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New Testament

by: Landen Streich

New Testament RST 040

Landen Streich
GPA 3.56

Catherine Chin

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Catherine Chin
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Landen Streich on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RST 040 at University of California - Davis taught by Catherine Chin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see /class/191936/rst-040-university-of-california-davis in Religious Studies at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
Quick History 0 Before anything happened there was a nation called Judea 0 Because it was in the middle of like all the wars the Judeans got pwned quite often lAssyrians Babylonians Persians Alexander the Great Hellenistic Kingdoms about every 100 years or so 0 Had brief period of independence under Hasmoneans 143 37BCE o Romans then pwn the Hasmoneans 0 Pretty much they get butt raped for a very very very long time 0 Period of HellenizationRomanization o herod the Great was assigned by Romans to look over Jerusalem or Judea or something after fall of Hasmoneans Terms Sepphoris 1 Town in Israel 4 miles north of Nazareth During Herod s time Herod had hella mosaics in this city He made it beautiful by Greek and Roman standards 2 Corinthians because of Factionism 3 Herod the Great wanted to HellenizeRomanize this town but never fully did leaving the town stuck in limbo INCEPTION He ended up decorating the main temple RomanlyGreeky Also happens to be the town that is close to Jesus home town Chosen People VPeople of God 1 Those underthe covenant a They are supposed to be saved by Jesus at the end of time b they are believers of the Judean God c Supposedly claimed to be Descendents of Abraham 2 Letter to James 3 Important to historical context cause these are the people that believed that they will be saved The Judean God was suppposed to save them whenever the end of time comes but they gotta live by the laws or they re screwed This is the base religion where Christianity came from Jesus supposedly was sent by the Judean God CovenantCovenantal nomism 1 Covenant Pact that the Judean God made with the believers a Nomism Following the tradition or the law b God will take care of His people c People will uphold the Torah in return 2 Paul talks a lot about the covenant in almost all his letters especially to a community ie Corinthians if not all of them 3 Just like the chosen people this is what they believed in Base religion again It s just important to have the covenant Message networks a Needed specialist b No glasses needed good vision c Depended on scribes d Could make mistakes e The person dictating and the person writing flf you have a letter to send you have to hire a messenger and tell them to take it to their destination g Not a secure method dying getting lost etc hFor extra security they would tell the messenger what is inside the letter So that they can explain it to the receiver iPaul s letters relies on a group of networks to get the message we do not have them we only have the letters jPseudonymity how many letters were by Paul and how many were not 2 All of Paul s letters 3lmportant becuase we are not 100 sure that the books were written by Paul and that his words could be accidentally changed because of the messenger messing up Diaspora Judean s living out of Judea Disapora Jew a Comes from the Greek word meaning scattered A 2 Thessolonianswere being persecuted because they are not in Judea and for their religion 3 Jews outside of Judea gt PAUL11111oneone Would history have happened if Paul was not a diaspora JevW a They re all part of the same covenant still So it s likeit dont matter where you are God s cool with everyone Paul of Tarsus 1 Multiple points a Claims to have been a Pharisee devout Jew b Not from Judea Diaspora Jew c went from opponent to proponent of the Jesus movementquot d claims to be apostle to the Gentilesquot e Not an OG disciple Meaning he never met Jesus until he had his vision iVisions historical evidence f Died in 64 CE Thought to have been executed in Rome g Most likely an educated man h Does not have a biography of himself but we learned about him through his letters that he wrote 2 PAUL IS IMPORTANT FOR ERRTHANG SRSLY He s the person we re looking at for the past 34 weeks wrote pretty much everything we read PLUS we had to read about him in Ehrman 3 Important to the New Testament since he pretty much owns half of it All his letters whether they were written by him or not scholars are not sure pseudonymity they re all in the New TestamentBible Given all the shit for him and against him his and whoever pretended to be him writings are in the Bible SO HES IMPORTANT KNOW THIS GUY God fearers 1 Greek and Romans Worshipping God I thought they were the Romans and Greeks that found the way the Jews worship their God and how the Jews refuse to worship other Gods interesting a Apparently not part of the covenant b They re allowed to worship donate etc c They re friendly to the covenant whatever that means 2 1 Corinthians 3 Important because they causes dispute to the Jews They dont do what the Jewish people do Are they still in the covenant Made the Jews confused about their relationship with the world 4 CODYS not IMPORTANCE VERSION TO COMPARE AFTER SUCK T CHIU Greeks and Romans that fearedrespected the Judean God making them friendly to the covenant gt the dude who tried to HellenizeRomanize the temple in Jerusalem Herod was a GodFearer i think Food sacri ced to idols 1 If you are a believer you can eat the food sacrificed to idols but if people are around you who are not believers do not eat it because they do not