ENVIRONMENTAL SCI ESRM 100
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ESRM 100 Questions Autumn 2006 Chapter 7 l The world food supply is suf cient to provide everyone on earth with more than 2800 calories per day The reason nearly 60 percent of the residents of developing countries are chronically undernourished is A the world s population continues to grow but crop production has not increased B there is an unequal distribution of food amongst the rich and poor countries C the number of farmers is declining rapidly D rates of food consumption have increased 2 One region where food production has not been suf cient to feed the growing population is A Australia B Canada C the Middle East D subSaharan Africa 3 Anemia low hemoglobin levels in the blood usually caused by dietary is the most common nutritional problem in the world A magnesium de ciency B ber de ciency C iron de ciency D calcium de ciency 4 The three crops on which humanity depends for the majority of its nutrients are and A nuts soybeans and wheat B vegetables wheat and barley C wheat rice and maize D fruit wheat and potatoes 5 Food production is adequate to feed populations globally because A there is less need for irrigation with new crop varieties B of improved crop varieties C there is less need of fertilizers with new crop varieties D genetically improved crops are widely available 6 In families that do not have food security the ability to obtain food on a regular basis food is often disproportionately distributed Those who get the biggest share are usually A men B women C elders D children 7 is one of the staple food sources in mountainous regions at higher latitudes northern Europe North Asia while is a staple in warm wet areas tropics A sorghum rye B potatoes cassava C oats rye D wheat rye 8 Which of the following statements accurately describes why supplying the entire planet39s population with meat and dairy products would be a problem A Cattle live in open grasslands and there is not enough grazing land available B We could feed about 10 times as many people if we ate grain directly rather than feeding livestock C Meat and dairy products tend to be high in sugars that are not good for human health D Cattle are widespread carriers of disease that are transmitted to bison and elk 9 When famines occur crowding people into feeding camps is generally the worst solution for them A True B False 10 Chronic causes goiters a swollen thyroid gland stunted growth and reduced mental abilities A protein B depression C iodine deficiency D starch deficiency 11 The United States has a policy of overproducing food One of the biggest negative effects of this policy is that A a lot of excess food is never consumed and goes to waste B it does not eliminate the root causes of starvation C it drives up domestic food prices D the cost of production translates into higher taxes 12 The US Department of Agriculture has identified 20000 types of soil in the United States alone Different soil types are NOT produced because of the in uence of on soil formation A different parent materials B climate C topography D disease organisms l3 Soils harbor many organisms The soil layer closest to the bedrock contains thousands of species and billions of individual organisms per hectare A True B False 14 As incomes rise in developing countries food choices shift towards a greater consumption of A potatoes B livestock meat C bread D rice 15 The contains most of the living organisms and organic material in the soil and it is in this layer that most plants spread their roots to absorb water and nutrients A surface litter O horizon B topsoil A horizon C subsoil B horizon D weathered parent material C horizon 16 In North America less land is being cultivated now than 100 years ago A True B False 17 Worldwide the average amount of cropland per person is currently 07 acres but by 2050 the average might be close to A 037 acres B 250 acres C 400 acres D 657 acres 18 Which of the following is the LEAST serious cause of soil degradation A wind erosion B physical degradation compaction water accumulation etc C water erosion D chemical degradation pollution nutrient depletion etc 19 erosion is the process in which rills small channels enlarge to form bigger channels or ravines that are too large to be removed by normal tillage operations A Sheet B Gully C Streambank D Physical 20 At least of all fresh water withdrawn from rivers lakes and groundwater supplies is used for agricultural irrigation A Onequarter B One third C half D twothirds 21 Overfertilization can result in diminishing crop yields and pollution of aquatic ecosystems and groundwater In some farming communities levels in groundwater have risen to dangerous levels and pose a serious health risk to newborns and young children A nitrate B phosphorous C potassium D magnesium 22 are plants that yield more than other varieties if given optimum