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by: Mason Hackett


Mason Hackett
GPA 3.91


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Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mason Hackett on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEE 574 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/191984/cee-574-university-of-washington in Civil and Environmental Engineering at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
Cee 574 Advanced Hydrology Hydrology Water Resource Relationships 1 Hydrometeorology Meteorological inputs are crucial to hydrologic models for quantitative evaluations of runoff volumes and timing Space and time scales are of considerable importance for a range of scienti c and water resource management issues Hydrologic process scales range from length scales of a few cm to areal averages over the scale of a few square km Time scales for all these spatial and length scales range from seconds to months to several years An important area of hydrologic research involves working with coupled hydrological meteorologicalclimate process representations Climate models represent the land surface at scales on the order of 200km X 200km GISS 20 X 250 7 Latitude Longitude 7 Fine Scale they will be reduced to 150km X 150km in the future mesoscale meteorology models have space scales on the order of 20km X 20km some run at 4km X 4km rainfall is measured at a point radar measurements are spatial averages over piXels The National Weather service provides 15 minute summaries of radar estimated rainfall depths for 4km by 4 km piXels The minimum piXels are about 13 radial by 17 azimuth km Smaller piXels are obtainable with newer radars All radars require substantial calibration and no single calibration holds for the variations that occur within a storm Drop size distributions change during a storm as do the levels in the atmosphere where hydro meteors form Evapotranspiration remains largely unmeasured at present 2 Hydrologic Models Models are used to describe with some specified accuracy what is happening in a catchment what has happened in the past and what the future might be An often overlooked important use of models is to couple them with field observation programs where hydrologic process may be mapped Models help the field observer decide where to look for particular hydrologic processes and the field observations spatial and temporal assist in ensuring that model representations are in accord with hydrologic occurrences throughout the catchment Quantitative models are of two kinds a those that model simply coupled hydrologic processes in a catchment and b those that treat runoff statistically or stochastically A third category of models combines system physics and direct measurements of predicted or forecasted hydrologic variables e g streamflow eXplicit recognition of model and measurement uncertainty is given Such models make use of the mathematics of state estimation mostly in the form of some kind of eXtended Kalman Filter Subsystem models e g in ltration surface ow seepage groundwater ow etc are important for speci c problems The time and space scales vary over orders of magnitude In ltration processes are of interest at time increments of minutes to days to months Surface ow velocities are on the order of 01 to 1 metre per second and time increments of interest are on the order of minutes to hours to at most a few days Groundwater ow velocities are on the order of a few metres per day and the time scales of interest are days to weeks to years These subsystem models are dif cult to combine to form an integrated model Models are substitutes for observed physical chemical and biological interactions and they represent our limited understanding and ability to approximate nature The most complete information is contained in observations of relevant states and uxes within the catchment Remember that our data and complete description of each measurement is the base upon which all models are built The data base is remarkably thin for the many models that are now used as if they represent reality 3 Model Applications There is no unique model that is useful for every applied problem We must de ne the problem carefully decide upon desired model accuracy subject to what is possible and proceed with the appropriate analysis Most design and analysis problems require routing unsteady ow through geometries that are often unknown or not well known It is important to recognize the signi cance of all of the factors associated with the problem water quantity quality economics social preferences demands and political preferences that change with time The capabilities of those who will implement the solution to the problem must always be recognized explicitly The hydrologist often becomes the resource manager she or he needs to know many aspects of a problem not just the narrowly de ned problem she or he is working with at a particular time Three major issues are of prime importance Institutional Setting Water Law State Federal International Water Resource Coordination e g Principles and Planning of Water Resource Projects Water Resource Planning Act 1965 PL 92500 and many other water quality acts A summary of aspects of the US Army Corps of Engineers planning approach is appended The material has been extracted from quotNew Directions in Water Resources Planning for the US Army Corps of Engineersquot National Academy Press Washington DC 1999 Project Evaluation Bene t Cost analysis is still important for allocating funds generally to water resources management and development In the public sector these funds uctuate from year to year and are traded politically Bene ts include Direct Primary bene ts indirect primary bene ts landenhancement bene ts secondary bene ts employment income redistribution and intangible bene ts Costs Associated and induced project installation operation and maintenance and replacement costs Considerable uncertainty is associated with estimates of bene ts and costs of water resource development and management Sensitivity analyses are most helpful to illustrate and illuminate potentially bad investments Project Projections These involve estimates of system