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inema II PBW1 302CO0321O P p T T 0 Fa439m mt gcvczga PAPER We assure mmgsiiame with 83 avernmen cr y ig2 iaw Permis rsm M dmpiicate my ma aria cavereci by mpyright iaw has been seszzurad TA 384U AMERICAN CINEMA amp CULTURE I CRN 43662 Section 001 INSTRUCTOR wmiam Tm TA 384U American Ci 6ma39amp Culture E Wintertenn 2012 William Tate instructor Table f Contents The Hollywood Sty1e Pr0igram 1 The Studio System Program 2 The StarwPrograrn 3 Romantic ComedyProgram 5 The Combat Film Pr0gram 6 Study Guides for Scarlet Street TheG0Id Rush The Lady Eve The Bad and the Beaurffui Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Sahara Questions To Be Asked about Any Film Melodrama What is a Genre Micmthemes J Sample Title Page Four samples Central ms HOLLYWQOD STYLE Prograrn 1 ideas raised in theprogram such as e the major formal elements of Hollywood style 9 whet identification means 39 9 what seamless editing is and the implications of such editing 6 the in uence of classical Hollywood style on world cinema After viewing the program ask yourself the following questions I Ghjeetive s Central ideas raised in the program such as 7 Objecti s In what ways were my expectations about Hollywood style confirmed 9 In what wayswere my expectations chatlenged W hat did I learn 39 s recognize and begin to use basic formal film terms such as cut dissolve close up mise39 en scene sound track and tracking shot L 039 grasp the central elements of classical Hollywood narrative style linearity and a concern with individual charactersand their goals l 9 begin to see the central etements of classical Hollywood formal style including spatial coherence and its selfeffacing techniques 39 39 THE STUDIO SYSTEMMProgram 2 9 how filrnmaldng under the studio system differs from contemporary Hollywood filmmaking 39 0 the contrasting points of View about commerce some ways in which Paramount39s studioera films are characteriz thematically 390 the financial organization of the studios and 9 the relationshipbetween the locations of a stu studio ves 0 trace in broad outlines the changes in American society and world culture that enabled Hollywood to emerge as an entertainment institu on l g 1 0 perceive the technological foundations of filmmaking and the relationship between Hollywoods technology and its artistic style 399 perceive the studio system in economic terms 0 recognize that in the past studios not only made filmsbut them as quotwell 39 39 A y 0 define and comprehend the concept 35 vertical integration understand what an39 oligopoly is G perceive the corporate structure and interrelated nature of the major studios and their ar stic and promotional departments A t 0 grasp the significance of the Justice Department s actions against the studios in the 19308 and 19405 c 9 lunderstand the consequences of the studio system39s dismantling and see why the studio system no longer exists the studio system39s valueboth for art and ed stylistically and the in uence of New York executives dioquots theaters to films made by the 39 distributed and exhibited THE STAR Prog1 am 3 Central ideas raised in the program such as 39 e the rise of the star system 9 the relationship between film technology and stardom the ways in which the public s desire for stars is developed and encour Joan Crawford as a person and as a persona the nature of star performances within a film and fr the rise of Method acting in the 19503 39 aged om film to film After viewing the program ask yourself 9 What aspects of the program do you disagree with 39 y 39 6 Did any of the experts make claims that you found suspect incomplete or downright Wrong i 9 How were your assumptions about stars and stardom challenged by the program 9 Have you changed the Way you think about stars 6 W hat cultural information have I been given through various stars What have I learned about how women shouldquot or should not behave from a certain female star How have my ideas about rnascuiinitybeen affected by any male stars i y 9 Can you explain a star39s popularity Nhat attractsquot you What a tracts others Are there stars you quotparticularly iiice Why are you drawn to them 7 6 What if anything does that star say about American culture Objectives 39 39 39 39 i a grasp the broad significance of stars to American culture 6 define persona and understand the various masks that make up a star s persona e understand the mechanics of the star system in terms of publicity and advertising e see stars as a cultural phenomenon and analyze a given star s underlying cultural rneanings 39 1 4 recognize the economic importance of stars and describe the way in which they function as rnarketing tools 6 trace in general terms the development of stars from the silent era to the present 0 de ne Method acting and identify its bestknown practitioners begin to put their knowledge to use by analyzing the cultural significance of contemporary stars a 39 39 ROMANTIC COMEDY Program 5 Central ideas raised in the program such as 9 the relationship between screwball cornedies and the Great Depression s the role repression plays in screwball coroedy what is repressed and how it may nd expression in other forms 39 the key character types in screwball cornedy39heiresses journalists and others the screwball cornedy s conflicted View of love and marriage a differing critical analyses of key screwball comedies such as The Lady Eve and His Girl Friday their relationship to the genre and to society the social development of romantic comedy from the screwball era to the present day especially in the treatrnent of women 39 After viewing the program asklyotirself 39 9 How did the film change my perceptions about film comediesquot i i 9 Did the analyses of comedy in general and individual comedies in particular make sense to me If so would you be able to outline some of them brie y 39 Objectives 39 39 9 understand cornedy s function as cull quototherwise remain suppressed o T 1 9 identify and describe the great silent screen comedians Chaplin Keaton and Lloyd 0 recognize the term quotscrewball comedy identify the classic screwball films and note the stylistic and thematic preoccupations of the subgenre l 39 T quotrel dreamwork expressing tensions that may 0 describe the in uence of both the Great Depression and the Production Codeof Ethics I on screwball comedy 39 perceive the theme of social integration in American comedy understand the role of change in comedy the way comedy celebrates physical social and sexual exibility 39 39 0 understand the meaning of comic vulgaritymthe social and physical terms common nature of comedy in both Cenuel After viewinfg the pregrem ask Obj ecti THE COMBAT FILMquot Pmgrem 5 ideas raised in the program such es 9 the ideal platoon l 39 l l t 0 he communal versus the individual nature of heroism in some Combat films 6 the expressive nature of certain directors combat films l e the in uence of World War II newsreels on the combat film 0 the mixed messages of certain combat films39 the harshness of the story versus the filnfs heroic spectacle 39 yourself g 396 How were my expectations about combat films met 0 In what ways were my expectatiorts challenged Did the program change the way I think about combat films 39 ve s g g l t s understand the xrelevance of the conventional ideal39pletoen made up of different races religinms and ethnic groups h T g l T 9 perceive the communal nature of heroism in the combat genre and contrast this confmonelity with the individualism of much of Hollywood cinema 939 perceiVe the aesthetic expressive nature of the genre as a whole and John Ford s and Samuel Fuller39s combat films in particular 39 I 9 understand the role of the Office of War Information in the production of American propaganda duting World War II 0 grasp39thein ue139ice of World War II newsreels on the combat fitrri and con nue to refine gtheconcept of realism l L l define arid analyze the nature of sexuality in the combat genrewthe relative absenceof Women and the heightened sexual tension betweezi men 0 perceive the mixed messages of certain combat films for instance the harshness of Sands offwo Iz mczquots story versus the film39s heroic spectacle 1 comprehend the breadth of the war film genre and its conventions through a familiarity not only with the World War II