levels of fertilizer water and protection from pests and diseases A Genetically modi ed organisms B Hybrids C High responders D Transgenic organisms 23 involves shaping the land to create level shelves of earth to hold water and soil A Contour plowing B Stripfarming C Ridgetilling D Terracing 24 Which of the following is a drawback of reduced tillage systems It A often requires the heavy use of pesticides to control insects and weeds B makes water management more difficult C is more energy intensive than traditional tillage systems D results in decreased crop yields 25 Which of the following statements is NOT correct when discussing aquaculture A Aquaculture is providing an increasing share of the world s seafood B Building coastal fishrearing ponds causes the destruction of mangrove forests and wetlands C Cultivation of some species such as salmon sea bass and tuna reduce the threats to wild stocks of these same fish D Net pens used in aquaculture release pollutants into the surrounding ecosystem 26 Another alternative to using inorganic fertilizers to increase crop yields is to A interplant crops with legumes B control weeds using herbicides C plant more crops in a smaller space D irrigate plants less 27 In the United States most of our foods require less energy to produce process and get them to markets than they yield when we eat them A True B False 28 Research is underway to improve yields and create crops that resist frost or diseases A radiation B hot temperatures C cold temperatures D drought 29 Agricultural trade talks between the United States and the European Union have been difficult because Europeans fear A US ooding the European markets with cheap crops B transgenic products C US introducing weeds with food crops D US introducing pesticide contaminated food 30 Some rice paddies in Southeast Asia have been farmed continuously for a thousand years and are highly degraded today A True B False 31 Traditional swidden slashandbum cultivators in Africa and South America often plant as many as 20 different crops together in a small plot which helps to reduce erosion A True B False Chapter 2 Principles of Ecology Matter Energy and Life ESRM 100 Introduction to Environmental Science University of Washington Summer 2007 Matter and Energy Matter everything that takes up space and has mass Energy the capacity to do work Life relies on the capture and transfer of matter and energy Ecology scientific study ofthe relationships between organisms and their environment Focuses on how and why matter and energy are cycled between the living and nonliving parts of our environment Matter Everything that takes up space and has mass Three forms solid i I liquid gas Principle of Conservation of Matter matter can be neither created nor destroyed simply recycled over and over again Atoms Molecules and Compounds Atom smallest unit of matter that exh bits the characteristics of an element Element substance that can not be broken down into simpler units by chemical means different elements are atoms with different numbers of protons Atoms are composed of protons neutrons 0 electrons Electrons Charged atoms are called ions Atoms Molecules and Compounds Molecules combinations of two or more atoms Compound when atoms of a molecule are of different elements Example water H20 Characteristics of compounds are often very different than their constituent parts At room temperature H is a gas 0 is a gas but H20 is a liquid Organic compounds made up of carbon C basis of all life on Earth Atoms Molecules and Compounds Who cares Energy is stored in the bonds that hold atoms together It requires energy to break these bonds but it also releases energy when they are broken In short we do Energy Capacity to do work eg move matter Two kinds of energy Kinetic Energy energy of moving objects Potential Energy stored energy Forms of energy heat light electricity chemical etc Energy Let s use heat as an example Heat energy is the energy transferred between two objects of different temperatures Specific heat energy required to raise 1 gram of a substance by 1 C Water has a very high specific heat ie it takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water Thermodynamics Study of how energy is transferred Who cares Energy transfers power the recycling of matter Once again we do First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is conserved it is neither created nor destroyed it can be transformed or transferred but the total amount remains the same Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics With each successive energy transfer less energy is available to do work Principle ofentropy tendency of natural systems to go from a state of order to a state of disorder Therefore it requires a constant input of energy to maintain order Water Its unique chemical and physical properties affect the earth s surface temperatures atmosphere and many ecological