have the same views as you Consideration wait a minute I thought believers of Christ are not supposed to worship idols therefore aren t supposed to sacrifice food to idols i remember reading that if people around you who worship idols offer you food sacrificed to idols don t eat it I didnt say they worshiped idolsor sacrificed to idols noob i said they could eat the food if they want but they shouldn t You can eat the food but don t make an example out of it 2 Corinthians 3 People felt the need to sacrifice food to dead things Paul felt they should eat the foodhowever he knew they shouldn t if a significant number of Corinthians disapproved of eating idols food so avoid disputes in the commmunity Circumcision 1 Cutting foreskin off Cody s small penisHAHAHAHA lt33 LESS THAN THREEEEE lt Cody a James was the circumcision faction b mark of the laW Torah 2 Letter to James 3 How much of the Jewish Law do people need to follow in order to be considered good so that they can be in the convenant a lrreleva nt now cause it s like whatever now b You don t have to get circumcised because your faith is what s gonna save you TorahLaw 1 The Jewish version of the Bible 2 Letter to James 3 This was the preceding religion before early Christianity It was the book that Paul useduu Apocalyptic Eschatology 1 Apocalypse Revelation revealing divinecosmic plan 2 Escotalogy Study of the thing that come lastat the end 3 Important in 1 Thessalonians 4 What does it mean to be part of the chosen people when the apocalypse is among them Syncretism o 1 Mixing together 0 2EVERYTHNG o 3 As Roman empire gets bigger and bigger more and more gods are added to their lives Jewish God is different the Jewish people believe that there is only one god therefore causing the Romans to dislike them because they wont worship the many other gods that they have HetaeriaCollegium o 1 Secret Associations private religiouspoliticalbusinesssocial club CULT o 2EVERYTHNG o 3 Groups of people meeting up to worship a specific God National Pride 0 As the Roman Empire grew there were more small groups worshipping different Gods 0 Like Corinthians were sacrificing food to idols lThey were also divided between different leader so Paul was saying how they should unite under one leaderGOD DuraEuropos Synagogue o 1 meeting place 0 Oldest synagogue in Syria 0 Shows HellenizationRomanizations 0 Abraham and Moses in the paintings o 2 Paul s writing o 3 It is how we find the HetaeriaCollegium The rooms are filled with comic like pictures telling stories like Moses splitting the red sea Gives us info about like the past and like Paul where he came from cause he was a diaspora Jew Philo of Alexandria o Jew sent as an Ambassador to Rome to settle the riots Diaspora Jew o Prominent Jewish figure idiosyncratic philosopher o Thinks covenant is not being attached to what you see with your eyes it s having the mind purify from body world of the mind interprets covenant as a Greek philosophical allegory form of extended metaphor in which objects persons amp actions in a narrative are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself underlying meaning has moral social religious or political significance amp characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as greed or envy story with a literal and symbolic meaning Allegory in the story of Abraham Books gt Galatians and Romans and James God example of Jews Diaspora moral simpler to rest of the world Reinterpretation of covenant from Philo Faithful Jew keeping covenant but interpreting from his views Attempts to read Torah Markers of Judean markers of philosiphical truth We re the same but people of covenant are just going to be better Views of people in covenant are people not HellenizationRomanization 1Hellenization is the spread of Greek languageculture Romanization is the spread of Roman Languageculture 2lmportant to everything 3Caused troubles within many communities because they don t know how much of the GreekRoman culture should they adopt Some people resist the change some people like it Started by the conquests of ALEXander the Great Judean 1 Another name for the Jewish people 2 Important to everything 3 Don t know whether to call them Jew or Judeans because Judaism is both a religion and ethincity SarahHagar 1 Reason of the two great nations Abraham had a kid with Hagar You don t want to mess with God s rule 2Chronicles 3Sarah Abraham s wife who could not bear children too old Hagar was the slave who Abraham slept with and had lshmael God promised Sarah a son and had Isaac uses it as the convenant Not only for the believers but slaves and everyone else as well Gentiles 1Non Jewish people 2 Corinthians 3 Had to deal with them in the Corinthians ie food sacrifices to idols Man living With his stepmother 1 Atopic within Paul s letterto the Corinthians 2 Corinthians 3 One of the Corinthians was sleeping with his stepmother and Paul was furious about it Along with this issue he talked about his view on sex and marriage Talks about how they are not important since there is a divine wrath coming Manumission 1 The act of freeing a slave in the ancient world 2 Philemon 3 Usually happens because the slave did something wonderfulperforms an exemplary action for the master or the owner dies Freed slaves are called Freedman Though they were free people still look down on them because of their previous status being a slave Abraham 1 He was the chosen one he had a pact with God which told him to leave his home and move to the promise land where he will start a new nation And by doing so God promise to take care of him and his people 2 Galatians Romans James 3 Idea of covenant started here We don t know if he truly existed But he is believed