arid Viemam combat film but also with Varia ons in the genre including War comedies musicals ancient epics and homef1quotont films z n Scarlet Street 3945 10239 CREDITS l t Director Producer Fritz Lang c Exec Producer Walter Wanger Cinematographer Milton Krasner Music Hans J Salter Art Director Alexander Golitzin Editor Arthur Hilton Costumes Travis Benton Paintings lohn Decker Screenplay Dudley Nicholsfro1n the Sound Bernard B Brown Glenn novel and play La Chieims by Georges B Anderson i de la Fouchardiere CAST 39 I Christopher Cross Edward G Robinson Kitty March Joan Bennett Johnny Prince Dan Duryea Millie Margaret Lindsay Adele Rosalind Ivan Janeway Jess Barker COMMENTS Story of the film Christopher Cross39a frustrated grayhaired cashier is unhappily married to Adele His greatest pleasure in life is painting on Sundays Late one evening on the way home from a party in his honor he rescues a young woman Kitty March from an assault and proceeds to fall in love with her He eventually sets her up in a Greenwich Village apartment using stolen money But all along Kitty has been involved with Iohnny her hustler boyfriend Things do not turn out well as the plot moves througha series of twists and turns A remake of Jeanquot Renoir s 1932 film La Chiemie The Bitch Pauline Kael describes Scarlet Street as quota sordid lowlife melodrama about illicit love She points out that quot it was originally banned in New York State ie denied a license 39as immoral indecent corrupt and tending to incite crime 39 While some have cri cized the screenpI39ay as heav39y handed and its direction as oVeremphatic 39 others have described the film as richly nuanced un inching and dealing with complex themes Andrew Sarris Lang s cinema is that of the nightmare the fable and the philosophical di39ssertation i t 39 QUESTIONS 1 What does the title mean in relation to the story 2 Why does the movie start the Way it does What about how it endsquot 3 How does the film use Chris s art as an important thematic element and motif 4 What do the central characters represent in themselves and in relation to each other What is the significarrce of the charactersquotr1arnesi 39 5 What does the film suggest about the nature of male female relationships What different views of men and women does the film contain 39 6 What point of View towards human beings and the human condition does the film pot forward What kind of life orwhat actions does the film ask you to Value or criticize and why 7 Howquot does the film make us feel about the characters in the film Do we care about them With Whom do we identify Do our feelings change during the course of the film 8 How does the film make use of dramatic irony in developing its story 9 In Scarlet Street much is predicated on misunderstandings and misperceptions How much quotdoes Lang make our experience of the film parallel the experiences of thelcharacters in the film 10 How do the stations settings contribute to the film s impact and its progression Key props Costumes Camera techniques Use of sound and music SUPPLEMENTARY QUEsT1o Ns for Scarlet Street About Story39 39 Is the story of the filmtold mostly from an objective point of View or from the subjective perspectiveof one character Do the objects arid props in the setting and the settings themselves have a special significance that relates to the characters or the story 39 About Cinematography Is there apattern of strildng camera movement perhaps long shots or dissolves or abrupt T transiticms l t c L i i What do you notice about how the camera is placed and used How is the film framed 39 39 quot 39 39 Do the shots have any kind of pattern What isthe Balance between continuity and discontinuity About Sound o What is the relationship of sound to the image How is dialogue used in the film i Are there sound motifs that are identified with characters or actions Identify three sighificant sound sequences in the film About The menquot l 39 39 What is the principal quotimpact or artistic thrust of the film Its dominant idea implication The oozaeasa 1925 95 CREDITS g s Production script and Photography R eJ Totheroh and Jack Wilson and direction Charles Chaplin Art direction Charles DHall C CAST Charles Chaplin the Lone Prospector quotGeorgia Hale Gequoto39r gia Mack Swain Big Jim McKay lialcolrn Waite jack Cameron Torn Murrayquot Black Larsen i Henry Bergman Hafnllt cares STRUCTURE or THE FILM t C 1 Prologue the Trek North 2 Cabin 3 Dance Hall 4 Cabin in Townt lfreani Interlude n 5 Dance Hall 6 Cabin 7 Epilogue the Voyage Home l THESTORY I g C The Gold Rush deals with Charliefs adventures in a lltlondillte39Inining camp his Search for gold his attempt to win the affection of a local dancehall girl and his efforts to avoid being eaten by bears and by prospectors who are bigger and hungrier than he 39 39 COMMENTS Charlie Chaplin a Long shot for comedy closeup for tragedy I m not an actor I am a poet quotIf what you are doing is funny you don39t have to be funny doing it i The identity of an object lies only in the attitude one takes towardit vquot39l T 39 In the creation of comedy it is paradoxical that tragedy stimulates the spirit of ridicule because ridicule I suppose isan attitude of defiance we must laugh in the face of our helplessness against the forces of natureor go insane t U152QJfxJ A James Agee Of all comedians Chaplin worked mostdeeply and shrewdly with a realization of what a human being is and is up against The Tramp is as centrally representative of humanity as manysided and as mysterious as Hamlet and it seems unlikely that any dancer or actor can have excelled him in eloquence variety and poignancy of inotion The finest pantomime the deepest emotion the richest and most poignant poetry were in Chap1in s Work Gerald Mast quotBeforequot Chaplin no one had demonstrated that physical comedy could be sirn39ultaneoiisly39hilarioiisly funny emoeoa11ytpassionatet andpointedly intellectual While his cinema technique tended to be invisible emphasizing the actoiiand his actions he gradually evolved a principle of cinema based on framing finding the exact way to frame a shot to reveal its motions and meaning completely without the necessity of making a disturbingc11t I C William Kuhns in a Chaplin movie sounds or even the visual suggestion of sound mattered hardly at all The effect was visually immediate and often extraordinarily complex Through his deft movements his poignant facial expressions and his onceasing inventiveness Chaplin could take a situation and gradually build it into something that was at once hilariously funny and poignantly hurnanf Robert Sherwood No spoken words ever reached the heights of Chaplin Lloyd and Keaton If they go in for humorous dialogue they will lose something that is priceless and irreplaceable for they have achieved by means of grotesque physical actions an eloquence that is far beyond the limitations of any language DavidRobinson A feeling for the dark and macabre has never been far absent from Chaplin s films i On The Gold Rush Waiter Kerr Chaplin wisely roots his comedy in an historical moment so repressntative that it takes on mythological status 5 The Alaskait gold rush was virtually the climax hence an ultimate symbol of a country39s discovery and mastery of its natural resources a moimtaiiiquotof geld was the equivalent of every imrnigrant s dream of streets paved with gold Julian Smith quot Chapliii managed to create a remarkably geiitllear1d forgiylirig film about isolation humiliatior and stiffering A Gerald Mast The Gold Rush depicts the lurequot of Wealth at the same time it reflects and Wryly comments onthe frenzied money madness of the twenties This ambivalence about gold its 39 inhuman deadhess and its attraction contributes to the fiira s richness i As usual in a Chaplin film the Tramp is Very much an outsider in theworld of the GoldRush ever in this society of l outsiders and outcasts The Tramp is too kind too sensitive to human needs and too spiritual for thatisolated materialistic world The Gold Rush is a near perfect blend ofpathos humor and social comment It reveals the typical Chaplin method of making comedy out of the most A basic andelemental human needslove shelter hunger i QUESTIONS 1 Chaplin was famous for transp39osi39tions of objects converting one kind of physical object into39 another Discuss instances