interactions Covers nearly 75 of the surface of the earth Acids and Bases o Acids Bases Substancesthat release H protons pH lt 7 Bases Substancesthat take up H protons pH gt 7 Lemnn 1mg pH scale 014 7neutral Ballery acid Seven really cool things about water that ou can use to im ress our friends 1 Water makes up about 6070 of the weight of most organisms It is the medium for all of life s chemical reac Ions Seven really cool things about water that you can use to i press your friends 2 Water is the universal solvent Most substances dissolve in it This allows water to be used to carry nutrients in wastes out or even as a conductor of electricity Seven really cool things about water that you can use to i press your friends 3 Capillary Action Cohesion molecules stick toge her Adhesion molecules stick to other things Important force for moving water and its constituents in soils plants even our bodies Seven really cool things about water that you can use to impress your friends 4 Water is a liquid over a wide range of temperatures 32 F lt liquid water lt 212 F What else operates within that temperature range Seven really cool things about water that you can use to i press your friends 5 Water expands when 39t freezes As it freezes it becomes less dense and it floats Ice forms on top 3 of lakes etc and insulates the remaining Seven really cool things about water that you can use to i press your friends 6 Water has a high specific heat It takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water Keeps water cool in the summer and warm in the winter This moderation of temperatures makes life easier for many organisms Seven really cool things about water that ou can use to im ress our friends 7 Water has a high heat of vaporization It takes a lot of energy to turn liquid water into a gas This is a very effective way for us to cool our bodies eg sweat Sunlight If water is the medium for all of life s chemical reactions then sunlight provides the energy Drives photosynthesis conversion of light energy into chemical energy through the formation of chemical bonds turns inorganic molecules into organic molecules Photosynthesis 6 H20 6 002 sunlight m ceH1zo6 6 02 Water plus carbon dioxide plus energy in the presence of chlorophyll produces sugar and oxygen Photosynthesis is a process of energy capture Respiration CBHHOB 6 02 gt 6 H20 6 CO2 energy lf photosynthesis is the process of energy capture then respiration is the process of energy release Thus if you can t photosynthesize you must get your energy from eating plants or the animals that do Energy and Matter in the Environment Relates to the organization of living systems First some definitions Species all organisms that are genetically similar enough to breed and produce live fertile offspring in nature Population members of a species that live in the same are at the same time Energy and Matter in the Environment Biological Community all populations living and interacting in an area Ecosystem a biological community and its physical environment Typically have boundaries but are open s tems atter and energy ow into and out ofthe system Compare that to a closed 535th which does not exchange matter or energy with its surroundings Energy and Matter in the Environment Now we understand that ecosystems are a combination ofthe physical environment and biological communities which are made up of multiple populations of individual species and that all ofthis is studied by ecologists but how By studying the structure and organization of ecosystemsand the storage and movement of matter and energy within and between them Is that all Let s have a look Energy and Matter in the Environment First some more definitions Biomass biological material Productivity amount of biomass produced in a given area over a given time Primary Producers photosynthesizing organisms that are respons ble for productivity Consumers organisms that don t photosynthesize and get their energy from other organisms Food Chains and Webs Food chain Food Chains and Webs Tropic Levels An orga nism 5 mm levels posmon In 4 Tertiarynonsumers food usuallya lopquot carnivore web is its roplhlc 3 sczcrmgfmsmers Ema eve 39 i t alllevels Organisms 2 mm 253 also defined E39Wes Decomposers by what they l eat m m algae bacteria Food Web Energetics Trophic pyramid energy stored in the bodies of living things at different trophic levels Rule of thumb only about 10 ofthe available is maintained through each step Sound familiar Second Law of Thermodynamics I 01 Top carnivores Detrilivores 1 a and decomposers 8 A Primary carnivores 242 161 i Herbivores 100 Producers 1O Biogeochemical Cycles Energy isn t the only thing that moves through ecosystems like this Matter elements and compounds does this too Biogeochemical Cycles movement of matter within or between ecosystems caused by living organisms geologic forces or chemical reactions Made up of pools