demands etc Demand physical rather than economic estimates are uncertain stage development has much to offer where practicable 4 Hydrologic Models and Planning Purpose Single Purpose Facilities a Flood Damage Mitigation Flood Hydrology Probability Distribution of Peak Flow Rates Probability Distribution of Duration Above a Specified Flow Rate Probability Distribution of Flow Volumes for a Given Duration Observed data may need to be augmented with geological data or extended using precipitation runoff models Considerable uncertainty in the magnitude of uncommon events must be recognized Damage Mitigation Measures Structural dams levees channel modi cations sacri cial ooding Land Treatment Flood Proo ng Land Use adjustment Flood Insurance is coupled with all of these options Note Economic analysis can contain signi cant errors because of hydrologic uncertainty and errors in estimating future hydrologic response and future damage b Drainage Urban Storm Drainage This only differs in scale from ood mitigation damage design Preferred approaches use hydraulic methods for routing ow generated from eld identi ed ow production areas Peak ows for short durations in uence design of culverts the complete hydrograph time series years is needed for evaluating hydrologic impacts of change and effectiveness of impact mitigation measures A complete hydrologic geomorphic and ecological assessment is needed Continuous longterm hydrograph analysis e g King County Washington is necessary to approach these tasks Signi cant mitigative designs include schemes for distribution in ltration of precipitation excess close to the source of flow generation Seattle Public Utilities is a world leader in this approach Highway Drainage Comparable hydrologic uncertainty to that of urban drainage design Culvert design depends upon contributory catchment and runoff source as well as ability to pass sediments without clogging Land Drainage This is an quotirrigationquot problem c Water Supply Available sources fresh saline recycled Issues land treatment distribution system user distribution return ows Demands Irrigation Water right entitlements crop income for given units of water Urban Many factors error prone projections as time span is increased Modeling Flow volumes ow routing to ensure quality is maintained reservoir management demand management d Hydroelectric Energy Production Hardware Hydrology quantity and time distribution of ow Time scale is a function of ow variability and reservoir system size The time increments range from hours to weeks to years Economic Feasibility ability to finance capital costs e Navigation Specific issues in particular locations eg changes in river elevation this is sensitive to water temperature and suspended sediment load and river ow rates and directions Often short time scales minutes are required f Water g Quality Control This is related to all water resource design and management particularly water supply drainage and power generation Political factors are quite signi cant Waste Water treatment dilution separation Industrial process modi cation All of these factors dictate the type and resolution of hydrologic modeling g Recreation Time distribution of water level variation and river ow rate change h Fish and wildlife Enhancement Water quality time distribution DO sediment type and source and Temp nitrogen Reservoir storage management and sediment release Water Quantity and timing in channels for sh transport and habitat Multiple Purpose Facilities Design involves some form of system modeling that permits examination of interrelated facilities at different sites Typically the quotvolumequot hydrology can be done at one month time increments shorter for very small systems Flood routing is done at time increments of a fraction of one day Optimization Methods Use to screen inferior alternative combinations Simulation Methods System responses for facilities of xed dimensions and hardware are obtained for alternative in ow scenarios Facilities must be operated using previously developed operating rules from screening analysis System Operation Existing systems have operating rules developed by a Experience b Linear Programming Methods c Dynamic d Combinations of Mathematical Programming and simulation Information Display Systems for displaying decision making information in simple form Rule and Fuzzy ruled based inference and expert systems Natural language interfaces for users and model inputs and outputs All Systems Issues in F Weather Climate MesoScale Models Real time Shortterm Includes real time and on the order of days to weeks LongTerm Snow melt supply 7 forecasts can be made many months in advance conditional volume distributions Broad Scale Climate Coupled landatmosphereocean GCM s Inclusion of probabilistic forecasts of Temperature and precipitation 7 multiple seasons Issues of Precipitation Recycling Where does the water that evaporates from a region redeposit What are the consequences of variability in climate and changes in land use on precipitation cycling and how are they coupled Attention to the Hydrologic Cycle In all activities it is crucial to consider the hydrological cycle For the continental US approximately two thirds of the precipitation that falls is converted to vapor and returned to the atmosphere At the margin at the hillslope scale if there is sufficient precipitation to support vegetation and some limited ground water recharge there may be little if any water to support channel ow The plan view area of river systems is on the order of 1 of the landscape Part of the remaining 99 provides the channel ow Some parts of catchments might not contribute at all to channel ow We need to pay attention to the hydrologic cycle at all scales from a few tens of square meters erosion water quality habitat to a few square km in uence on recharge plant soilwaterclimate interactions and geomorphic connection of hillslopes to channels to tens of square km concentration and changes in river ow patterns to hundreds and thousands of square km major precipitation recycling regional ground water recharge and movement to major river basin and continental scales


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