of this techniqtie and the purposes to which they were P 4 2 How does hunger function as an all encompassing theme in this film What kinds of hunger are depicted l i 3 What kind of an ending does Chaplinycreate for this files What kind of iinpact does ithave 39 Where does it leave us With what expectations How improbable is it Does Chaplin do anything to mitigate objections that might be raised to it p 39 39 4 What is the effect and power createdquot by balancing the comedic scenes with sceiies of pathos and poignancy 39 39 l 5 Discuss Chaplirfs work as a director aiid as scriptwriter iii The Gold Rusi1 6 Usirignflie Gold Rasiz as your primary exhibit discuss what you see to be the basis of Charlie Chaplirss humor 39 l 39 l i y i l l I l 39 7 Compare Chaplirfs comedy with that of any contemporary film comedians 8 What did you notice aboiit howquot the camera was placed and used Did the shots have any kind ofa pattern a 39 39 39 39 9 What is the principal impact or artistic thrust of the film Its dominant idea theme I implication p y 39 10 What Values does the film asa coniplnete experience seem to recognize and support 11 What does it illustrate about the time and the place in which it was produced How does relate to its society and vai39ious social forces How did social forces sunains and ideas probably influence it Ilowmight it be iti uential 12 How does th39efilm s miss ensc ne contribute to its impact and its prciigression Lady Evequot 1941 97quot cneorrs Direction Preston Sturges Producer Paul Jones v Screen39play t Preston Sturges l Cinematography Victor Milner Basedon the story Two Bad Hats r Editing Stuart Gilmore by Monckton Hoffe i t Costumes Edith Ilead CAST A earquot caciquotr Eve Barl 39ara Stanwyck 39 Gerald Melville Cooper Charles Pike Henry Fonda y a Mrs Pike Janet Beecher quotquotColone1quot39 Harrington Charles Cohurn Muggsy Lwilliain Dernarest Mr Pike Eugene Pallette 39 x Sir Alfred Eric Blore COMMENTS Etlward Bidgeri quotquotPreston Sturges is the best comedy director of the 403 and he was equally good at light romance satire slapstick and even a stray serious moment In The Lady Eve Henry Fonda is a beer heir who is interested in snakes Barbara Stanwyck is a gold digger who is interested in Fonda s interest in snakes l James Monaco quotThe Lady Eve is a perfectly paced scre39wball comedy Stanwyck is the con artist who cons then falls for the child like Fonda on a cruise girl gets boy girl loses boy girl gets back at boy girl loses boy girl gets boy back lseslie Halliwell This amusing tri e about a bashful millionaire landed by the daughter of a confidence trickster was a sparkling example of the Sturges penchant for mixing sophisticated romance with pratfall farce Pauline Keel The Lady Eve is a mixture of visual and verbal slapstick and of high artifice and pratfalls Barbara Stanwyck keeps sticking out a sensational leg and Henry Fonda keeps tripping over it She39s a cardsharp and he39s a millionaire herpetologist who knows more about snakes than about women It is full of classic moments and classic lines AndrewSarri39s39 Sturges constructed the finest talking comedy machines in movie history It is a giddy pleasure to Watch them operate and particularlyto listen to the sounds they emit that rapid almost norestop stream of dialogue with virtually every character talking a surreal blue streak quot i x i i l 39 Jamie39s Curtis quotSturges saw his job as an cipating the interest of the audience and directing accordingly There is a law of natural interest and that is what an audience in a legitimate theater does for itself The more nearly the film cutter approaches this law of natural interest the more invisible will be his cutting If the camera moves from one quotperson to another at the exact moment that you in the legitimate theater would have turned your head you will not be con scio39us39of a cut If the camera misses by a quarterquot of a second you will get a jolt The camera i must point at the exact spot the audience wishes to look at any given moment To find that spot is absurdly easy you have only to remember where you were looking at the time the scene was made 39 7 39 39 39 III Sturges on critics l quotI try only to please the public not the intelligentsia I ve no patience with those who find solace in artistic success Stnrges Eleven Roles for Boxoffice Appeal gs A pretty girlie better than an ugly one A leg is better than an arm t A bedroom is better than a living room An arrival is better than a departure A birth is better than a death A chase is better than a chat 0 dog is better thana landscape A llti39ttenis better than a dog 39 A baby is better than a kitten 10 A kiss is better than a baby 11 quotA pratfall is betterthan anything Cgt0 15339 nts rJa QUESTIONS 1 10 The lady Eve manipulates and inverts narrative convention Discuss examples of how Sturges reverses our expectations The Lady Eve has been cailecl a frivolous masterpiece How is the epithet frivolous a 7 misnomer 39 39 In the midst of a loud gtxffaw one is surprised to find a lump in one s throat39and tears in one s eyes Andrew Sarris Does this description of Sturg39es s work correspondquot to your experience of The Lady Eve quotIf not what is your overall response to the film in terms of its serio comi39c mix T 39 How do you respondlto the female characters in this film How do their activities and aggressiveness strike you What occurs to you about how Sturges presents the female competition for Charles s attention during the firstscene in the ship39s dining room 39 In evaluating the ac ng in this film compare the different challenges faced by Barbara Stanwyck and Henry Foncla in playing their roles I Why do we accept as plausible the wildly improbable notion that Charles never realizes 39 that Jean and Eve are the same person 39 39 Stiirges lemployslong uncut quotsingle tallte scenes to establish the quotpremises of his elaborate scripts Cite examples of this technique from The Lady Eve What effect do they have Select examples of montage techniqne from this film How does Sturges utilize this technique to tell his story i Preston Sturges used a technique he called narratage Voice oVer narration and ashbacks or flashforwards to reveal a character39s private thoughts Do you find such a technique used inpT71e Lady Erie Cite examples andcliscoss t l quot The Bsdisadthe eaatifui 1952 118 CREDITS Producer lohn Housman V Editing Conrad A N ervig Direction Vincente Minnelli Art Direction Cedric Gibbons and Screenplay Charles Schnee AA Edward Carfagno AA based on the story quotMemorial to a Set Decoration Edwin E Willis and Badman by George Bradshaw A Keogh Gleason AA Cinematography Robert Surjtees AA Costume Design Helen Rose AA Music David Ralcsin 39 39 CAST 39 if 39 Jonathan Shields Kirllt Douglas Fred Arniel Barry Sullivan Georgia Lorrieon Lana Turner Rosemary Bartlow Gloria Grahame AA Harryquot Pebbel Walter Pidgeon Victor quotGaucho Ribera Gilbert Roland James Lee Bartlow Dick Powell Von Ellstein Ivan Triesault SYNOPSIS A rnovie producer turns his talent charisma and ruthlessness into film success stomping on careers and creating enemies along the way STRUCTURE OF THE FILM Prologue 3 Phone callsthe Trio Gathers Three Stories Fred Amiel s Georgia Lorrison s and James Lee Batlow s the Trio s Refusal and Departure COMMENTS Vincente Minnelli I Remember It Well quotThe Bad and the Bermti tl was a 39 harsh and cynical story yet strangely rornaniic All that one hated and loved about Hollywood was distilled in the screenplay the ambition39the opportunism and the power But it also told of triumphs A against great odds and the respect people in the industry had for other talents lltLirllt s 39perforInan39ce39Was quietly powerful and charming Lana s performance was equally as riveting Gloria s Southern belle was a highly accurate impersonation with just a touch of A humor and malice A A 39 A A A 39 Surtees photography was brilliant The camera work was a contrast in lush and velvety blacks and intense whites Without Surtees We could never have captured the alternately 39 affectionate and cynical moods whichwe needed Ed Lowry In The Bad and the Beautiful theatricality resulting from a tendency to shoot scenes from a fourthwall position blends with Minnelli s specifically cinematic ourishes in a clever realization of the themes of art