and fluxes Human activity alters the natural rates of these cycles sometimes dramatically Hydrologic Cycle Movement a moist an item ocean to land ou auo km 4 Precipitation overland anspllatlon mono xm irony vegetation upon Pvmlpilaliun mrncnan Gain Carbon Cycle 2 Emmaquot ammoquot namnusnun lhnman and nnmn m Pholnsymhems so 5 gt 102 11 Nitrogen Cycle I Fnsw In I mmmg mmmmm and nurmmuml nnmgan mm mot lvgnlnlnunmivurcanoe u Tg eruhzev 12 79 Manna mgamsms Mamie edvmer z mm avenlxmhv bewme 1 g 79 Sulfur Cycle 5 Li 39 vavw Gnmouv hm Suume son up ung as m groundwater Inurgamc sum 45 mm Bummg Reduced suuw Lsty 12 Chapter 4 Human Populations ESRM 100 Introduction to Environmental Science University of Washington Summer 2007 Human Populations Right now the world population is Greater than 66 billion Every second 45 children are born 2 people die ie The world populations grows by 23 people every second Checkout httpma hberkeleveduqalenpopclkhtml Tough Questions Will this population growth cause resource depletion that leads to a bust Ovashoal Time Tough Questions Will this population growth cause resource depletion that leads to a bust overshoot Dleback or Will human ingenuity and technology allow us to push up the carrying capacity ofthe planet environment pulanon SiZC Time Tough Questions Will this population growth cause resource depletion that leads to a bust or Will human ingenuity and technology allow us to push up the carrying capacity of the planet or Is the issue only a matter of resource allocation Should we strive for a more equitable distr bution of wealth and power History of Human Populations It took all of human history to reach a population of1 billion in 1804 mrmyml l 1 may 0m 5w Ag NE slung Age Eronzu Age lmv Age M m 9 Ages 4 lt SULUEL mom mu m new mum El an All wuu m nut sun uuc Wm History of Human Populations It took only another 150 years to reach a population of3 billion in 1960 Ag um mammal two W vevnlulvun masmnvmx NW 5m Age A95 mag Madem l MmmeAges mes lt BOCDEC r amaze 39JDUGSC 200095 lOL DBC swanJ yams an AD AU mac a A n ma Vear History of Human Populations And only another 150 years to double that total and reach a population of6 billion in 1999 iv uuslnai vevnlmlon s Mudem 5 am Stone Age New 5m Age Bronze Age rm Agz mums Ages limes lt 80L usc 39 ammo auooac 2mm mounc so 5mm Yams u A n mm A a 20m Vear Limits to Growth Opposing Views Thomas Malthus An Essay on the Principle of Population 1793 Malthus saw that Human populations increase at an exponential rate Food production remained stable or only increased slowly The result Humans will outstrip their food supply and collapse into starvation crime an misery Malthus answer Most people are too lazy or immoral to regulate birth rates on their own So stop helping those that are already in trouble the poor because their problems will only perpetuate more of the same Limits to Growth Opposing Views Dll ii memrpwumg Unamploymanl Misery Malthus Poverty 3 Excess Resourcedeplenon Starvanun pnpulallon P on Disease We growth onme Limits to Growth Opposing Views Karl Marx 1818 1883 Opposed Malthus Marx believed Population growth was not he cause of but rather the symptom of poverty resource depletion pollution etc Marx s answer He advocated social justicequot to alleviate the problems ofthe poor and thus society as a whole Limits to Growth 0 osin Views Excess Resawce depleiion Slawatran populallon ltgt Pull i n Disease Wm ngWlh Cnmz Overmawdmg Unampluymenl Misery Malthus Poverty a Excess Resource dsplslmn SBAarmn pupulalmn 4e Polluuan Disease wd gmwm erowding Crime Unemployment Misery Marx Poverty Explorlallan Oppressmn Limits to Growth 0 osin Views Excess Resuurce depletion Slaryaliun r papmsuon gt Pollution Disease Wa lh Crime 9 glii rf39n i 39m Mm Perhaps the truth is that population 3 Wm poverty and environmental degradation are interrelated and that speci c cause and mm effect mechanisms r are not clear or even appropriate Excess ssuurcsdaplalmn sr nun pupuialmn lt Pallurmn gt DI EaSB We growth arcrawding crime Unemploymenl Misery Exploilalmn Oppression Why even worry Can more people actually help Contrary to Malthus time food supplies are currently increasing faster than population Advances in agriculture engineering information technology medicine etc from the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions beginning about 200 years ago have spurred our recent population boom After all doesn t more people just mean that there are more people working on the problem Demography Demography is the study ofthe statistics of a human population Ex births deaths where people live population size etc Demography How do we measure and describe human populations What can be learned from it Lessdeveloped regions Billions of people Moredeveloped regions 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 Year Fertility and Birth Rates Fecundity physical ability to reproduce