Biological Basis of Psychology
Biological Basis of Psychology
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This 10 page Reader was uploaded by Quinnolyn Benson-Yates on Thursday June 5, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.
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Date Created: 06/05/14
Thursday May 29 2014 Biopsychology Week9 amp1O Changes to the course This lecture is optional material won t be on exam see gauchospace lecture slides for change in schedule and readings split brain patient lectures and emotions and memory are in lecture 14 readings that go along with lecture 14 are optional won t be on final exam Significant changes of the grading policy See gauchospace for the curve the final will be graded on If your grade in the final exam is higher than midterm then your course grade will be based on midterm 45 and final 55 If your final exam grade is lower than your midterm then your course grade will be based on your midterm score only Next Thursday will include info on final exam bring a personal computing device to complete the course evaluation there would also be an email about it Lecture 14 Free Will Morality and the Brain The Mind and Brain of a Psychopath Emotional Associations Amygdala and Regulation Orbitofrontal Cortex Free Will and the SplitBrain Patient The Neural Basis of Moral Reasoning Neuroethics and Personal Responsibility The Mind and Brain of a Psychopath An fMRl scan of a psychopath shows when psychopaths do a simple task they don t activate certain areas of their brain like a normal person ie regions of limbic system amygdala orbitofrontal cortex Their brain is wired differently leading to psychopathic tendencies Thursday May 29 2014 can we assign personal responsibility to an individual with abnormal brain functioning 25 male participants in prison for violent crimes in a study were psychopathic measuring psychopathy interviewing 3 hours long person gets scored on how they respond to the questions typical psycopathic characteristics impulsive irresponsible extroverted poor behavioral control sexual promiscuity lack of realistic longterm goals parasitic lifestyle early behavioral problems pathological liars grandiose sense of self worth lack of remorse or guilt callousness allure to accept responsibility for own actions Abnormalities in brains of psychopaths underdeveloped amygdala cortex around hippocampus posterior cingulate insula temporal pole orbitofrontal cortex learning limbic system structures etc Emotional Associations and Regulation the Papez circuit proposed in 1937 originally included the mammillary bodies the anterior thalamus the cingulate cortex the hippocampus and the fornix Later MacLean 1949 included the amygdala and other regions and it was called the limbic system Now we know that the key structures of the limbic system are the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex Fear conditioning and the Amygdala studies in rats showed connection bt amygdala and fear conditioning study rat hear the sound which produces no physiological response when the sound is paired with electric shock the rat s blood pressure increases and the rat stops moving heart is racing After repeated pairings the sound alone now produces the same physiological response heart racing increase blood pressure study after removing the amygdala the rat learns the conditioned fear response then amygdala is removed and prevented from responding Thursday May 29 2014 now wo the amygdala the rat hears the sound and it NO longer produces a fearful physiological response Fear conditioning and the amygdala in Humans Galvanic skin responses are recorded from humans as they learn that a blue square on a computer screen is associated with an electric shock normal subject show a fearful response to both the unconditioned electric shock and the conditioned blue square amygdala patients show a fearful response to the unconditioned electric shock but not to the blue square the patient knows that the blue square means they re going to be shocked but their body doesn t react fearfully Orbitofrontal damage can lead to a flattening of affect and inability to regulate emotional responses Free Will and the SplitBrain corpus callosum severed for severe epilepsy relieves about 85 of patients with severe epilepsy researchers then go in and test split brain patients in understanding differences between two hemispheres of the brain visual pathways remain intact only cortical to cortical pathways between the two hemispheres are severed testing a splitbrain patient briefly flash visual stimuli to one visual field or the other with the eyes fixated on the center of the screen only the appropriate hemisphere will see it right visual field projects to the left hemisphere and LVF projects to the right hemisphere right hand responds for the left hemisphere for the left hemisphere and left hand responds for the right hemisphere verbal responses are from the left hemisphere only Thursday May 29 2014 left hemisphere is specialized for language Left hemisphere complete language processing ie grammar lexicon snytax etc right hemisphere some patients have a partial lexicon iee some that can comprehend some words Left hemisphere is specialized for interpretation of events formulate hypothesis trying to understand meanings A patient is presented with a chicken claw in their right visual field and a house covered in snow in their left visual field They are asked to point to other