and artificiality themes which run through his filrns 39 quot A concern with levels of on39reality informs most ofhis films most obviously perhaps in the Pirandellian meditation on Hollywood The Bad and the Beautiful Filmic fantasy is almost always present in Mirne1li s films even when theiraddmss the meat mundane human problems in basically realistic settings Virtually every Minnelli film contains a fantasy seqtience which is tolsay a mornent inishich the narmtive recedes in orderto allow a free play of symblois on an almost e3ltclusively39foronai level Thisposition is filled by the mad car ride in The Bad and the Beautiful Such extraenarrative sequences serve to condense and resolve plot elements on a visual emotional planequot A 39 39 MinnelIi s perspective is evident in the existential isolation of his characters and in the humanistic yet stoic attitude he adoptsin treating equally their petty jealoasies and their moral 39 fears A genuinely pained sense of the virtual impossibility of meaningful human contact informs the machinations of such a stylized melodrama as The Bad and the B39eautij ul A F or one critic V F iquoterlltins Minnellifs films provide some of the best examples of classical narrative quotstyle which naturalizes meaning through understated flourishes ofmiseenscene Philip Halliwellz The Baal and the Beeutz rl is a Ilnoderatelylcaustic Hollywood selfexpose An entertaining it ultimately cliche ridden melodrama A Bosley Crowther NY Times quotThe hero of thisrelentless saga is a Hollywood producer who is a heel a West Coast scoundrel a perfect Kirk Douglastype39bumquot Through the film39s gory dernonstration of the miserable innards of a man it displays the innards of Hollywood The filmmoves from producers offices to studio sets and screening rooms from cheap boarding houses to Beverly Hills mansions from Welleladen bars to beds pretty well indicating or suggesting what goes on therein They talk of shooting on location going over the btidget sneak previews and audience response and they make a few jabs at movie critics European directors Pulitzer prizes and such Hollis Alpert The Saturday Re39o39z ew quot The Bad and the Beautiful provides a more complete and sociological Vl W of the dream factory than any movie has yet atternpted Minnelli s picture is visuallyexci ng strikingly photographed and now and then reminds in its lighting of Citizcrz Kane V0 As an exhibaitionof know how in pictore mallting B 63 B is first rate although every now andlthen Charles Schneefs screenplay goes inquot for dubious rnelodrarna 39 39 Andrew Sarrisr Vincente Minnelli believes implicitly in the power of his camera to turn trash into art and corn into caviar 39 39 Pauline Kael The Bad and the Beautiful is a spangled overwrought piece of Hollywoodian self analysis a satire in spite of itself A glossy melodrama about as bad rnegalomaniac Hollywood 39 producer and a beautiful alcoholic star it is one of those movies that set sic out to explain What Hollywood is really like It39s a picyuant example of what it purports to exposewloxurious exhibitionismmand the course of what is described as the rat race to success quotquot l quotThe structure is too reminiscent of Citizen Kane but there are flashy entertaining scenes and incidents derived from a number of famous careers And the director Vincent Minnelli has given the material an hysterical stylishness the blacllt andwhite cinematography by Robert Surtees is more than dramatic it has temperament 39 loan Cohen quotMinnelli s idea was to incorporate many of the wellknown Hollywood legends into the lfilrnquot and yet at the same me give it a life of its own The resulting film possesses an inherent reality even though it appears to be a cliche about the eshpots of Hollywood His precise powers of obse39rva39tion are everywhere evident in this picture from the scenes of rnoviemaking to the blas smalltalk at Hollywood parties Prior to the film39s release the MGM publicity wheelswere grinding away Here was a picture about our town and no one was going to forget it A typical MGM blurb billed the quotpicture as not the Hollywood of yesterday but Today s Hollywood shoWir1g the working a great motion picture Studio and behind thesceoes View of what makes Hollywood ticlc 39 39 Iames Naremore The Films of Vincents Minnelli The Bad and the Beautiful is a film about the tawdry absurdities and operatic splendors of a strangely admirable industry quot The film intiznates thatArt provides consolation for greed bad behavior and human inadequacy the movies are their own justification Art as the ultimate jL1stificatio39rzthe Work is What really importantmthe betrayal and abuse are the price one must pay for great filrnsf 39In the last analysis The Bad and the Beauti zl depends on the same glamorous costumes melodramatic conventions and expensive productionyvalues it occasionally satirizesquot quotThe plot is elliptical filled with playful transitions that call attention to themselves and the emphasis on montage memory and rnultiple viewpoints elicits a rational response engaging the audience in analysis of thecharacters rather than in simple identification 39 39 Stephenlflarvey Directed by Vmcentc Minnelli The Bad and the Beautful above all celebrates the tempestuous joys of collaboration 39that fusion of divergent crafts and temperaments into a disciplined team bent on making was popular art quotThis film reeks of artifice in every frame which is what gives The Bad and the Beautiful its perverse an thenticity It parallels the sort of picture its cast of characters would make themselves since the only reality they recognize is the kind you learn from thelscreen The plot turns on the romantic conceit that in a company town manufa39cturing illusion art and life are inextricable 39 39 The work ethic is the one moral code in this hermetic environment with any meaning Collaboration substitutes for comradeship and whatever betrayals and hurt feelings explode between takes in the and all that counts is what39s up there on the screenquot 39 quotSelfreferentialquot playfulness is what gives The Bad and the Beautzf rl its particular zest Scene after scene is a kind of39shoW and tell about the craft of movie inaldng This bla39ckandWhite fantasia celebrates the energyiand showmaaship that made the studio system ourish John Housman People like these develop in any business where the rewards are high We made it a Hollywood story because this is a colorful industryquot 39 QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSIQN POINTS 1quot The Bad andthe Beautiful has been described as a high gloss melodrama Using concepts you have encountered thus far explore the film in terms of how it utilizes and manifests the elements and characteristics of melodrama 2 Based on the information acquired about the Hollywood Studio System from your reading and the American Cinema documentaries seen thus far discuss The Bad arid the Beautiful as supporting and or contradicting your sense of how the studio system func oned in the so called Golden Age of Hollywood 39 3 T The working title for this film was Tribute to a Bad Mari Near the end of production an MGM Studio executive came up with the release title Which title do you think is the more effective and Why The producer John Houseman objected to the change complaining about its vulgarity and bornbast although he eventually came to appreciate its approp39riateness39 4 Stephen Harvey calls The Bad and the Beautz zl quotA valentine to Ilollyvvood s love for its own scapegrace ways Use this statement as the starting point for an assignment about this film 5 quotIt has been said that in B 63 B Germanic mood and noir expressionism have infiltrated a 19503 soap opera Discuss what you think is meant by such a statement and whether it is true or not Support your assertions with examples from the film 6 Using Sarris phrase when describing Minne1liquots work corn into caviar discuss what it means to you in terms of B 8 B Ask yourself how the following references to the film might be used to elucidate Sarris s phrase hyste39rical stylishness the cinematography has 39 temperament Pauline lltael real and cliche at the same time loan Cohen and perverse authenticity Stephen Harvey J B 7 B How does the film attempt to motivate the characters behaviors Discuss how effective you find the