Fertility actual production of offspring How do we measure fertility Crude Birth Rate of births year 1000 people Total Fertility Rate of children born to an average woman during her reproductive lifetime Trends In Fertility Rates Africa I1950 North America i 2000 Latin America Europe Asia Oceania l l l l l O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total fertility rate Zero Population Growth More to population growth than fertility For any population growth depends on deaths births immigration emigration Zero Population Growth More to population growth than fertility For any population growth depends on births deaths immigration emigration So for Zero Population Growth ZPGl births immigration deaths emigration Mortality and Death Rates Defined similarly to birth rates Crude Death Rate of births year l 000 people Also known as the mortality ratequot Life Expectancy average age a newborn infant can expect to live average age at death Only an average Any individual can be quite a bit longer Changes in Life Expectancy 7 TABLE 43 Life Expectancy at Birth for Selected Countries in 1900 and 2000 1900 2000 COUNTRY MALES FEMALES MALES FEMALES India 226 233 603 105 Japan 424 437 774 842 Russia 309 330 617 736 Sweden 566 595 770 821 United States 456 483 747 793 Swima Data from l upululinn Reference Bureau 2002 Drives the Change 90 80 Chile Greece Italy US LA 1 A AA A 1 70 5 45 t Norway Japan 3 A E A A ll 60 a E W A Russia o 50 C E g 40 Q k Sierra Leone 0 30 E 3 l i l I i i 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 Annual per capita Gross National Product US SS Consequences of Longer Life Exgectancies Dependency Ratio of nonworking compared to the of working In 1970 in US median age was 30 there were 4 workers for every retiree Today in US median age is highest ever 35 it is projected that by 2050 when the baby boomers retire there will be more retirees than workers Population Growth Opposing Factors Pronatalist Pressures factors increasing people s desires to have babies Include Pride Support Status Income work High infant mortality rates Population Growth Opposing Factors There are also factors that decrease people s desire to have children Include Personal freedom Careers Money Education Population Growth Opposing Factors Elhlopla 1 80 60 40 O 2 3 5 Female secondary school enrollmem vale tpercenl Toial anilst vale 1995 2000 Population Growth Opposing Factors 2m 4 v 947i m was i mums y tdSils rSl E Endvlwarldwavll V v i Lillnmogmphlclransllmn Depressm m W ormnnlwmmlMimi mwulwiwl rm luiilirr lnmllmlml 19m r935 u tm man mu lefu mix we Lac Demographic Transition Demographic Transition pattern of falling death rates and birth rates in response to improved living conditions Could be reversed in deteriorating conditions 40 7 Burn rale Death rare 30 7 w 0 Total 0 ulalion o P P High birth rates Stable death Em rale or dealh Vale per moo populaliun lalling death miss falling 0 mm tales Developed Time gt Demographic Transition E 40 r lt Look familiar E Birllirale g Dealhraie Logistic or E 3 quot8quot growth 3 curve 5 20 This Total 5 m population suggests E 13 High 1mm rates Stable death pop atlon s O 31532 stablhzatlon Time b after a boom Are human populations entering this phase 1O Transition or Trap or b 0 Birth raie Deall l raie a are we caught in the middle High birth raie39s39 Stable death lalllng death vates lallmg Dl lt rzles Total populallon lD Emh rate or death mle per mun population m m o Developed o TIme gt Demographic Trap populations outstrip resources and never advance to the point of falling birth rates Think Malthus Transition or Trap Perhaps decreasing infant mortality is the key When child mortality rates are high people tend to have a large number of children Think radapted reproductive strategies Conversely when child mortality rates are low people tend to have fewer children Think K adapted reproductive strategies Estimates are that by saving 5 million children each year we would avoid 2030 million extra births Future of the Human Population So how do we aggregate all of these trends Where are we headed Population lillliOHS Low l l l l l l l I l 0 i950 157D lSSO 20K 2030 2050 2070 2090 3H0 2130 2l50 Vuar 11 Future of the Human Population 7 1 Africa 6 I ASIa South and Central America Developed Children per woman 1 I I I 1 l l 1 1 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Year 12 Chapter 1 Understanding Our Environment ESRM 100 Introduction to Environmental Science University of Washington Summer 2007 We travel together passengers on a little spaceship dependent upon its vulnerable reserves of air and soil all committed for our safety to its security and peace preserved from annihilation only by the care the work and will say the love that we give to our fragile craft Adai Stevenson Two Worlds of Human Beings Natural world Social world or Plants world we create Animals Science Soil Technology