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20th Cent European Phil

by: Marlee Kulas

20th Cent European Phil PHI 157

Marlee Kulas
GPA 3.5


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Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marlee Kulas on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 157 at University of California - Davis taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/191933/phi-157-university-of-california-davis in PHIL-Philosophy at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
Brief Outline of Being and Time Authentic and Inauthentic Existence 0 Dasein is a mineness addressed as I and you 0 The essence of Dasein is its existence Existenz o The modes ofBeing ofDasein may be either Authentic taken up as one s own Inauthentic determined by outside forces society family etc o Authentic existence involves an element of choice not found in inauthentic exis tence Average Everydayness o The ontological side of Dasein its existencestructure is to be uncovered in the ontic character that it has proxim ally and for the most part 0 This is Dasein in its average everydayness o This structure is not uncovered by anthropology biology or psychology 0 None of them have ontological foundations o Descartes analyzed the cagita but neglected to analyze the BeingintheWorld o The authentic or inauthentic existence of Dasein is grounded a priori on a state of Being called Beingin theworld o Beingin theworld is a unitary phenomenon 0 Nonetheless it has several constitutive items giving rise to questions In theworld what is the ontological structure of the world and what is worldhood as such The entity having Beingin theworld who is in the mode of Dasein s av erage everydayness Beingin how is Dasein s Beingin the world different from that of physi cal location 0 Preliminary answer to the last question by being absorbed in the things ready tohand alongside us Being and Knowing 0 Knowing the world is a mode of beingintheworld 0 One steps back from involvement with things readytohand and considers the way in which they are presentathand the way they look 0 Therefore knowing presupposes being alongside objects of knowledge 0 In knowing we begin so to speak outside of ourselves rather than inside 0 For this reason the problem of transcendence does not arise Das Man 0 The who of Dasein in its average everydayness is primarily determined by others 0 We constantly are concerned with how we resemble them and differ from them 0 This them das Man is impersonal it is not any one person or sum of people 0 The absorption in the they covers up and is an obstacle to authentic Being Existential Structures of Dasein o Dasein as Beingintheworld discloses three existential structures Be ndlichkeil state of mind We nd ourselves in situations which are revealed by moods good and bad Verslehen understanding We actively engage in projects with their pos sibilities Verfallen fallenness We ordinarily are immersed in the everyday world Each of the two rst two structures involves the other the two are equiprim or dial By way of having a mood Dasein sees possibilities in terms of which it is In the projective disclosure of such possibilities it already has a mood in every case Facticity and Thrownness o Dasein is that which is there 0 The beingthere of Dasein is a Fact 0 Dasein s facticity is the factuality of the Fact of Dasein s being where it is o Facticity is at bottom quite different ontologically from the factual occurrence of some kind of mineral for example or more generally from the brute fact of som ething presentathand o The facticity of Dasein s being delivered over into the there is called thrown ness 0 Our rst reaction to our own thrownness is to thrust it aside or to turn it away evasively Interpretation 0 The understanding operates primarily through interpretation of the things ready tohand 0 Examples of interpretation are quotpreparing putting to rights repairing improv ing roundingoutquot o In interpreting a thing we appropriate it or see it as something a table a door a carriage or a bridge 0 Things readytohand are encountered as we see them we do not so to speak throw a sign cation over some naked thing which is presentathand we do not stick a value on it o Assertion is derived from interpretation a pointingout which gives something a de nite character and which communicates Language 0 The existentialontological foundation of language is discourse or talk 0 Discourse is primordial along with state of mind and understanding 0 Discourse is expressed in language which communicates state of mind through the way of spea ing Intonation Modulation Tempo o Linguistic phenomena of idle talk curiosity and ambiguity are found to be in terconnected in their Being Fallenness o Beingwithoneanother is guided by idle talk etc o Dasein is fallen insofar as it is absorbed in beingwithoneanother has fallen in with the others and fallen away from itself 0 The fallen state is inauthentic but not a bad and deplorable ontic property of which perhaps more advanced stages of human culture might be able to rid themselves 0 Falling in with das Man induces a tranquil mood where everything is thought to be settled and understood 0 This alienates Dasein from itself hiding one s possibilities from one s self 0 The very possibility of fallenness reveals the fact that Dasein s being is an issue or it The Being of Dasein o What gives unity to the existential structures of Dasein is revealed through the state of mind of anxiety Angst o Phenomenological analysis of anxiety shows that the unifying factor is care 0 Care is the Being of Dasein the being whose own Being is an issue for it o The ultimate unful lled goal is to move from our understanding of the Being of Dasein to that of Being in general Anxiety 0 In falling one s authenticity is thrust aside 0 The ight from one s authenticity is revealed in anxiety which is to be distin guished from fear 0 Whereas fear is directed to something speci c anxiety is directed toward the general fact of Dasein s possiblities for beingintheworld 0 Anxiety drives us into complacent absorption in the everyday world of das Man 0 But it also reveals to Dasein that authenticity and inauthenticity are possibilites of its being C are 0 As being directed toward the possibilities of its being Dasein is aheadofitself as a being alreadyintheworld 0 At the same time it is fallen into a beingalongsideothers 0 Care is what uni es these modes of being 0 It is ontologically more basic than willing and wishing or urge and addiction Temporality 0 Care uni es the structural features of Dasein o What allows care to have this unifying role is temporality which manifests itself in three ecstases Being aheadofitself futural Being alreadyintheworld as the past Being alongsideothers as the present 0 Everyday time is a series of nows which levels off the three ecstases and hence is inauthentic Death 0 The ultimate possibility of Dasein is its nonbeing death 0 Death in the ontological sense is distinct from the termination of life 0 Dasein has been thrown into death just as it has been thrown into the world 0 In the everyday world Dasein ees from death 0 Facing up to death allows Dasein to exist authentically through resolutely facing itself


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