film in this regard One critic has called the performances believable How believable do you find the characters and the actors performances Examine theissue of believability in cinematic acting using specific examples from this film 39 8 One critic said of Laria 39I39urner s Georgia Lorrison that quotshe is an actress playing an actress and neither one is real Explore What you think the critic means and evaluate the acting in term of your experience of the film i 9 Ed Lowry argues that the car scene that concludes the Georgia Lorrisori segment of The Bad and the Bezmtiful contains the essential qualities of the entire film only heightened and exaggeratedquot Consider Lowry s s comment and discuss how the scene fianctioins thematically and cinernatically within the film as a whole 39 10 Consider the end of the filrn How does it function therriaticaily and as a conclusion to the film snarrativ39e How ambiguous and openended do you find it 11 How informative about the operations and practices of a motion picture studio did you find The Bad and the Beautiful You might want to compare it with other behind thescenes films you have seen i 12 Compare B 65 B as an exemplar of classical narrative style andthe fil39m ster1dency to elicit an analytical rational attitude toward the characters Do these tendencies contradict or complement one another 13 The Bad and the Beauti zl has been called a selfreflexive film Explore ways in which it seems to be about itself and to make the audience conscious of the fact that it is watching a film Consider how this element adds to the complexity of the experience of viewing the film and at the same time detracts from the invisibility of the medium that is so much a part of Classical 3 Hollywood Style Does its selfreflexivity have other effects on the viewer s experience of the film T Er fekylf and Mr Hyde 1931 98 CREDITS Producer Reuben Mamoulian Director Reuben Marnoulian quotScreenplay Samuel Hoffenstein and Percy Heath from the novella The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson s CAST Fredric March Dr Henry Iekyllf Mr Edward Hyde 39 Miriam Hoplltins39 lvy Pearson 39 Rose Hobart Muriel Crew coMMEN s Cinematography Karl Stress Editing William Shea 39 Art directiom Hans Dreier Costume Design Travis Banton Music Herman Hand Makeup Wally Westmore Holmes Herbert Dr Lanyon Halliwell Hobbes Brig Gen Danvers Crew Edgar Norton Poole elltyll s butler Tempe Pigott Mrs Hawkins lvy slandlady Tom Milne quotShot in preHayes Code days and therefore able to trace39elltyll s troubles to their source in sexual repression elltyll s frustration over the enforced delay in his marriage becomes a reiterated motif in the dialogue and is underlined by diagonal Wipes linking him to his y fiancee at moments of stress preceding transformation Cunningly Marnoulian opens the films with a lengthy subjective sequence so that the first real view of Jekyll is when he embarks on his lecture on the possibility of separating the two natures of man aploy which simultaneously arouses curiosity about this man indicates his soaring intellectual arrogance and divorces him from society as represented by his distinguished dis39approving aurdience The rest stunningly shot by Karl Stress as a visual tour de force is both superb and slyly subversive Geoff Andrew In Dr Iekyll and Mr Hyde Marnoulian39 first employed sound camerawork and editing to creative a masterpiece of social and psychological insight Theegtltplicit contrast betweenLondon s staid aristocracy and its more voluptiious loWerclasses serve to reveal individual and universal schizophrenia Arthur Knightquot From start to finish Uekyll and Hydslwas a virtuoso work alrnost every scene revealed the director39s desire to break away from a literal use of the camera and a conventional use of sound The transformation isaccompanied by a vivid synth39eticallycreated sound track The recordists referred to it as Mamouliarfs stewquotbut it was probably the screen s first experiment iwith purely synthetic sound Thomas Bohn and Richard Stroingren quotin Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Reuben Marnoulian I experimented with overlapping dialogue sound flashbacksquot and synthetic sound Still his most important contribution to the developing art of sound film was his restoration of a sense of prnovement to the mediumquot Virginia Wright7Wex1nan Marnoulian with his cosmopolitan background has traditionally been praised for an innovative rhythmic style that seems to put his films into a realrn of ineffable feeling akin to that of music Yet even style rnaylhave ideological implications Marnoulian embellishesekyllcmd Hyde with arresting stylistic features derived from a variety of foreign sources Mincluding Soviet irnontagewhich gave thefilm an attractive aura of it 39 sophisticatedquot internationalism He uses style including drarnatic point of view shotsquot dissolves mirror shots and striking sound effects to draw thespectator into the world of a single protagonist Torn Milnelquot O1ne is almost tempted to say that every Mamoulilan film is a musical Pauline Keel The39 director Rouben Mamoulian rather overdoes the 39pseudoscience at the beginning This version set in a starched midVictorian environment suggests the lust that has y to comeout and the attraction of the gutter John Eastman quotReuben Marnoalian liked to emphasize that his concept of Hyde was not as a monster but as an exuberant Neanderthallilce primitive man who only gradually becomes 39 corrupted Fredric March wore different layers of makeup each layer was sensitive to different lens filters thereby allowing March to accomplish his intricate transformations from Jekyll to Hyde TOPICS ANo DISCUSSION rowers 39 e Compare some aspect of the noyelia and the tin For example how the male opposit characters of the novella become female opposite characters in the film Discuss reasons for the to39picquots enduring popularity as a subject for cinerriatic adaptation i Discuss what you see to be key stylistic devices used by the director and his collaborators in interpreting the story cin39ernaiically Consider how Dr Iekyll and Mr Hyde utilizes specific cinematic techniques eg the swish pan the wipe and montage for thematic purposes 39 Examine the film s use of elements and techniques of sound in the process of telling its story and39co1nmunicating theme 39 I 39 Examine the film39s pervasive use of statues as ironic commentary on the filrrfs action Examine the film in terms of how it demonstrates and or contradicts key elements of the horror genre as analyzed by Belton in Ams39rz39cm39f1 CinemaAmerz39cci1 Calmrc Consider Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in terms of the issues of sexuality and gender difference it raises What are significant implications of the film in its sociological historical or quotanthropological aspects i Eg when was the film made versus when it was set Discuss Iekyll and Hyde in terms of how its central contradiction conflict is represented in the film39s narrative structure its characterizations and or its style Exarnine key aspects of Fredric March39s portrayal of the title role l Compare the characterizations of Jekyll and Hyde in terms of how they relate to the quot film39s central meaning Consider the racial overtones in Iekyll and Hyde particularly in the film 39 s representation of Hyde and his appetites behaviors aspirations and inclinations c Hollywood39s discourse on beauty has been described as pervasive and complex constructing sexual preference both within individual films and more generally by means of its prornoiion of stars Consider how Dr Iekylln and Mr Hyde can be seen as part of that discourse Setters 1943 939 CREDITS T Direction Zoltan Korda Cinematography Rudoph Mate Screenplay johnloward Lawson Music Niklos Rozzzsa dz Zoltan Korda adaptation by James Editor Charles Nelsori O Hanlor1 from an original story by Art Direction Lionel Banks Eugene Lourie Philip MacDonald based on an Set Decoration William Kiernan mcident ll a Soviet film The Sound Lodge Cunningham Thirteen T CAST Sgt Joe Gurm Humphrey Bogart USArniy Waco Hoyt Bruce Bennett Texas Fred Clarlltson Lloyd Bridges Australia Sergeant Major Tambul Rex Ingram Sudan Giuseppe J Carrol Naish Italy T 39 39 Jimmy Doyle Dan Duryea Brooklyn Capt Halliday Ri chard Nogeot relarzd Marty Williams