Air Politics Water How do we define environment Must think about these two perspectives Literally from the French environner to encircle or surround but with what De nitions 1 The circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms 2 The social and cultural conditions hat affect an individual or a community How do we define environment De nitions 1 The circumstances or conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms 2 The social and cultural conditions hat affect an individual or a community Where do we fit in We inhabit both natural and built worlds Thus we are a very important part ofthe environment Environmental Science Systematic study ofthe environment and our place in it Environmental Science What is science From Latin for knowing Science is a process for producing knowledge How Deductive reasoning vs Inductive reasoning Deductive vs Inductive Reasoning Deductive Inductive Reasoning ReaSONing Topdown Bottomup Starts with Uses specific general examples to principle create a applies it to a general speci c case explanation How do we do science the ldenhlyquesriun Scientific Method l Formulate hypothesis l Tzsi hypothesis Consuli prior mwledge Colleci am gt lnlavpvei l Publish imdmgs Scientific Method Starts with a question i Formulate hypalhESls Why doesn t my flashlight work Tesl hypothesis Consult Eggivvledge Calla2 m lnlerprsi Publish imdmgs Scientific Method Hypothesis Idsanueslmn conditional explanation l that can be tested Formulaiehypamesls through further l observation or Tammi experimentation l Consul Egghadge Called data The batteries l are deadquot 7 Publish findings Scientific Method Hypothesis Testing wenmyquesnun Replace the batteries mimiwamg s and try to turn it on again Consuli prim knnwledge Colleci am lnlevpvei l Publish imdmgs Scientific Method Data Collection Uh still doesn t workquot consuii prim knpwieape IdaMy qussupn l Formulate hypalhESls l Tssi hypothESis Coilsci daia g ihieipmi l Publish lindlngs Scientific Method Interpretation It must not have been the batteriesquot Consult prloi knnwladge ldsnlily quesllun Formulate hypaihESls l Test hypothesis l Caiisci data Publish iihmhgs Scientific Method Revisit original question Why doesn t my flashlight work Reformulate hypothesis The bulb is burnt out Consuli prim khpwiedge Test new hypothesis Replace the bulb and try again Collect new data iuehiiiy quesnun l Formulate hypothesis l Tesl hypoihESis l Coiisci we gt lnlaiplei l Publish iindmgs Scientific Method ldaniiiy quesllun l Formulate hypothesis l Test hypothESis l Callanl data Consult W knuwledge Reinterpret new data l lnleiprsl The bulb must have been burnt out and therefore prevented the flashlight from working properly Publish ndings Scientific Method ldanllly quesllun ii Formulate hypothesis Imam39a onal ll J Jioumal39of Flashlighf Teslhypnlhesls Research i Consult ils39wug mm L lnlerprel Publish iindings Probability and Statistics Data collection often involves making measurements to evaluate the problem through quantitative or analytical means This type of data collection often relies on probability and statistics to help the scientist interpret the data 3 Probability how likel an event is to occur Interpreting Data Thinking About Thinking Analytical Creative thin ing thinking gt How WIII I solve Haw couId I do this problem his dillereany Critical thinking What do I want in accomplish Logical Reflective thinking gt thinking 4 Can orderly What does II reasuhing liep7 aII mean More Thinking About Thinking Thinking through a problem can help us solve it but it can also help us interpret the world around us Paradigms overarching models that guide our interpretation of events 7 V By continuing to think critically and employing the scientific method we are constantly redefining our understanding Paradigm shifts Even More Thinking About Thinking Critical thinking is important both in this class and in your life outside ofthis class Critical thinking helps you differentiate between what you see hear and read Can you differentiate between fact and opinion Can you formulate your own opinions History and Concepts of Conservation and Environmentalism 9quot Intersection of human use of natural resources and the sustainability of those resources has long been recognized History and Concepts of Conservation and Environmentalism Four different sometimes competing sometimes cooperating views that historically and currently define the history of views on conservation and environmental activism Pragmatic Resource Conservation Moral and Aesthetic Nature Conservation Modern Environmentalism MNA Global Environmentalism Pragmatic Practical Resource Conservation Embodied by Gifford Pinchot First chief ofthe US Forest Service 1905 Resources should be use for the greatest good for the greatest number for the longest timequot Utilitarian Conservation 1 Moral and Aesthetic Nature Preservation Embodied by