to be the start of the Jewish Nation Moses 1The dude that led Jewish people out of Egypt split the red sea in front of them and buried the Egyptian army behind them 2 God gave Moses the 10 great commandments from a FIRE bush 3 Paul says the laws given to Moses is 430 years after the original covenant so it can t be that important Onesimus 1 Was a slave of Philemon s Ran away to Paul because of the conflicts between him and his owner Philemon N After staying with Paul he was converted and according to Paul he now has become useful and Paul wants to keep him 3 Thus causing Paul writing this letter trying to have Philemon to do a good deedquot for him There are 3 possibilities of good deeds a Take Onesimus back as a slave forgive him for his wrongs b Let Paul keep Onesimus c Set Onesimus free 2 Philemon 3 Don t try and change your condition It doesn t matter much 1 Corinthians 721 Paul is ambiguous unclear about what he feels about slavery We learn about this because Slavery was part of the culture back then Paul s talking about real slavery and also being slaves under Godquot How about being a slave to the world and God sets them free is that she wants Justi cation 1 The biggest problem is that Paul himself emphatically claims that everyone Jew and Gentile is equally guilty of sin before God and that all are therefore justified equallyby faith in Christ and not by doing works of the Law Being right with God thru sacrifice 2 The only way to be restored to a right standing before God to be justified is a sacrifice and that sacrifice was the death of Jesus a payment of the penalty owed by others BOOK OF JAMESSSS MUTHAFUGGGA 3lt is important because nobody thought the same way to being justified Paul said being justified by faith James said you are justified by your works James Paul s Letters those who have died 1 Thess 415 1 Thessalonians who died before the Covenant happened Thessalonians weren t sure what is going to happen to the people who have died before God comes for them Therefore causing Paul to write a letter to them telling them that those who have died will be okay because they still are a part of the covenant And that they will be the first to meet or see the Lord when the Lord comes 2 Thessalonians 3 Paul preached that those who believed in JesusGod would be free from death However people kept dieing so Paul had to change course and say that those who died would be resurrected by Jesus if they believed in him before the Divine Wrath Baptism 1 A conversion of members of the early Church from Judaism to Christianity Being immersed under water while an official recited sacred words 2 Letterto Romans Thessalonians There was a dispute about in First Corinthians too should we include this 3 Important because people in Rome started to believe that Paul is only a baptiser not a preacher because of his FAIL at talking They find Apollos a much better speaker Judicial Model of Salvation 1 A way of explaining Christianity Sin is an evil force and Jesus took the debt suffered by all 2 Letterto Romans 3Basic message Jesus death puts you in debt You owe it to him to believe in him and his teachings Judicial like law So you owe him Participationist Model of Salvation 1 A way of explaining Christianity Everyone takes part in Jesus victory over death 2Letter to Romans 3 Sin is a powerevil force Jesus is a fighter sent from God He dies and gets resurrected Jesus won by coming back to life Since everyone is on his team everyone wins Participates in the duel with Jesus Like a battle royale Participation like taking part of Churches in Rome 1 Paul never met them They were congregations he had only heard about through others 2 Letter to Romans 3 Paul attempted to ask for money from them for a visit to Spain to go on a preaching Paul tried to remind the Romans about the ideals he would like them to follow He told them that to be saved they must have faith Childbearing 1 Women give birth to children Duh But women will be saved through childbearing if they continue in faith love and holiness with propriety Paul believed that women s salvation will be through having children 2 1 Timothy 3 Many scholars believe this is a fake Paul Talks about being celibate But if you can t you can marry and its all good 4 Adam and Eve in that women were the sinners James 1 A prominent preacherapostle named as the brother of the Lordquot in Galations 119 by Paul 2 Letterto James 3 James is one of the people very concerned with circumcision despite being a Christian He may have had differences with Paul because he believed to get into heaven one must act righteously too notjust believe Later Christian thinks that James should not be included in the Bible Readings 1 Corinthians 0 The Church was plagued by factions of believers who believed in different spiritual leaders Plus there was a dude who slept with his stepmother Paul not happy 0 There were divisions in the church 0 Also talked about wisdom of God 0 How people cannot be wiser than God 0 Wisdom comes from the Spirit 0 Lawsuits among believers 0 Sexual immorality o Celibacy NO SEX 0 better not to get married 0 Food sacrificed to idols 1 Thessalonians Support given by Paul to the Thessalonians who were facing persecution from the leaders of their society A warm letter Galatians 0 False teachers were preaching religion in Galatia They were insisting that circumcision was required by Christians Because it was false teaching he felt the peoples salvations were threatened 0 Paul sounded pretty damn angry in this James 0 James was a problem for Paul James was concerned about Paul s mission to the Gentiles Writing from a strongly Judean perspective Is James for or against Paul Evidence for 12 rejoicingpersecution 278 