/26/16, and 2/29/16
Biol 3000 Graze Notes from 2/24/16, 2/26/16, and 2/29/16 BIOL3000
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This 91 page Class Notes was uploaded by Landon Sexton on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL3000 at Auburn University taught by Rita Graze in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Lec. 17: Inversions & Translocations 1. Rearrangements 2. Inversions a. Paracentric b. Pericentric 3. Translocations a. Reciprocal b. Robertsonian 1 Rearrangements Major Types of Structural Changes: A. Deletions B. Duplications C. Rearrangements --- Inversions a. Paracentric b. Pericentric --- Translocations 2 Inversions DNA Breaks Can Cause Inversions AB*CDEFG 2a Paracentric Inversion Paracentric inversion: Paracentric Inversions & Meiosis Paracentric Inversions & Meiosis Paracentric Inversions & Meiosis Acentric Chromatid is Lost Recombinant gametes Heterozygosity for inversions can result in semi-sterility. 2b Chromosome 4 Translocation H C H C H C H C H - Human Chromosome C - Chimpanzee Chromosome Pericentric inversion: Pericentric Inversion & Meiosis Pericentric Inversions & Meiosis Recombinant gametes NO A or B NO F or G An inversion causes Hemophilia Gene encoding Factor VIII 1. Bend in DNA 2. 3. Similar DNA regions Centromere to the right Telomere to the left 3 Translocations Major Types: A. Deletions B. Duplications C. Rearrangements --- Inversions --- Translocations a. Reciprocal b. Robertsonian 3a Reciprocal Translocation p-arm q-arm Causes of Reciprocal Translocation Nonhomologous recombination: Nonhomologous Exchange of Crossover event chromosome pieces Breaks on nonhomologous chromosomes and incorrect repair: 3b Robertsonian Translocation Two long arms Two short arms Chromosome 2 Translocation Chimpanzee, Gorilla and Orangutans 2q21.1–2q21.2 Vestigial Centromere Events in the human lineage: 1) 2) Lect. 17: Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lec. 18: DNA & Inheritance DNA Scale Lec. 18: DNA & Inheritance 1. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance 2. The genetic material: a. The Transforming Principle b. It is DNA! c. No, Really it’s DNA! 3. DNA Basic Structure (Part 1) 1 Nondisjunction as Proof of the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance (1916) X X w by X Y + RED EYES WHITE EYES Normal Nondisjunction Gametes Gametes NONDISJUNCTION w w w X X X O CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITY X + LETHAL Y Nondisjunction as Proof of the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance (1916) X X Yw by X Y RED EYES WHITE EYES “Normal” Nondisjunction Gametes Gametes NONDISJUNCTION w w w w X X Y X X Y CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITY X + LETHAL Y 2a Griffith’s Experiment (1928) Type III-S (smooth w/ capsule) Type R (rough, no capsule) Inject and wait Inject and wait several days DEAD LIVING several days MOUSE MOUSE Isolate bacteria Isolate bacteria from mouse from mouse Griffith’s Experiment (1928) Type III-S, killed by heat Type III-S, killed by heat AND Live Type R Inject and wait Inject and wait LIVING several days DEAD several days MOUSE MOUSE Isolate bacteria Isolate bacteria from mouse from mouse Griffiths Experiment (1928) Type III-S, killed by heat Conclusion: AND Live Type R Inject and wait DEAD several days MOUSE Isolate bacteria from mouse 2b Avery, MacLeod and McCarty (1944) What substance is being transferred? Isolate the ‘transforming principle’ If the number of copies varies in 1. the population this is called a 2. CNV Avery, MacLeod and McCarty (1944) DNASE RNASE PROTEASE Avery, MacLeod and McCarty (1944) Treat the IIIS Filtrate RNASE PROTEASE DNASE Avery, MacLeod and McCarty (1944) Conclusion: Treat the IIIS Filtrate Positive Control RNASE PROTEASE DNASE Response from scientific community: TRANSFORMATION TRANSFORMATIONTRANSFORMATION TRANSFORMATION 2c Hershey and Chase (1952) T2 virus- A bacteriophage thatinfects E. coli 1. T2 virus is half protein (capsule) and half DNA (viral genome) Hershey and Chase (1952) Parent Protein Capsule 2. A phage reproduces DNA Progeny Hershey and Chase (1952) 3. Viruses inherit the characteristics of the parent H1N1 New Jersey H1N1 Denmark Viral plaques, form as the phage infects and kills a ‘lawn’ of bacteria. Hershey and Chase (1952) Phages are protein and DNA, is it the DNA or the protein that is transmitted to the progeny? 