John Muir First president of the Sierra Club 1892 Nature deserves to exist for its own sake regardless of its usefulness to us 1 Biocentric Preservation Modern Environmentalism Embodied by Rachel 71447 v r Carson i Author of Silent Spring 1962 Focused on threats of pollutants to both resources and organisms Embodied by images View of Earth from space Hunger in Africa Notion of the global villagequot and that we re all in this together History and Concepts of Conservation and Environmentalism These four views emphasize one common issue Human beings are a part of the environment We live in both natural and social worlds Linkages between these two worlds are very strong Linking the Natural and Social Worlds Example disparity between the rich and poor Poverty often facilitates environmental degradation out of the need for survival Forced to meet shortterm survival needs at the cost of longterm sustainability Where does this play out Who is rich and who is poor Income Gap Growing Disparities in Incomes among Regions Per Capila Income by Region 197072000 a 25000 5 North America 6 Euro 9 3 20000 p g Latin America g Asia 392 1539000 Africa 395 g 10000 0 E E g 5000 0 83 n 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 2000 1O Let s Quantify Rich and Poor TABLE 14 Average Indicators of Quality of Life for the 20 Richest and Poorest Countries POOR RICH COUNTRIES COUNTRIES INDICATOR oDPcnpnu 3230 um 27460 USl Total remnin 63 15 Life expectancy 493 years 772 years lnl am mnnniry mu 5 Safe drinking waler 447 999 Adult literacy 33 90 16 03 Annual pnpnlmion growth sdnnwslic mum Ann nber ofclnldicn per wnnuu whmirs form t unw Human Development Indium In H A Closer Look at Ourselves it CONSUMES 26 percent of all oil 24 percent ol uluminum 20 percent ol copper l9 percent of nickel l3 percent ofsteel TABLE 15 The United States with 45 Percent of the World s Population PRODUCES 50 percent of all toxic wastes 26 percent of nitrogen oxides 25 percent of sulfur oxides 22 percent of chloro um ocurbons 26 percent of carbon dioxide Source Data from World Resources Institute 1998 99 A Closer Look at Ourselves And may we continue to be worthy of consuming a disproportionate share of this planet s resources 11 Sustainability Sustainability search for ecological stability and human progress that can last overthe longterm Sustainable development as defned by the World Health Organization meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needsquot Sustainability and Environmental Science Environmental e Scienc 12 Chapter 7 Food and Agriculture ESRM 100 Introduction to Environmental Science University of Washington Summer 2007 Was Malth us right Remember Malthus prediction Runaway Population Growth Stagnating Food Supplies Famine Was Malth us right Remember Malthus prediction ltunaway Population Gro ED 17 Stagnating Food Supplies Famine Was Malthus right Remember Malthus prediction 4 nawa Population Gro D 17 Stagnating Food Supplie 22 Famine Was Malthus right Remember Malthus prediction 4 nawa Population Gro D 17 Stagnating Food Supplie 22 w m He was wrong Right The Facts In 1960 60 of residents in developing countries were chronically undernourished chronically undernourished diets provide less than 2200 kcal day amount necessary for a healthy productive life Since then the population has doubled but the percent of chronically undernourished has fallen to 15 The Facts 0 Right now the world food supply could provide 2800 kcal person day 0 By 2030 it is expected to increase to gt 3000 kcal person day 0 Still 840 million people 13 of the population don t have enough to eat Risk for Inadequate Nutrition 0 Almost 95 of these people live in developing nations 77 Food Security 0 Poverty is a direct threat to food security ood Security the ability to obtain sufficient amounts of food on a daytoday basis 0 14 billion people 21 of the population live on lt 1 day 0 How can hungry people work enough to pull themselves out of that cycle Famines and Food Shortages Famine acute food shortages characterized by largescale loss of life social disruption and economic chaos In 2004 the United Nations UN reported that 60 million people in 30 countries need emergency food aid What causes it Environmental conditions drought flood insects etc PoliticsWar Economics Nutrition Not just a matter of energy calories but also nutrients Malnourishment nutritional imbalance caused by a dietary deficiency or the inability to absorb utilize certain nutrients Obesity lnthe US 64 ofthe population is overweight Up 40 from 10 years ago 33 ofthe population is obese Obese pathologically overweight roughly 30 pounds overweight for a normal person Obese people can still be malnourished Obesity Almost as many people in the US die of obesity related diseases as smoking United States Not just a Pmb39em in K335 J the US Germany W Colombia n Worldwide Brazil t overweight cm E gt 20 30 4o 5 Overweight