love your neighborquot 58 coming of the lord 112 endurancereward 224 justification OOOOO o 214 no distinctions o 223 wisdom 0 Evidence against 0 411 don tjudge the law 31 gifts 125 perfect law 213214 Justified by works 44 world 0000 Romans Pau wants to get mula from the Romans He also wanted to clear his image because he doesnt know what the Romans have already heard about him 1 Timothy 0 Warned against false teachers of the law 0 Instructions forworship 0 Men dominatesthe relationship 0 Women have to be modest o Talks about overseers and deacons Wanted Timothy to be a teacher Said how people are greedy and money can lead to bad things and is evil Wants Timothy to spread the word 2 Timothy 0 Encourages to be faithful 0 He wants him to stay rm in the doctrine 0 Paul reminds Timothy to avoid ungodly beliefs and practices and to ee from anything immoral In the end times there will be both intense persecution and apostasy from the Christian faith 0 Paul closes with an intense plea for believers to stand firm in the faith and to finish the race strong Philemon The letterto Philemon was to convince Philemon to do a good deed for Paul Oniesimus is a slave of Philemon Ran away because of conflicts between him and Philemon Paul converted Oniesimus and wants to keep him as a helper The letter can be broken down into 2 parts 1 Greetings and appreciations 2 Appeal for Oniesimus Has 3 intepretaions of what Paul wants Philemon to do a Set Onisimus free b Send Onisimus back to Paul 0 Keep him and forgive him for what he d id Ehrman readings 0 ch 19 Paul the Apostle The Man and His Mission 0 O O O O O 0 Summary The Life Of Paul lPaul visualized his past in three stages his life as a Pharisee prior to faith in Christ his conversion experience itself and his activities as an apostle afterward Paul the Pharisee lPrior to his conversion He was born to Jewish parents and he was zealous forthe Law adhering strictly to the traditions endorsed by the Pharisees He does not tell us when he was born where he was raised or how he was educated However in Acts Paul is said to have been born from the Greek city Tarsus in Cilicia and to have been educated in Jerusalem under the renowned rabbi Gamaliel Luke could be attempting to provide superior credentials for his protagonist since Paul did not make any of these claims Paul s own letters give some indication of his extent of his formal education His native tongue was almost without question Greek and he gives no indication at all of knowing Aramaic the language more widely used in Palestine This is an indication that Luke is right in situating him in the Jewish Diaspora He knows the Jewish Scriptures in their Greek translation the Septuagint Could he read in HebrevW Is that the only form of text he knows Or did he want to accommodate his readers Prior to becoming a believer in Jesus Paul was an avid Pharisee As a Pharisee Paul s religion would have centered around the Law of God the Torah of Moses the greatest gift of God to Israel the exact and thorough adherence to which was the ultimate goal of devotion Looking back on his early life Paul later claimed that he had been blameless with respect to the righteousness that the Law demands What does this mean Did he mean he never violated a solitary commandment of God or that he did his best to keep the LavW Or that the Law itself makes provision for those who sin in the sacrifices that it requires Paul s Conversion and Its Implications lln a historical novel Paul converted from a religion of guilt to a religion of love and so became Jesus faithful follower bringing the good news of release from sins to those burdened with guilt complexes like his own In fiction section because Pail never said anything about feeling guilt over his inability to keep God s commandments before becoming a Christian Paul traces his conversion back to an encounter with the resurrected Jesus He names himself as the last person to have seen Jesus raised from the dead and marks this as the beginning of his change from persecutorto apostle He became convinced that he was to preach the good news of Christ to the Gentiles How would Paul have understood this neW event of Jesus resurrection in light of his old worldview of Jewish apocalypticism 0 Ch 20 0 Summary Paul and His Apostolic Mission 1 Thessalonians as a Test Case lEarliest piece of Christian literature that we have Considers how Paul went about converting the Thessalonians from their pagan beliefs to faith in Christ discusses the problemsthat arose in the church after Paul left compelling him to write a letter to deal with them ISome of the Thessalonians had been led to believe that Jesus was to return soon Because it didn t happen some of the Thessalonians were upset and Paul had to explain how everything was still going according to plan He did not preach on the street corner or stage evangelistic rallies and he did not begin by preaching in a local synagogue lHe instead started up a business in town and talked to his customers convincing them about the Christian message lVirtually all of his converts were pagan He needed to convince these people that the Jewish God was the only true God that Jesus was his son who had died for their sins and that God had raised him from the dead and was sending him back soon in judgement lAfter Paul left the Thessalonian church problems aroseparticularly concerning the fate of those who had already died prior to Jesus return in judgment which had been expected to be very soon lPaul s letter assures them that they can retain their hope in the apocalyptic end of the world to be brought by Jesus and that those who had already died had not missed out on the benefits ofthe apocalyptic kingdom soon to