pictures associated with the two pictures When patient is asked about why they pointed to a shovel and a chicken they will respond out of their left hemisphere that sees the chicken only that they are pointing to a shovel because of cleaning out chicken poop they will associate it with the chicken claw won t vocalize that they saw a house with snow in the yard that needed a shovel in their left visual field and right hemisphere Left hemisphere comes up with explanations after the fact after we perform actions we justify them Free Will and the Split Brain what if most of our actions are carried out before we are conscious aware of them seems that we appear to have more free will than we actually do Neuroethics and personal responsibility how do we hold people responsible for actions that are a result of brain abnormalities the law holds us responsible for criminal action sunless citing under duress or don t have normal rational thinking But what is the degree to which we can hold them accountable to people who do know right from wrong but still have abnormal brain functioning despite brain dysfunctions and bad upbringings we have to take care of each other and we have to hold each other accountable for our actions Tuesday June 3 2014 Lecture 15 Memory and Amnesia Amnesia and the Movies movies often get it wrong except for Memento good movie Tuesday June 3 2014 Learning memory at the Neuronal Level Hebbian learning an increase in synaptic efficiency arises from the presynaptic neurons repeated and persistent stimulation of the postsynaptic neuron cells that fire together wire together if a weak and a strong input act on a cell at the same time the weak synapse becomes stronger strengthens connection between connected cells Long term potentiation LTP a stable and enduring increase in the magnitude of responses of neurons after they have been stimulated with electrical stimuli of moderately high frequency a rapid train of electrical impulses 1 if the axons in a circuit are stimulate 1second the postsynaptic response is stable and unchanged 2 After a brief tetanus burst of stimulation triggering hundreds or thousands of action potentials in 12 seconds the size of the EPSPs is markedly higher and remains high throughout the recording period Locations of synapses in the rat hippocampus that have demonstrated LTP circuit of synapses in hippocampus important for learningmemory synapse in dentate gyrus in CA3 regions in CA1 regions LTP is a cooccurrence of neural events at any presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron Patient HM 29 yr old high school graduate with severe epilepsy surgery reduced his seizures but produced a severe memory impairment they removed the hippocampi did not affect his personality perceptual abilities or general intelligence IQ went up actually but memory impairment was selective for new declarative memories anterograde with partial retrograde 3 years prior to surgery Helped with epilepsy Couldn t form any new memories The hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe in both hemisphere were surgically removed Completely forget what had happened Recently died at age 82 Had a good life Tuesday June 3 2014 Anterograde amnesia cannot form new episodic memories retrograde amnesia cannot remember past memories episodic events apparently need time to consolidate and to become stable and enduring memories that are likely stored in other regions of the brain Longterm memory vs short term memory something that happened 5 minutes ago is not short term memory something that is out of your mind is long term memory Once your attention is distracted it turns into longterm memory Not about time about attention Tower of Hanoi task shows that patient HM while he didn t remember doing the task before he was able to complete the task in the shortest amount of time His procedural memory for how to do things he learns is intact Shows that we have multiple memory systems that have different functions Theory of Multiple Memory Systems Memory is not a single brain system but multiple systems with different psychological functions and different underlying brain structures Includes episodic memory function personal events Operates explicitly Region hippocampus MTL medial temporal lobe ie memories of time and place in your memories why you keep pictures mementos etc procedural memory function how to Operate implicitly Region basal ganglia Once you know how to do it no longer need to think about it ie riding a bike shortterm working memory function hold info online Operates explicitly Region prefrontal cortex ie memorizing telephone numbers A Memory System is NOT process ie encoding storage retrieval task ie recognition free recall etc Tuesday June 3 2014 form or subsystems of memory ie memory for numbers faces smells etc A Memory System does include all 3 processes and a variety of forms or subsystems is functionally independent from other systems has a distinct underlying brain region Episodic memory are explicit memories for particular events or experience in one s life what did you do last Saturday night semantic memory are explicit or implicit memories concerning facts and general knowledge about the world who was our first president extensive brain damage beyond the medial temporal lobe and into medial regions of the prefrontal cortex can lead to anterograde and retrograde amnesia trouble imagining future as well as remembering what happened before Thursday June 5 2014 Last