adults percent underweight Major Food Sources Despite all ofthe biodiversity on the planet we get most of our food from 12 types of seed grain wheat rice 60 of human caloric intake 3 types of root crops 20 types of common fruits amp vegetables 6 mammals 2 domestic fowl and a few sh or other marine life Major Food Sources About 13 of our cereal grains go to feed livestock We could feed 10 times as many people if we ate grain directly amgax mu VVhy So if plants support all life on the planet what supports the plants Soil M a marvelous substancequot a living resource of astonishing beauty complexity and frailtyquot mixture of weathered materials from rocks partially decomposed organic molecules and a host of living organisms Soil is an ecosystem unto itself Soil Formation Soil formation is a function of 1 Climate 2 Organisms 3 Relief topography 4 Parent Material 5 Time Soil jcorpt As such soils are highly variable 39 across the landscape Soil Biogeochemistry Soils are the hub of biological v and chemical activity in terrestrial ecosystems 1 teaspoon 500 million organisms surface area of a football field 39 Soil Profiles Soils are broken up into horizontal layers called horizons Soil horizons are assigned codes letters based on their characteristics Soil Profiles Soil Use 11 of the earth s land area is currently in agricultural production Up to 45 could be Some however are of little use Soil Use Arable Land land suitable for crop production Amount of arable land available per person 0 1 acre 2000 12 acre 2050 13 acre Could you produce all of the food you need for a year off of that much land Food Production How then have we increased our food production Improved crop varieties Fertilizamquot NOT by bringing new Irrigation land into production Pesticide use In fact less land in North America is in production now than 100 years ago Forest to farm conversion is still a serious issue in S nia ou h America and Ocea Soil Abuse Building soil is a slow process In one year only enough soil will form to cover 25 acres with 1 mm but it can be destroyed quickly Every year 05 o ofthe arable land is converted into deserts ruined by erosion or converted into nonagricultural land roads homes malls etc Is that sustainable Soil Abuse What causes most soil degradation r Cham cm Phych Soil Erosion Is it always bad Takes More Than Soil Water Globally agriculture is the largest user of water over industrial and residential uses combined Irrigation can increase yields by up to 400 Although only 15 of crop land is currently irrigated Fertilization What do pants need to grow Water sun 002 and nutrients What happens when you combine irrigation and fertilization Corn yields 1900 25 bushels bu lacre 2000 138 bu acre with rain 208 bu acre with irrigation What else causes the increase Green Revolution The Green Revolution dramatically increased agricultural production through new strains of crops fertilization irrigation and pesticides High responders Genetically selected crops are called high responders in that they grow a lot under optimal conditions However under Low ngh suboptimal conditions Fe iquot yWa e g ad Traditional varle les Yield 10 Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering manipulation of genetic material to create an entirely new genes or even new organisms These are known as genetically modi ed organisms GMOs or transgenic organisms Number of notifications GMOs and release permlts Relatively recent development US plants 68 of worldwide GMO crops Are you using them already 82 of soybeans 25 of corn 71 of cotton GMOs More tough questions Is it right Is it safe Some people think it is wrong to mess with nature Some people think it isn t significantly different than selective breeding In fact they argue that you know exactly what you are changing with genetic engineering With traditional breeding you may unintentionally affect 100 s of other genes What ifthey crossbreed with natural varieties 11 GMOs More tough questions Isn t is better to be safe than sorry Will they help feed the world or simply line the pockets of multinational corporations Will the higher yields help preserve more land from being converted or degrated What do you think Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable Agriculture ecologically sound economically viable sociallyjust agriculture Sound great so how do we do it Why soil conservation of course How Soil Conservation 1 Manage Topography Water runs downhill The faster it runs the more soil it takes with it 12 Soil Conservation 2 Keep It Covered Cover Crops planted immediately after harvest to keep soil in place Mulch protective groundcover that protects the sol Ex manure wood chips straw leaves etc Soil Conservation 3 Reduced Tillage farming system that preserves soil through reduced cultivation Less tillage less soil disturbance less erosion 13
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