Carl Ilarbord British quotlean Lerouxy Louis Mercier France39 Capt Von Schletow Kurt Krueger PeterStegman Guy IltingsfordS Africa Maj Von Falken John Wehgraf Ozzie Bates Patricllt O lloore British Sgt Krause lans Schumm 3 Lulubelle M3 General Graritquot tank 1 STORY Durin the retreat from Tobruk a group of men of mixed nationality battle the desert and soldiers of e Afrika Korps quotTheir tank keeps rolling picking up strays along the way until it has a full Hollywood ethnic complement Pauline Kael t COMMENTS t Bosley Crowther NY Times quotThe film makes you feel grit beneath your eyelids sweat rolling down your back and the pitiful choking sensation of your tongue being swollen with thirst Bo39ga39rt s toughness his trehchant laconism and genius for using a poker face mark himas probably the best screen notion of the American soldier to date The film is a laudable conception of soldier fortitude in this war and it is also a bangup action picture cut out to hold one enthralled 39 olm39HoWard Lawson quot39Sehzm uses a battle situation as a frarne ofreference for the study of larger problems of human conduct and responsibility It could not convey its message without the Sudanese soldier B Dick quotSahara was envisaged by john Howard Lawson as an allegory of brotherhood arid to make the allegory as comprehensive as possible Lawson devised an international cast Sahara is dialectic rendered as narrative aheterogeneous military detachment resolves its political and cultural differehces The ending is not a conclusion but a synthesis and the syr1thesis39in turn is a miracle L Suid The clash between Nazi aspiration for world dorriination and the American determination to stop Ilitler s conquests had one of its best expressions in Sahara The film carried stereotyping to its logical conclusion by having actors represent Whole nations The movie Worked as drama because the contrasts between the stereotyped Alliesquot and their stereotyped eriemies mirrored the tensions and differences between the warring nations themselves 39 t 39 Although Sahara worked as action drama and message it still did not recreate World War II as it was actually being fought The British could point out that the Americans had had no part in defeating the Germans at El Alamein in 1942 Humphrey Bogart and Lulubelle notwithstandirgg However in the early days of the war the United States had few successes to which it could point The fantasies the filmmakers created Within a broad historical framework could not providevictories But they could impress the American people with some of the realties of War In doing so Hollywood helped stimulate patriotism and the war effort on the home front and it offered the message of ultimate victory by the Allies 39 G Duchovney Sahara is considered by some commentators as an excellent presentation of the American soldier others see it as good entertainment but preposterous melodrama quotteatime Basiriger uses Sehsra as one of five war films the others are Bataan Guadalcanal Diary Destzrzstiou Tokyo and Air Force to define the recurring traits of character setting narratiyfe structure cultural attitudes and languagefilm language and dialogue fourid in the Worid War il combat film She notes how Sahara uses men to create a rnirzi UN 39 Thoma39s39O Kelly in Race and Racism in the American WW II film The Negro the N azi and the Iapin Bataan and Setters examines the racist attitudes of Americans and how those attitudes were refiected in films made in Hollywood Attitudestoward Germans were not as racist as those toward Japanesequot and presentations of African Americans suggested tokenism lltellygive39s some baclltg39rour1d39onthe various offices propaganda and censorship created by the government and the Bureau of Motion Pictures work with them to try to create certain types of images including emphasis on an ethnically complex team 39 Theodore lltornWeibeI s examination of the movie focuses on two aspects of the film the process of government pressure on movie studios to ensure that the approved war aims were presented and the possibilities for artfully harnessing wartime patriotism to cherished American values of individual self reliarice self sacrifice and the nation s role as beacon of hope and right A to a benighted world He finds the film39s propaganda an erchetypally American vision that plays on standard stereotypes of cruel Germans and confused Italians Kornweibel contends that Sshsre uses cowboyfrontier imagery to manipulate emotions about the war effort T Dohe1 ty The Axis alignment in39Sczham registers the difference between warm blooded redeemable Italians and cold blooded degenerate Germans The sand swept combat film sets the I sympathetic Italian POW Guiseppe against a malevolent ziibermensch Eventually the government and the motion picture industry arrived at an ideal that mediated between Gestapo bozo and invincible iibermerzsch that portrayed the enormity of the menace without discouragirtg resistance quotAn enemy portrayal might be laced with comic relief but that doesn39t mean we will Z make fools of our enemies or underrate their cleverness No Nazi or lap will be portrayed as a comic figure for as Well as being dangerous that would only provide a hero or heroine with 39 windmills against which to battle and would ldlldramatic impact There was never any monolithic master planno OWI directive with the force of law no industry memo that set out unbreachable guidelines It was a fine line onethat the government sometimes traced vaguely one that the industry sometimes crossed over But by about 1943 it was39sornething like an official line It said thatlwar is a serious business where people you love die Where you sacrifice your personal desires for the nation s good where the enemy is deadly not dumb where there is true glory but where victory exacts a price quot 39 Though Hollywood convention and wartiroe necessity made for aC0mplexhybrid39neW spaces for interracial mingling opened up during 194145 as never before Dverseas theaters of operation hosted a goodly shareof integrationist action ln therzombat zone under duress removed from the codes and morality of civilian iife normai hierarchies and social customs broke down In Sahara Rex Ingram plays a gallant Sudanese sergeant who confronts a Nazi officerJim Crow surrogate On behalf of NAACP Roy Wilkens publicly commended Columbia for the outstanding contribution of Srzhsrri C Koppes and G Black OWI worked closely with screenwriters John Howard Lawson and Zoitan Korda to strengthen certainpropaganda themes At OWl s urging the screenwriters made the Sudanese an equal instead of a sort of faithful Gunga Dirt The Frenchman originally begged Gunn not to let the German capture him leaving theimpression he was afraid to die The revised edition did high justice to the Fighting French Sahara affirmed the unity of the United Nations Just as combat films dealing with American troops had an ethnically all American platoon Sahara had an international platoon Froma propaganda peI39spective the 39 image of the enemy was also correct The Germans were tough but not unbeatable The Italians were presented as despising fascism Sahara was a tirnely confirmation of Allied policy toward Italy v REFERENCES 39 I Dick Bernard The SterSpangled Screen 1985 Doherty Thomas Projections of War Hollywood American CultLrecmd W WH 1993 Duchovnay Gerald Humphrey Bogart 2 BioBibliography 1999 39 39 Koppes Clayton R and Gregory D Black Hollywood Goes to War How Politics Pro ts and 0 PropagarzdaSlm39ped WW II Mooz39es 1987 A T l Suid Lawrence H G tits and Glory the Making ofthe American Military Image in Film 2002 oussrrosrss A 1 Strueturally how is Sahara organised Does it have a threeeaetlsttucture or is it organized some other way What are its major parts or sequences 39 Whereis the major crisis or turning point What constitutes the climax of quotthe film i 2 Apply the concept of the ideal platoon to Sahara Think about where the story begins and how it ends in terms of the relationships among the characters Also examine the communal versus the individual nature of heroism in this film i 0 0 339 How are the characters in Sahara presented and developed How do they function as individuals and as symbols and as stereotypes What about contrasts between them their similarities and differences How are the