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Modern Lit & Theory

by: Edyth Hackett

Modern Lit & Theory ENL 110B

Edyth Hackett
GPA 3.99

John Marx

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John Marx
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edyth Hackett on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENL 110B at University of California - Davis taught by John Marx in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/191969/enl-110b-university-of-california-davis in Foreign Language at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 09/09/15
ENL110B April 5 2011 Lecture 3 Brooks and Bakhtin Relation between nature of people and literature How is literary study becoming institutionalized and who are they trying to sell the discipline to Ngugi and Leavis made twofold move Suggest that literature is close to the culture of a people and that literature contains knowledge of a general population The only people who really get to understand this are the people who are in the English major Very specific group of people Like fields of history and political science tec In English we don t train you do to a particular job English vocations come outside of the major such as degree in law or teaching For Leavis and Ngugi this makes you better because you have a broader base as compared to the individuals who go straight for the other field Because English is a clearinghouse of other disciplines Learning about literature will allow you to intervene in culture Like any discipline in which you can earn a degree English can keep position in university by specifying object of study gets smaller but also that it is broad Arguments this week are with eye on academny as whole with a claim for what literature means in a curriculum how to equip people with literature and language to claim expertise Critical thinking skills equip you to understand logical situations and how they get resolved paradoxes These are skill prized in law firms and advertising firms English has added problem like history with competing with ordinary readers and experts outside of the academy Same with history civil war buffs How do we distinguish our expertise from those that are not taught Bakhtin wishes to designate an expert study of fiction in part by telling you what a novel is in a very precise way the novel that doesn t apply to poetry Brooks tries to describe a poem in a way that distinguishes it from a novel Literatures intervention in culture Bakhtin is on side of leavis and Ngugi Brooks wants to isolate world from text Make it impossible to blur lines of poem and anything else Bakhtin less interested in thinking of novel as a coherent whole it is always being pulled apart A play between forces Brooks don t want to paraphrase a poem Bakhtin doesn t want to change novel into a political piece propaganda Both have precise ways about what counts as llliterary formquot Leavis taught generarions of readers how to attach literature to culture brooks teaches how to read literature in a pattern literature becomes a bouquet of intrinsically beautiful items He is interestd in wholes not parts Brooks has thought about this in evalutating works of arts Has no problem with literary excellence Gives short list of poems that best describe this Structure enables value judgments of a hierarchical nature Not afraid to tell you what great poetry is What makes poetry great is its totality Greatness is more than sum of beautiful parts Bakhtin is fascinated with relationship between parts Brooks 1223 poetry that brooks likes Essential structure of poem resembles art or painting 1227 what poem does How poetry remakes language It doesn t simply reproduce language Poetry assemples terms we might think of as opposites and reconscils them and reassembles the life of though it is in terms of structure we define poetry means something far more internal than pattern or sequence of images These can help illuminate but not the whole part of quotstructurequot Taught to look for irony of poem Similar to architecture A building is not about a part it is about the building as a whole 1228 poem could be a true poem is not about an experience but it IS an experience 1226 it is about itself not about other stuff Uses for poetry are always to be found Poetry is useless and that is its merit It is about itself It doesn t make you a better person or teach you about your culture Brooks is certain about what literary scholars study They should look for resoved stresses Should study difficult poetry Because hes so clear about how poetry counts also makes clear what literary study is differetnt from other studies Science denotes poetry connotesScientific symbols are defined in advance and do not change But poet needs to rewrite language Poetry is always a meditation on language It is never ordinary language There is nothing in a poem that is unprocessed Brooks doesn t care about popular literature He doesn t think you should be studying much since eliot wrote llthe Wasteland Paraphrasing is a heresy because it only summarizes content not the experience 1224 almost always going to be idea based Experience of reading a poem is supposed to feel like Propaganda is like paraphrasing trying to get across a certain message For brooks it is not about you at all The canon is made up of what is best He is trying to have a fight with the scientists You dn t choose a chemistry experiment because it makes you feel a certain way but because there is a truth in it Tryinmg to suggest that maybe literature does too Brooks feels that popularity has no place in the classroom Cannot make own interpretation and discuss it Emotional response cannot be similar to the experience Brooks doesn t need an author to talk about the poem just as he doesn t need an au dience You just read what is on the page It is just you and the poem Don t need context Don t need you except for brain power Just need the poem on the apge Brooks terms only apply to the poem not the novel Bakhtin claims style is not about authorial style it is about the variety of language that the novelist pours into novel Poetry is a single style attacks scholars who only care about unitary language Share and insistence on treating literary objects as art not rhetoric both bakhtin and brooks Women are endangered by novels into the 20 h century early 20 h century have people writing novels as difficult as poems Ngugi and leavis would suck fiction into academy Definition of novel stylistic uniqueness of novel language of novel is system of languages In brooks unity in bakhtin system Novel can be defined as a diverstity of social speech types sometimes even diverstity of languages not the kind of thing you would get from brooks Diversity of individual voices artistically organized n differnet novels meaning ofverse can be different It depends on what its being put next to will it ironize the quote or read it straight Nothing that shows up in a novel is unworked Everything is processed by their context 1081 single language and single style genres poetry disagrees with books on important to study but seems to agree on what makes a poem To read a novel is to learn to manage the