Lecture 16 Cortex and Language Specialized Cortical Regions for Language Processing A Language Acquisition Device we are born with the capacity to learn language developmental studies suggest that learning theory is not enough to explain the rapid acquisition of language in young children including the rapid growth in vocabulary the innate discrimination of speech sounds that it develops in a predictable fashion and includes a universal syntax and that it develops regardless of the environment and with minimal interaction and stimulation ie kids in Japan are born with ability to distinguish bt L sound and R sound but lose that ability as they get older since Japanese language don t use those sounds readingwriting is a much more effortful process takes a lot of effort to do it although primates can be taught to use arbitrary symbols they can not be taught to use language as humans use it Thursday June 5 2014 although language is innate and requires minimal stimulation in order to develop there is a critical period during the first few years in life in which no stimulation will prevent the child from ever learning language ie the wild children raise by wolves Brain Modularity the concept that the cerebral cortex is organized into specialized modules that carry out very specific cognitive functions Broca s Aphasia Patient Tan The WernickGeschwind Model of Language Broca s area responsible for expressive language or language production say tan over and over Wenicke s area responsible for receptive language or language comprehension Angular gyrus responsible comprehending leanguagerelated visual input necessary for reading NOT for language if damaged doesn t interfere with auditory language hearing or speaking damage does cause problems in reading and writing for visual language cues Arcuate fasciculus the white fiber pathway that connects Wernicke s area to Broca s area lots of axons WernickeGeschwind Model of Language 1 info about the sound is analyzed by the primary auditory cortex and transmitted to Wernicke s area 2 Wernike s area analyzes the sound info to determine the word that was said 3 this info from Wernicke s area is transmitted through the arcuate fascicles to Broca s area 4 Broca s area formulates a motor plan to repeat the word and transmits that info to the motor cortex for implementation 5 Motor cortex implements the plan manipulating the larynx and related structures to say the word For speaking a written word 1 Visual cortex analyzes the image and transmits the info about the image to the angular gyrus Thursday June 5 2014 2 the angular gyrus decodes the image info to recognize the word and associates this visual form with the spoken form in Wernicke s area 3 Info about the word is transmitted via the arculate fasiculus to Broca s area 4 Broca s area formulates a motor plan to say the appropriate word and transmits that plan to the motor cortex for implementation Non Language Impairments that Affect Speech and Reading Alexia an inability to read Agraphia an inability to write damage to angular gyrus can cause both of these not language per se just languagerelated areas Speech apraxia a nonlanguage impairment in the ability to execute movements necessary for speech ie stuttering Broca s aphasia an impairment in expressive language tono tono tono guy is an extreme case more common kind is a person who can get out some words but is at a loss of other words Wernicke s aphasia an impairment in receptive language impairs a person s ability to understand language Tend to not make sense when they express themselves bc they don t really understand what people are saying They can talk well but don t make sense The WernickeGeschwind Model of Language arguments against the model 1 Brain damage that is restricted to just Broca s or Wrnicke s area can sometimes have little lasting effect on language 2 Brain damage that does not include Broca s or Wernicke s areas can sometimes cause aphasia 3 Broca s and Wernicke s aphasia rarely exists in pure forms 4 cognitive neuroscience has revealed a large degree of individual variability in the localization of language in the cortex A More Current Neural Model of Language Thursday June 5 2014 see gauchospace for graphic image Current neural models of language rely more on a network of connections bt language processing regions and other regions of the cortex Relies on the network of connections throughout cortex not necessarily the model pathways Final Exam consist of 46 questions 28 multiple choice 12 truefalse 6 matching Point break down on the exam cognitive neurscience 13 pts developmental and plasticity 135 pts Brain Damage 175 pts Psychiatric Disorders 155 pts Sleep and dreaming 10pts Memory 175 pts Cortex and Language 13 pts Emotions and split brain patient topics will NOT be on exam Lecture slides can be used as a guide on the things you need to know on the final Everything on the final will have been mentioned in the lecture Bring Parscore for pencil photo id Make up exams will be in essay format notify TA within 48 hours if need to make up Exam begins 4 pm on Tues June 10 Shouldn t take more than an hour to complete Grading policy scale set by midterm will be used for the final Won t be changed The curve on the final will be the same as the curve on the midterm If you score lower in the final exam than you did on the midterm then your course grade will be based on your midterm score only IO
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