enemy combatants portrayed and how do they function within the film 4 Initially what are the tensions between and among the rnen39 How do those tensionschange 0 and evolve How is the enemy portrayed quotcompared to the Allied soldiers Whois the 0 Y protagonist Who the antagonist 39 5 What ultimately makes the tank contingent the ragtag ad hoe group strongerquot than the larger more powerful singleminded opponent How is the Allied groups key decision arrived at and what does it contribute to the overall meaning of the film How doyou read Whatthe end of the battle implies 6 Imagine the impact of Sahara on a 1943 audience What kind of realizations might it evoke what kind of assumptions does it rely upon Contemporary audiences found it poignant and inspiring It earned 2300000 in its first three weeks of release and was Columbia s biggest rnoneyrnaker in 1943 Examine your own reactions Consider differences and similarities 7 What role do you see propagand39a39playing in Sahara Assurning that all films operate on more than one level what are some of the levels of meaning you detect in this movie What rnessages4 rnigtlted quotor otherwise does the film convey 2quot 39 39 39 0 8 Using John Howard Lawson s comment above discuss the problems of human conduct and responsibility dealt with in Sahara 39 r 9 Sahara has been labeled a heated call for racial justice as and like Bataan shows how super uous racial problems are when common dang er39is faced Discuss your sense of this film as an attempt to deal with racial issues Consider the impact and importance of the role of Sergeant Tarnbul and the quaiities he brings to the film i 10 Examine Sahara and discover whether you agree or disagree with one critic39s assertion that the film uses cowboy frontier imagery to manipulate emotions about the War effort 11 Does sexuality play a role in Sahara Does the physical absence of Women have an impact on this film Is there asense in which women are present in the film 12 How does Sahara compare with other combat films that you have se39enboth older films and contemporary ones 39 QUESTIGNS quotIQ BE ASKEB ABQU1 ANY FELM What significance does the t1t1g have in relation to the film as a whole Why does the movie start the way it does What about how it ends 39 ls7the plotz story contrived rnelodtamatic or39ine39Vitable Does the filrn s outcome depend on chance or does it grow logically out of the impact of character upon charactec Of event upon character Of event nponevent l Is the plot story of the film told 1nostly39frorn an obfectivte point of View or from the 39subiective persfpec ye of one or more quotcharactersquot 39 39 What are the key conflicts in the film How is a sense of inner action conveyed y How does the film make use of dramatic irony indeveloping its story What ironies are present in visual sequences dialogue or events 39 39 What do the central characters represent in themselves and in relation to each other Are the characters believable Do they learn or change in some way Do they refuse to change Are they simple or complex 39 i What is the significance of the characters nanres Does the acting strike you as realistic or syzylized Believable or exaggerated How does the film make us feel about the characters in the film Do we care about them With whom do we identify Do our feelings change during the course of the film Is there a pattern of striking camera naoyenient perhaps a pattern of long shots and closeu39ps Do the shots and Seq1ie39nces progress Do the shots have any kind of pattern obtru sive What didyou notice abouthow the camera was placed and used Is FA invisibleror Howwas the film framed Is the framing tighter loose Symmetrical or asymmetrical In the editing how do we get from sequence39to39sequence Dissolves or abrupt transitions What was the balance between continuity and discontinuity Invisibility and invisibility 39 quot c What is the relationship of isound to the image How much synchronous versus asynchronous sound Diegetic or non rdiegetic How is diaLogLe used in the filth What kinds andlevels of langnage are used The use of music Are there leitmotifs39 that are quotidentified with characters or actions Is the music appropriatetand functional Does the musicquotau39gment the lm39s effect Are music and sound used to stimulate emotion For other pinposes t l Are there significant sound sequences in the film How does the film39s 1rnise en scene including its settings key propslighting and costumes contribute tothe film s impact its progression its rhythm Do the objects and props in the setting and39the settings themselves have a special signi cance that relates to the characters or the story i 39 39 How would you characterize its environment and atmosphere What is the principal impact or azftistic thrust of the film The dominant idea theme imlication The principal experience to be appreciated vicariously What are the key issues or questions it raises a l What objects statements orevents become symbolic How Are there mythic elements presentquot T r s a What is the film s39ideology What pointofview towards human beings and the human T condition does the filinput fo39rward What moralattitudes are retreated by the characters Within the aches or oy the Writer or director 39 39 39 What values does the filmgas a completeexperience seem to recognizeartd support W What lltl139lCl39Of life or what actions does the film ask us to value or criticize and whyquot What kind of reaction is expected from the audience How does the film seek to affect the audience What is the desired range of response sympathy horror anger W amusement etc lf you Were39usipng the film principally to illustrate a point what would the point be Why would the film be a good example to use What are gj1estions it seems to ask Issues it seems toraise 39 39 What does it illustrate about the time said the place in which it was produced How does it relate to its society and various social forces How did social forces strains and ideas probably influence it How might it laeiirifluential Inwhat area in the film is realisrit of accuracy important Social political historical psychological personal emotional 39 39 39 What hidden assumptions does it contain and utilize Does the film attempt to hide them or do you suspect the fi1mmallter is hardly or not at all aware of them Are there assumptions the film seems to support MELODRAMA1 Peter Brooks The Melodramaric Imagination 1976 6 Indulgence in strong ernotionalisrn it Moral polarization and schernatization 9 Extreme states of being situations actions Overt villainy persecution of the good and final reward of virtue In ated and extravagant expressions Dark plots suspense breathtaking reversals Melodrarnas are marked by chance happenings coincidences missed meetings sudden conversions lastminute rescues and revelations dens ex machine endings They involve continual surprises and sensational developments The tendency is towards excessrover cause extraordinary over ordinary for example fate chance and destiny The key to the narrative logic of melodrama is the need to produce discrepancies between the knowledge and point of view of the character and the knowledge and point of View of the spectator This discrepancy is ultimately what produces the pathos that culminates in p tears Steve Neale Melodramawat theatrical forrn originating in late 18 century France Plots centered on imperiled virtue black villainy and fantastic coincidences that i allowed the former to triumph over the latter Heigh39tenedenotions and exciting sitt1ations mattered for more than coherent narrative progression 39 a Stock gures of no great psychological depth inhabited the improbable plots most importantly the pore heroine the gallant hero and the dastardly villain 19403 Woman s film soap operas TV miniseries hat is a GENRE A category a kind 8 type of lm production A recognized as having sirnilarplot elements settings characters icons themes structural elements and artistic style A source of stability and control of the marketplace Similar and different Combines Familiar and unknown V Convention and novelty Expectations and surprises Uniformity and variety Genreshelp shape our understanding of American culture character and identity but they also shape Americanculture character and identity GEHFG can b6 S6611 l0 have Psychological basismw Working