arrive 0 Ch 22 The Gospel according to Paul The Letter to the Romans 0 Summary lRomans is the only letter Paul wrote to a church that he did not himself establish and the only letter that does not try to solve the church s problems I For I am not ashamed of the gospel it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith to the Jew first and also to the Greek For in it the righteousness of God is revealed through faith for faith as it ifs written The one who is righteous will live by faithquot 1 16 17 0 Paul is not ashamed ofthe gospel o Paul s gospel is God s powerful means of salvation This salvation comes to those who have faith trusting acceptance of God s act of salvation wholehearted conviction and commitment believing in Christ s death and resurrection Salvation comes first to the Jew and then to the Greek Gentile Jew and Gentile are on equal footing before God All have sinned against God and all can be made right with God only by faith in Christ The gospel reveals the righteousness of God The Scriptures proclaim the gospel The one who is made right with God through faith will find life 0 Ch 24 In The Wake of the Apostle 0 Summary 0 At a Glance The Pastoral Epistles 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus are called Pastoral epistles because they are ostensibly written by Paul to two of his younger colleagues who were pastors of churches giving them pastoral advice about how to deal with problems in their communities Timothy as the pastor of Ephesus and Titus as the pastor of Crete lMost critical scholars think that Paul did not write them based on their vocabulary which differs significantly from Paul s and especially on the different historical situation they presuppose lThe letters principally address 0 False teachers who have created problems possibly tied in some way to Gnostics o The internal organization of the communities for example the problem of women playing significant roles in the church lThe letters were evidently all written by the same author living near the end of the first century who decided to deal with the problems of his own day by claiming the authority of Paul RST 40 New Testament Final Exam Review Sheet Bobby Dunbar He disappeared and two families make claims about whose child he is Story fail BUT more importantly it s like looking at different perspectives that make up the story And thats what s important about this whole thing Perspectives and different POV s Dmake up stories that are complete opposites responses to disappearancereappearance tell culture of the time relevance diff accounts of story diff perspectives create diff accounts of stories 0 Like 4 gospels Significant to The 4 gospels why see above Tie in closely with Luke 1 Claims to be talking to eye witnesses evidence connections with the community in search of information only statement of procedure from any of the gospels Historical Jesus A specific branch of the study of the New Testament What can we know about Jesus Using info from NT What can we know about the people s response to Jesus What can we say that we know forsure significant to All NT is about Jesus so all of NT The Synoptic Problem Looking from the same perspectives and same outline but has significant differences only a problem for people who want to harmonize and negate differences the 4 gospelserase contradictions Not sure about the same perspective Because they are all trying to show Jesus in a different way They are all trying to impress a different group of audience Alex The info was from the professor s lectures on 1101 significant to the 4 gospels howthey each portray Jesus differently Johannine Community using a number of different sources MathewMarkLuke Jesus life in Jerusalem Jesus talks more much more eloquent spokesperson uses short stories rebuttals to confute enemies no demon possessions few miracles only passage to mention the water into wine kingdom of God not a big theme Jesus is a preexistent exists before he is born a cosmic force Goal of John is not to show Jesus as a miracle worker not someone with knowledge not someone with special access but to show Jesus as a part of the divine world Significant to John and Revelation Markan Priority Matthew and Luke copy from Mark more difficult readings most of Mark and its vocabulary is found in Matthew and Luke Significant to Mark Mathew and Luke because it says howthe Gospels are related QQ DD 00 Papias did not have access to The hypothetical textdocument Luke and Matthew had in common but not Markteaching of Jesus used by NT scholars to explain Matthew and Luke unlikely that Luke copied from Matthew or Matthew from Luke thus there needs to be another shared source Widely acknowledged Significant to Mathew Mark and Luke the mother source of all the Gospels earliest source we have who talks about context of Mark tells us what he knows about Mark Mark is not an eyewitness of those things gets information from Peter eyewitness How did Mark compile it all together source from early 2nd century writes about authors of the gospels but also suggests writings were not as helpful to Papias as what came from the living and abiding voice we study this because it gives us the perspective oral tradition vs written tradition Proof there was a time when writings wasn t the most oral tradition is better Significant to Mark because he is talking about Mark and also all other NT too because he doesnt think a written down book is needed Lectio difficilior the more difficult readingquot Information not to your own interestquot about someone else is probably true Mark is the original because people generally try to make things easierto read more palatable Harderto understand can mean it s more likely to be