1. 2. 3. Hershey and Chase (1952) 3S medium 32P medium Infected with phage Infected with phage With labeled protein With labeled DNA Infected with phage Infected with phage With labeled protein With labeled DNA Centrifuge: Separate protein capsule from bacterial cells Hershey and Chase (1952) Treat the IIIS Filtrate Conclusion: Positive Control Response from scientific community: RNASE PROTEASE DNASE TRANSFORMATIONTRANSFORMATION TRANSFORMATION TRANSFORMATION Lect. 18: Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. Areas of Genetics Transmission Genetics- Mode of inheritance, as well as segregation, assortment and mapping. Cytogenetics- Chromosomal biology, structure, function, variability & disease. Molecular Genetics- Gene structure and function, including replication and regulation. Population Genetics- Genetic makeup of entire populations.e and time (i.e., evolution) Genomics- Content, organization, structure and function of entire genomes. Lec. 19: DNA Structure 1. Nucleotide structure 2. DNA strand structure (primary structure) 3. DNA helix structure (secondary structure) 4. Forms of DNA 1 DNA: 3 basic components DeoxyriboNucleic Acid: 1. Sugar - Deoxyribose 2. Nitrogen Base - pyrimidine/purine (1 of 4) 3. Phosphoric Acid- Phosphate A nucleotide is the basic unit of a DNA polymer: C O C C C C OH H If the number of copies varies in the population this is called a CNV 1. Sugar Backbone 1. Sugar component 2 2. Nitrogenous Base I U P E I M R P 3. Phosphate Groups - + DNA Nucleotides Phosphate H O 2 H2O Thymine Deoxyribose Nucleotide DNA Nucleotides Multiple Phosphate Groups Different Bonds 2 DNA strand structure Polymer: Polarity: DNA strand polarity 5’ end 3 The Helical Structure of DNA (1953) James Watson and Francis Crick Francis Crick James Watson A Structure For Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid Watson and Crick Critical Questions: A. How do the chemical components come together to constitute a molecular form? B. How does the structure relate to the biological properties of DNA? Clues From Inheritance Clues about the structure of DNA from knowledge of transmission genetics: ● Must be able to replicate ● Must be able to contain information ● Must be variable (alleles) ● Must be relatively stable Clues From Base Composition • Erwin Chargaff (1944-1952) • Tested the Tetranucleotide Hypothesis: the 4 bases are present in equal amounts 1 A:1 G:1 T:1 C? • Described the fundamental ratios of nitrogenous bases in DNA If the number of copies varies in the population this is called a CNV Chargaff’s rules (for base composition): 1. In dsDNA, the number of A = number of T number of G = number of C 2. In dsDNA, sum of purines (A+G) = sum of pyrimidines (T+C) 3. % of (G+C) = % of (A+T) This information (+ more) was used by Watson and Crick to model the structure of DNA Clues From Protein Structure Clues From X-ray Diffraction DNA Using the molecular information obtained by Levene / Chargaff and the physical data of Franklin - Previous + Physical = Model of DNA Discoveries “blueprint” A B X-ray Diffraction of dsDNA molecule } 0.34 nm 2 nm “Blueprint” Rosalind Franklin (1953) Complementary Base Pairing Watson Parallel Model Does Not Fit Rules and “Blueprint” o i y - ’ Antiparallel Model Fits Rules and “Blueprint” The Helical Structure of DNA The Shape of DNA 4 Forms of DNA - 1. B Form- 2. A Form- 3. Z form- B-form Right-handed Going clockwise Goes down Lect. 17: Summary 1. Two polynucleotide chainscoiled around a central axis - right handed, double stranded and helical (B-form) 2. Strands are antiparallel and complementary 3. Bases are flat structures, perpendicular to thecentral axis and stacked upon one another (0.34 nm apart) 4. Each helical turn = 3.4 nm = ~10 base pairs 5. Bases on opposite chains are bonded to one another with H bonds - A T ; C G . Deoxyribose linked with phosphodiester bondsform the backbone. 6. Major and minor grooves 7. Helix isnm in diameter
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