through repressed and contradictory elements intsociety sp collective psyche Ideological basisw L Ideology consists ofthe takenf0rgranted vaiues and concepts that underpin a porticulartsociety it Justifying a society s behaviors and structures and the conditions it imposes on its members Industrial ibasis Incorporating an element of predictability and inner stability into an industry Whose output is essentially intangible A Sample Tide Page Tewistsein The Women Microfheme r 328 werds Month Day 2011 Z A Word counts for other sample microthemes Don t Look New 380 End of Godfather H e 381 Marx and the Mafia 239 V Roger Malone TA 38411quot Amer Cinema 39 Cuiturel Winter 2011 9 Roger Malone 399 TA 385U g By most counts The Women George Cukor seems to be ajstahdard movie 9 ahout social relations in 19303 society There are though two odd twists to the movie that should catch ahybody s eye one there is not single man in the movie and two in themiddle of this bias ahd Whitefilm there is aarather long fashion show sequence in full color Why these twists and are they something more than gimmliaagcks T A 9 9 T The women at the heart of this movie are 7 some ways independent and pi repsoureeftil Their lives are not though liheratedp i in any modern sense for men padretcoristahtly being discussed and in uencing the behavior of all the 9 Women The physicaiabserzce of all the men from the screen consequently becomes an ironic way of suggesting how powerfully present those men are in v the lives of gwomeh For the women in this movie ever when men are not there 9 they are there The fashion show sequence seems related to this same idea The sets the costumes and the actresses in The Women are all St11I1fii39Iig and the female 9 characters all seem concernedi with how they and their surroundings appearm especially to men What could be a more accurate and appropriate centerpiece 9 quot for the movie than a fashion show ofwomen showing other women how to appear hand what to Wear What could be a more effective Way to Imderiine the importance of thismomeht ii the film than by making it the oriiyittcolorsequence T in the movie The Women was made in 1939 by the same studiothat produced 9Tze Wzaazrd of Oz the same year In The Women however the flightyihto color does not 9 last as longas Dorothy s and for these women theyellow brickroad is fashion 39 itself Through itsgunusual twists moreover it seems to make a pretty standard poinitzi evehwhen you caimot see behind the cuttaih at the center of the action hiding there is stilll a mean 9 Nigel Singerpanz TA 3851 Dorft ook Now Nicholas Roeg 1973 is a movie about not wanting to see red but beirig unable riot to see red The story eoricerris a than and a worhari whose young daughter dies hagieally by drowning Later they go to Venice wheretrche hasa job restoririgiarz old church iwhich is slowly sinking They both want to forgetithe horrible death of their daughter but in Ver1icethey and we the frightened vieWers are pursued by a color the ibright red glow of the rairieoatithe daughter was Wearing when she died i i Even beforeher death the color leaps out of the film While the father is studying slides of the church he will repair the torts and texture Of39il TEquot1 3CiiI1 the image begins to Vibrate and then ooze like blood As if it is a premohitiori he dashes outside to find his child face down in a pond her coat the same color of the red in the slide i i A i y p Venice is a rather grey city in this movie but Wherever the father tarrisg i the bright shade of red seems to catch his eye as if it had a life of its own or was l3 39Cllt01 1lI1g from another World Stained glasswindows pieces ofclothing or a passing car for a second or longer appear to be the shade ofred which we and he have come to identify with the dead daughter That red is a common color if a shocking one only adds tothe mystery and confusiiorz as this simple color grows more and more hypno c and frightening It seems to corstrast with the ordinary grey life ofVenice and since Visual space is made so claustrophobyic by the riarrow Wiridy streets of thecity the glimpses we arid the father catch o fleeing red figure in the biackground become moments of one terror fhe color becomes a life in itself a life that comes to mean death The greys of Venice and the mazelike spaces of its streets make this color impossible Flquot E1 to miss aridlmore fascinating because it is always vanishing in thedepths The shockof thefinal scene when we and the father nally corner the color suggests that we have been ihorribly sedticed by the power of Roeg s images William Phillips TA 385U lr1ythefinali5O seconds of The Godfather Part II Francis Coppola 1974 the images centei on Michael Corleooei and Show him atthfee stages of his life as a yoimg idealisticiman sitting int the vvaifoith of the family dining 1 OOi 1391b y means of at slow lap dissolve as his father s boyin his fathefsihands which shortly before had kiilled an old man and finally by meazasp of aiaojther dissolve as a mature man As a child he is gotideed by his aifecdfooatefather as an adult he is alone In the concluding scene we dot1 tlltnovv What he is feeling but his expression suggests he is not happy it s coid the leaves 0lquotlquotlZii groiiod suggest itis the dead time of year The same mood is symbolized by his dark clothes and part of his face is lit in hard uncomplimeotafy light toward the end of the shothalf ofhis face is in the dark He shows no Sign of relaxadonor enjoyment even though he is in a beautiful though cold settiiig Toward the end of the shot only Michael is in focus he is seen out off from everything else Michael seems to be reflecting OT things past Like his father he has gained power and settled old scores but he lacks his father39s Warmth and skill withpeople His father as the sound track reminds us was seen by his family as a jolly good fellow but by this point Michael is alieriated from his family I The concludingpimages ofPa39rt II intensified by the accompanying music i evoke the loss of ingnocenceand unrealized dreams and are quite moving The 50 seconds are rich in meaning feeliiig and importance for all of Part ll indeed for the complete godfather story In this scene the filmmalcing is complex yet subtle lts techhiqueswligh ng camera Work acdog sound4are appropriate effective yet they do not call attention to themselves and so they avoid detracting from the film39s impact The concluding seconds of the film create a unified and appropriate fihalreactiori to the film as a whole We sense Michael s a profound ennui at how his life has turned out but we are also aware of his grim determination to persevere in the life he has chosen John Hess TA SBSU Godfather Part II FranclisCoppola 1974 clearly shows the destructzion EtI1i39 39Il 1mo otainability of the basic bourgeois values They are not desofoyed because they are inadequate per se family ties social mobility quest for security male companionship and even religioftis values all relate andtcorrespohd to real ur1iVersalh1ia1an needs for cott1rrlumityylove respect support appreciation Coppola demonsoates that the social iitsh39t11tions oticlear family Mafia family ethnic community and the Chiirch Mupon which the Corleones relied to provide ands protect these values withered before the irra onal desouctive forces of capitalism the main goal of which is profit not the meeting of human needs Coppola builds up interweaves and nally destroys four levels of ltamilialaf lia otiswthe nuclear family the Mafia family the ethnic community and the Catholic Church Through careful juxtaposition he shows how each shives unsuccessfully to create anideal community In all cases the needs of a business desaoy whatever communal aspects these associa oifis might provide In fact it is the very effort to conserve and support these families that becomes corrupted by business and desooys them Godfather II Works out on the level of 7 human rela otis Marx s insight that capitalism even at its best must destroy human life and associations to exist Thus the more vigorously bourgeois society strives to achieve the ideals it has set for itself the more desmictive ahd corrupt it becomes And contradictioh is most clearly visible in American gaogsterdom the perfectimicrocosm of American capitalism 3
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