true Significant to the Gospels not sure Independent attestation When people all write stuff on their own 0 sources matches up No outside motivationinspiration Agreement between sources that aren t all relying on one original source Best kind of attestation come from non followers of Christ because they don t have an agenda to promote Christianity Most reliable Significant to The Messianic Secret Disciples can t tell people Jesus secret that he is the Messiahrepeatedly can t understand his identity People don t recognize Jesus is the Messiah Mark does so by showing how Jesus tells people Don t say what I didquot disciples in Mark are very dense just don t get it don t understand what s going on 0 Why does Mark do this 0 Possibly emphasizes the Messianic Secret to show why not many people know about Jesus explain current confusion 0 Jesus stealthy ninja 0 Not the right moment to look like the Messiah o Might not to know but There are four kinds of Messiah o Priestly reform correct worship in the temple in Jerusalem KinglyRoyal restore the Kingdom of Israel Teaching moral sense restore righteousness Revolutionary Apocalyptic creates Ethiopia on earth and the whole world gets converted into the covernant 0 Significant to Mark found in it one of the main points of Mark 000 Intertextuality 0 Use and reuse of earlier texts in new texts that give added meaning to new and old texts retrojection of past projection into future 0 Matthew refers to Jewish prophetic material in a way that recasts the story of Jesus to give it added meaning an approach 0 key to Matthew and Luke 0 opening of Mark is intertextual Mark uses lsaiah to frame his story 0 Matthew is all about using Hebrew Bible as intertexts constantly explaining from Hebrew things to fulfill prophecy 0 Luke uses prophetic material dealing with Hebrew Bible and Greek and Roman historians 0 Significant to Mark Luke and Mathew as Mathew and Luke copies from Mark Son of Man 0 Cosmicjudge sent from heaven at end of world 0 Someone who has particularly access to divine beings interacts with intermediaries 0 character in the vision acting as an intermediary given power to do things 0 Doesn t necessary mean Messiah o Dude comes down to judge o Judean god acts on the world indirectly through intermediaries all stuff happens through one intervening person through his guidance 0 God acts directly on world taking part in word 0 Comes from Book of Daniel 0 has access to divine beings 0 can interact with intermediaries 0 Significant to John Revealation Daniel Jesus as the New Moses 0 Matthew is saying What is Jesus He structures events to bring out similarities between them 0 Sermon on mount new statements to live by Jesus delivers Jesus is known as the new moses in this gospel in Matthew 0 Significant to NT studies Renewing the law reinterpreting law brings renewal Mathew specifily Stories of Herod killing all the babies when he heard that there is a child being born Jesus and that he would be the King of the Jews compared to Moses in he escaped his village when all the boys were being killed Thucydides 0 Father of Greek History known for writing the thing under this everyone copies his way of writing Luke 0 History of the Peloponnesian sp War war fought between citystate of Athens growingambitious and Sparta not as ambitious but is the winner bc more virtuous Thucydides writes history of why what happened happened 0 Individual and collective level 3 big points about history 0 Ancient History moral gt reasons of why things happen Greek tragedy blames Athens tragic fall became too arrogant to survive Beginning is important foundation of history Speeches focal points of history speeches are used to give reader a sense of what the character would do 0 Luke took his writing style and wanted to make his writings Luke and Acts a two volume history 0 Significant to Luke Luke copies his style Alcibiades Luke 0 Man made to be a moral example noble wealthy handsome arrogant passionate Main character in Peloponnesian War Symbol of everything wrong in Athens wealthy talented handsome but main problem arrogant passionateimpulsiveout of control man good at persuading Athenians that they will win Represents political danger unfaithful to wife unstable disloyal AntiJesus o How Luke portrays things in Greek history writings gt beginning important 0 Significant to Luke Luke uses him to model Jesus Alcibiades is the antiJesus Stoicism 0 Greek philosophers in general think too much emotions is bad 0 goal Apatheia not having patience not being perturbed by emotions not being controlled by your passions not acting according to them should act for the good 0 good man is calm anger always a problem 0 Book of Luke Luke s Jesus is always very calm does things because it s the right thing to do not compassionate or angry doesn t act out on emotion Jesus saves the world because it is in his character to do so acts according to his divine wisdom 0 Luke says that Jesus saves the world because it is in his character to do so explains how he is a moral person how Jesus isjust the perfect person in a Greek way 0 Book of Mark Jesus does stuff because he feels sorry for someone o valerizes control of passions 0 uses Logos as technical term 0 thing behind way universe works 0 O o notjust divine principle also a thing living being soul of universe animates universe keeps it going 0 goal of human life act in way of life being that s governing universe so emotions are dangerous Important if you are not liking things here the world it means you are not acting with the universe You can t be sad about anything because that s the way the universe unfolds Significant to Luke See above line 4 The Logos Stuff people say stuff that goes into