languages in styles 1079 terms heteroglossia and diologizing o Heteroglossia language is heterogenous it has many styles language 0 Dialogizing styles set in dialogue with one another If you don t get unity there might be hierarchy If bible quote is given more authority than a Milton quote then there might be a hierarchy going on 1085 Useful to think about this as national or cultural languge French try to purge language of foreign elements purifying side Professional languages such as lawyer or phsycician languages are exclusionary want to kick everyone else out Oprah as Brooks She sibuilding a list of books but they re accessible But she also has a formula for how people should read They should feel If you want a culture to pull together you want to manage heteroglossia in the literature You want unify Heteroglossia top of 1079 authorial speech speeches of narrators speeches of characters etc heteroglossia is the coming together of all of these in the novel Diologize compositional unities in which heteroglossia can enter the novel Put in dialogues with one another This is how the art of the novel happens the art of the novel is the way things are combined within Can novel contain poetic elements For BA yes For BR no Nature of material sets problem we solve and solution is ordering of material Boorks comes close to porposing use for poetry Poetry becomes a use for thinking and thinking about strenuous logical problems If poems help us solve logic problems then maybe we don t need philosophers ENLllOB March 31 2011 Lecture 2 Leavis is lecturing at London School of Economics Arnold llCulture and Anarchy Possible to group Ngugi and Leavis but Arnold deviates Between NgugiLeavis and Arnold the University as we know it is born Arnold talks about culture culture is an actor on its own with LeavisNgugi culture needs experts to maintain it Ngugi Leavis culture is ethnic local in place Culture is tied to demographic Culture is ethnographic sociological Believe that they must compete with institutions like sociology and linguistics etc to lay claim to culture If one thinks of culture as tied to a people that does nto mean that you cant judge it Leavis s version of culture is different from that of anthropology it is not as objective Trying to thinko fwhat it means to evaluate culture Idea of literary excellent is a political idea If hold on to term need to find ways of retooling criteria Ngugi and Leavis judge culture as healthy or ill able to judge quality whether culture is elite or popular Just because ethnographic does not meant that you cant weigh in on it Leavis gives curriculum Ngugi asks to be reflexive Evaluate culture as a mechanism as a thing that generates insiders and outsiders Culture in this sense excludes even as it includes If you have a culture I may not be allowed in it For Ngugi there will be a lot of people included but not all will be professors Same with Leavis not all English people are English majors Bys aying you like a particular kind of literature this may be for both lavis and ngugi the way of identifying the culture you belong to Try to define that group requires a study of literature Every nation needs its literature Can learn about US and people through its literature But that is not always what literature was for Arnold does not believe that literature is about showing people that they belong to a nationculture Thinks it is more universal rather than putting people in ethnographic boxes Evaluating culture objectively vs subjectively If good or bad that is subjective Hard to do that objectively if take culture seriously Like with anthropology not supposed to juedge culture just figure out how they think Leavis and Ngugi are both concerned with problem of inauthenticity There is nothing but inauthenticity Always will be lacking always disappointed n once sense Ngugi and Leavis are at odds because of what should be taught but also in line because of what they think culture should be Ngugi post colonial literature was about greatness Postcolonial literature loosens bond between language and literature Things written in English vs Culture of English English has become such a multifarious tongue For Ngugi studying English literature does produce a problem if not anglosaxonized because it warps sense of world English literature can do something to you it has an uprooting power Ngugi agrees with Leavis that it does have power it does do something to you Cultures are not nature Thus authenticity is funny word to use Culture is made not born Literature is one of the fundamental ways that culture gets made partly because it is textual Evan oral is textual It s stable Ngugi if you want to know who you are you need to go to the discipline that tells you how culture has been maintained over time literature Leavis to work in social sciences is to be dependent on work in the English department This is a power play out towards the university In order for other disciplines to be good at their job they must also be good at literature Everything requires literary training Does this argument still have weight If you go to other dicisplines now will they look at you crazy if you tell them they need to study literature Cultures are in some sense always hybrid But then because that is all there is perhaps its nonsense to think of it as hybridized For some people it may be vital that the scolar is in the culture For others that may not allow for proper study For Leavis and Ngugi think mostly in the culture Ngugi interdisciplinary ARNOLD Are we still taught to read literature because it is sweet Because it is the best that is taught and written Reading something because it is great Do we still believe in literary excellence Arnold think that literature can teach us ways to experience the world in deeply personal and fullbodies but also universal ways that rival religious practices Literature can facilitate social administration People are not by nature sweet or civilized People need to be taught to be human again for Leavils and Ngugi teaching people to have a culture Leavis teaching people to be human and to be civilized Do professors teach you how to be civilized by making you read Shakespeare Civilized is not about class status it s about a civilizing mission Culture does more than flatter those who possess it It mixes curiousity modeled after method fo science with paradoxical quality of humanity Literature isn t to be appreciated just for the self or just for what it is Arnold cares mostly about what it does because it makes us fully human 717 goes to work on function of culture and people use the term quotperfectionquot in tweets o Leavis and ngugi have to be told that you have this culture and must hold on to it because it is this fragile thing that can be broken Culture is not having and arresting but a growing and a becoming Don t have civilization forever need tow atch or you may lose it Becoming subjectivity is never fully complete 0000 Because men are all members of one great whole expansion of community Must be general expansion This is guiding ideal Universalism is always utopian in some way General expansion


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