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by: Mason Hackett


Mason Hackett
GPA 3.91


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Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mason Hackett on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CEE 490 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/191991/cee-490-university-of-washington in Civil and Environmental Engineering at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
CEE 490 ENVH 461 Lecture 1 A Air Pollutants Criteria Air Pollutants In the US the ambient air concentrations are measured and regulated for the 6 criteria air pollutants CO 802 03 N02 particles and lead as promulgated by the US Congress in the late 196039s before EPA was formed Note that C02 is not a criteria air pollutant 1 a Gases CO carbon monoxide 02 sulfur dioxide 03 ozone N02 nitrogen dioxide b Particles PMlO particles of aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns or micrometers PM25 particles of aerodynamic diameter less than 25 microns Lead lead is a toxic metal causes brain damage in children aerodynamic diameter is the diameter of a spherical particle of unit density density 1 gramcubic centimeter which has a gravity settling velocity equal to the gravity settling velocity of the actual particle in atmospheric air 2 Hazardous Air Pollutants In the US the ambient air concentrations are not measured and regulated for hazardous air pollutants Ambient criteria air pollutants are measured and have air quality Standards The Clean Air Act amendments passed by the US Congress in 1977 told the EPA to identify those air pollutants which were hazardous to human health and to establish air quality standards for these air pollutants By 1990 only 7 standards had been identi ed by EPA for hazardous air pollutants including asbestos beryllium mercury vinyl chloride benzene radio nuclides and arsenic Some of these hazardous air pollutants were identified as the result of US Federal Court cases in which law suits were led using human health illness and death mortality data and the US Federal Court directed the EPA to identify the air pollutant as hazardous In 1990 the US Congress with leadership from Senator George Mitchell State of Maine and in cooperation with President Bush identi ed 189 hazardous air pollutants and mandated that the best available emission control technology be used to control the emissions of these air pollutants from new facilities Page 554 of Wark Warner and Davis presents a list of these 189 quotHAPsquot or hazardous air pollutants 3 Diesel engine formed particles The particulate emissions from diesel engines have long been known to be toxic and carcinogenic but the trucking government cities use diesel buses and industrial lobbies were able to prevent the diesel engine particles from being of cially classi ed as a hazardous air pollutant In the past 10 years it has been shown that about 70 0f the air pollutant caused cancer risk is entirely due to diesel engine air pollutant emissions primarily the particles so nally there are US Federal emission regulations on diesel engines 2005 diesel engines on cars and trucks will still probably have no tailpipe controls whereas gasoline engines on autos have had catalytic converters since about 1975 which will require catalytic converters and lters on diesel engines for autos and trucks starting in about 2007 Some school buses and city metro buses presently have catalytic converters and some also have particle lters The use of special fuels biodiesel does reduce diesel engine emissions some but this is primarily a program to subsidize farm products Diesel engines emit a great deal of nitrogen oxides NOX 2009 diesel motor vehicles sold in the US must meet NOx emission standards some diesel vehicles will use liquid urea solution in their NOX emission control system Respiratory health of children measured to be related to diesel air pollution concentration Particulate matter and N02 appear to be the most strongly associated with the development of chronic lower respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children Initial results indicate that exposure to air pollutants retards the growth of lung function in children N02 perhaps as an indicator of exposure to traf c exhaust appears to be highly associated with this effect in young children Human Health Risk For a site to be classi ed as an US Superfund Site there needs to be suf cient pollution in the soil or ground water to have the human health risk be greater than one cancer death in one million people risk of cancer death over a 70 year lifetime exposure But the air we breathe in this classroom More 221 has a human health risk of the range of one in 10000 to one in 100000 so if the US Government used the same human health risk criteria for air as for soil and groundwater all urban areas in the US would be quotair Superfund sitesquot Which groups lobby the US Federal Government against identifying urban area as air superfund sites Note that there are no standards for indoor air in buildings such as More Hall or other University of Washington buildings There are US Occupational Safety amp Health Administration OSHA and Washington State