what is said have rational intellectual capacity Aristotle talks a lot about logos rationality best way to appeal to best part of human nature having logos means you have the capacity to understand the universe 3 ways to persuade someone to something 0 appeal to ethos ethics 0 appeal to pathos emotion passion think of children 0 appeal to logos rationality principle of order of the universe Plato our world logos is not the real world it isjust a projection The real world is the world of formsideas The goal of life is to reach up from the shadows to the real world God can use his Logosbeingagent to send to do stuff on earth Logos is not God himself Logos is dynamic aspect of God s mind that can act in worldactive agentof God s rationality is thing that pervades universe mediates between God and humanity Logos is 1st born son cosmic being 1st thing that God has Logos beginning synonymous with God 0 image of God sight of God revealer of God angel of the Lord mediator between man and God 0 creator Book of John Logos is Jesus 0 fits into large cosmic narrative o If Jesus is cosmic force from beginning not surprising he could do miracles 0 Jesus supremely rational being God s words in the world agent of creation not just Messiah moral teacher miracle world Serves as mediator between God and humanity Significant to Book of John John is trying to show that Logos is Jesus 0000 The Beloved Disciple Disciple appears only in one gospel outruns Peter to get to his tomb Potential source for the Book of John Significant to Book of John mentioned in there Platonic dualism The gap between God and humans the gap suggested by logos Logos is the thing that allow us to reach God 0 Anything that is a little wrong it is completely wrong Anything not from God is evil Significant to John as John uses harsh terms to emphasize the fight between Light and Dark Philo of Alexandria 0 Thought Logos was the active agent of God s realm o Septuigant Greek version of Hebrew Bible 0 likes world of forms are thoughts in mind of God 0 problem Why would God mess with shadow world Takes the gap between God and our world very seriously Nero 0 Known as quintessentially bad emperor of Rome shifts blame of Rome fire on Christians because they are the most convenient scapegoats hated for their abominations not good citizens Minucius Felix talks about why Christians are hated for their abominations o 1 Secrecy They are a secret society gt suspicious Why are you hiding o 2 Sexual depravity amp Cannibalism Because they are secret Romans assume they can t talk about something bad assume they are up to no good lust incestuous Roman dislike rumors circulating rumored to kill and eat babies 0 3 Animal Worship Their God is actually a donkey I hear they worship the head of an ass 0 So Nero takes advantage of them 0 Significant to Book of Revelation He is one of the Bad guys in there Pliny and Trajan 0 Roman emperor Trajan stereotypically good emperor o overarching principal seen as someone who brings orderto society sustains order in empire 0 directs conduct of war 0 Trajan s Column 0 represents triumph of civilization over barbarism 0 represents Romans as orderly rather than chaotic 0 Victory civilization and order make him a stereotypically good emperor o Pliny younger o governor of provinces Bithynia and Pontus o in charge of maintaining order 0 run into problem having to do with Christians civic disturbance he has to deal with not 100 sure what he should do so writes letter to Trajan asking for advice 1 Is being a Christian a crime Or do Christians tend to commit crimes I2 Some Christians seem not to respect authority of Rome This is punishable in its own right I3 But attention has created more cases and some anonymous accusations Many of accused deny being Christians I4 Those who had been Christians before claimed that they had done nothing criminal I5 Closer examination revealed nothing but superstition This can probably be set right Trajan s sensible reply 0 Be a man do the right thing shouldn t be hunting them out or singling them out should correct them if offense proved should punish shouldn t be borrowing trouble shouldn t admit anonymous accusations good person correct people Significant to Book of Acts conflict between Romans and Christians where Romans are seen in a better light than in Revelation Revelation Last book of NT apocalyptic text conflict between Romans and Christians describes the fight between good and evil represents attempt of Roman empire to destroy Christianity their points of views persecution governance attributed to John the evangelist written by a John most people don t attribute it to John the Baptist Why assimilate John use similar themes from Johannine epistles into revelation theme of conflict between heaven and earth conflict between children of light and darkness description of cosmic conflict between good and evil in conflict of persecution of emperor Domitian everyone thinks he s a bad tyrant possibly document of exile apocalyptic text in scholarly discourse soemthing that is revealed knowledge about heaven or hell or cosmic truths 0 ex Ezekiel Daniel not exactly end of world cosmic truth revealed is about end of world it is going to be bad but if you hang on things will be great detailed innerworkings of heaven not accessible to human beings knowledge Significant to John It has a lot of the same principles Fight between Light and Dark Numerology Example 666 Nero Since all letters of Roman alphabet represents a letter using numbers to represent someone or something is very common Significant to Book of Revelation Numerology was used in there to show Nero as the devil Babylon the Great Queen of the Whores 7 heads Sat on a beast Represents Rome Rome was known for the 7 hills the 7 heads on Babylon symbolize the 7 his Significant to Book of Revelation The worst beast in the book the most evil Allegory 0 Book of Revelations have lots of allegory 0 Everything in the book represents something 0 Significant to Book of Revelation A lot of allegories are in it it was considered too much because they can be interpreted in anyway 0 Symbols symbols symbols Epistle of Barnabas o Believed to be written late in the 2nd century Conflicts between the gentile christian and Jewish Christian is gone Christianity and Judaism is the two at war Argues that Christianity is not based on Judaism extends on Paul s argument using the stone tablets as example saying that was the old laws gets smashed therefore they were never really in effect 0 the covenant was never part of Judaism because Jews failed to receive it o Argues the laws circumcision should be taken figuratively it is allegorical the literal meaning is wrong 0 Says that Judaism was created by an evil angel misleading o Allegories Abraham circumcised 318 men 318 Jesus name in Greek also the town s name cross Jesus was crucified on a cross 0 The epistle of Barnabas argues that the covenant was offed to the Jews but it was never incorporated into the tradition because they were worshipping the golden cow He attempts to argue fundamentals within his epistle He says that Jewish practices are based on misunderstanding 0 Significance NT as a whole saying that NT is right and OT is wrong Marcion of Sinope o Said that Christians should get rid of the Hebrew Bible and read these specific books 0 Luke 39 j quot of Jews to Gentiles o Galatians Romans no need to observe law 0 Pauline Epistles 0 Paul 0 first person to propose restricted authoritative list look at Bible like epistle of Barnasbas does 0 Believes that NT is a neW revelation of the God of love the old God was God of Justice they are 2 different Gods Believes NT is the shit am i right alex Believes that Christianity has a complete new covenant separate from the hebrew bible Significance NT as a whole picking out only a few of the readings to be read Saying the rest is not important Muratorian Canon 0 fragmentary text unknown author says Marion is wrong need to read other books very concerned with Marion s Canon very similar to NT but not exactly 0 4 gospels Acts letters of Paul Jude couple of Johannine 12 John Revelation 0 Dont read James Hebrew Bible 12 Peter and 3 John confirmation 0 Doesn t include Hebrew Peter Solomon Step along way to creating NT taken in reaction of Marcion agree important to have list of approved authoritative books but disagree on which Significant to NT as a whole picked out some 4 Gospels Book of Acts Paul s letters 1st and 2nd John and Book of Revelation Tatian s Diatessaron Tatian is student of Justin Martyr one of the most important teachers in history of christianity in second century also believes that no books are needed oralgtbooks Tatian is known for producting Tatian s Diatessarion It is summary of the 4 Gospels retelling the story of Jesus it became popular and it was the first Gospel to be translated into other languages Significant to the 4 Gospels and NT as a whole 4 Gospels because it attempted to replace them by combining them NT as a whole because it somewhat started to spread of translation of the NT to other languages Other Readings Ezekial 1 Describes beings that live close to the throne of God visionary prophet Daniel 7 Mark 0 Shortest Gospel 0 Does not abridge other Gospels 0 People are dumbasses in Mark 0 Disciples are like WTF dense 0 Jesus refuses to tell people his identity Messianic Secret Luk 392 1 History moral 2 Beginnings important 3 Speeches important Greek historian writing history Greek historical tradition interested in how palinistic non Jewish tradition incorporate Greek culture in history of salvation interested in large scale portrait interested in salvation of Gentiles Uses prophetic material different than Matt Brings in cultural references wanted to make sense to the avg reader Matthew Condenses entire history of Hebrew Bible 0 Abraham comes up a lot Next chapter to Hebrew bible o talks thru the lens of Hebrew Bible Jesus is like the New Moses he BRINGS THE LAW Deep engagement with the law 0 every detail of the law was in here Dont gotta follow laws EXACTLY but follow their principles John theologically developed most concerned with spelling out Jesus relationship to Goddivine realm Ehrman The New Testament chapter 11 Acts 0 Paul constantly brought up by Roman authorities but let go because not a threat 0 accurate representation of attitude toward Christians 0 interactions between Roman state and Christians viewpoint from Romans 0 Fairly nuance not trying to destroy Christians Other notes or you dont know where it goes exactly traditional Jewish concept of God 2 approaches 1 Story of Abraham a Gods acts in the world directly b He s like taking part in the world 2 God uses intermediaries in the world a Jesus prophets etc b intermediaries usually have some sort of status iAngels gt acts as messengers For the final you should be able to 1 Identify and describe each thing on this list within its context in the New Testament andor its historical period in 23 sentences 2 If this item is mentioned in a book of the NT you should say which book or if it is not mentioned in the NT you should be able to list at least one NT bookto which it is relevant 3 You must also be able to state in 12 sentences why it is important to the academic study of the New Testament The format of the final exam is the same as the format for the midterm You will have 50 minutes to take the exam


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