Department of Labor and Industries WISHA air standards for indoor air in the industrial workplace Permissible exposure limit PEL OSHA has 500 PELs httpwwwoshagovSLTCpel OSHA PELs are based on an 8 hour time weighted average TWA exposure to an air pollutant Time weighted average TWA is the employee39s average airborne exposure to any 8 hour work shift of a 40 hour work week which shall not be exceeded Short term exposure limit STEL is the employee39s 15minute time weighted average exposure which shall not be exceeded at any time during a work day unless another time limit is speci ed in a parenthetical notation below the limit If another time period is speci ed the time weighted average exposure over that time period shall not be exceeded at any time during the working day B Effects of Air Pollution 1 Human health effects a asthma asthma is aggravated by air pollutants admissions to hospitals and clinics related to air pollutants 2 damage to plants 3 visibility reduction a a dust storm Sat 92599 in Eastern Oregon caused 7 deaths in an accident where large trucks slowed down and stopped and cars collided with the stopped trucks b US National Park Service is concerned with the loss of views in US National Parks and have requested required action be taken to improve visibility at the Grand Canyon and other National Parks c What is the cause of the visibility reduction in Seattle today fog fog droplet diameter about 48 microns small air pollutant particles emitted from motor vehicles primarily diesel engines and old vehicles not having catalytic converters wood smoke 4 acid rain a the pH of rain has been measured to be acidic in many US locations primarily in the Eastern US Acid rain kills sh trees and plants b To reduce the acidity of rain in the US coal fired power plants are supposed to reduce their SOZ emissions The Centralia Coal Fired power plant removes about 95 of the 802 in the stack gases using limestone slurry wet scrubbers 5 water pollution a about 85 of the PCB39s entering the Great Lakes comes from air pollution b airborne NO amp N02 contribute significant nitrate pollution to Chesapeake Bay 6 radioactive pollutants radioactive pollutant emissions from bomb testing nuclear industry and nuclear reactors are transported all over the world via the atmospheric air The increase in leukemia over the past 60 years since about 1944 is thought to be related to radioactive exposure C Air Pollutant Emission Sources 1 02 Sulfur Dioxide Combustion of fuels containing sulfur is a major source or sulfur oxides SOX air pollutant emissions US gasoline and diesel have had the highest sulfur content of any fuels in the world the result of a strong oil and coal lobby in the US The US has very large coal deposits and States such as Illinois Ohio Kentucky West Virginia and Tennessee promote coal combustion and are very strong lobbies which have in uenced the US Congress to not pass legislation to reduce sulfur oxide emissions Also 02 is emitted from smelters of copper ore and lead ore but many of the US smelters have shut down The ASARCO copper smelter near Tacoma Washington shut down in the 19805 With a rated capacity of 45 million pounds of copper per month by 1920 the Clarkdale Arizona smelter was one of the largest in the world Many of the farms and fruit orchards were bought up by the smelter owner in order to avoid con icts over the harsh effects of the sulfur smoke on the vegetation so there were few trees or living plants in town when the smelter was operating The Town of Clarkdale is situated in the Verde Valley located in the North Central part of Arizona 2 N Ox Nitrogen Oxides Fuel combustion in motor vehicles Fuel combustion in power plants NOx formation related to high temperature and high pressure such as exists in combustion processes 3 C0 Carbon Monoxide Incomplete combustion Motor vehicles are the major source of carbon monoxide Fairly easy to control by having the internal combustion engines burn cleanly and having catalytic converters which gasoline engine autos have had since about 1975 Poorly maintained motor vehicles are the major source of CO Governments so far have avoided regulations on older motor vehicles ie would be very cost effective to ban high polluting motor vehicles from streets and highways but so far this has not been done in the US probably because old polluting autos are owned by poor people and most city governments such as Seattle heavily subsidize folks quotof low economic statusquot with lowincome housing not requiring drivers to have the required auto insurance or driver39s license etc 4 Particles Fine particles emitted by diesel engines and gasoline engines Fine particles also formed in atmosphere by chemical reactions photochemical smog and 802 reacting to form sulfates such as ammonium sulfate or NH42504 Industrial plants Wood combustion in home stoves and replaces 5 Lead Lead smelters ASARCO lead smelter in Montana lead battery recycling plants paint aking from old buildings lead phased out from use in gasoline many years ago D What are the air pollutant emission sources near More 221 on or near UW Campus which pollute the air we breathe in this room


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