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by: Sallie Lind PhD


Sallie Lind PhD
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Class Notes
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This 88 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sallie Lind PhD on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESRM 479 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/192026/esrm-479-university-of-washington in Environmental Science and Resource Management at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
Installation ESRM 479 Restoration Design Site Assessment Plant Materials Site Conditioning Site Modification Installation Management Construction Hydrologic design for wetlands and streams Hydraulic modeling is used to predict flows Modified grades at a site are used to intercept those flows and create impoundments or result in some duration of flooded or saturated soils Grading plan Existing topography Proposed topography Areas to be excavated filled or graded Wetands that will be altered Cut and fill quantities Stockpile or disposal areas Grading plan continued Crossse tions in typical or important areas Any proposed landforms Hummocks swales pltS islands peninsula Wetland bencnes Construction details for engineered elements 39 Weirs dikes swales in ltration system 9 M m mu mask Construction should occur in the dry season Planting should occur in the wet season Staging areas Site on uplands Haul roads Keep traffic on assigned roads Rip plow scarify when project is complete Construction Management Timeline or timetable should be created Windows Lead times Customgrown or selfgrown plant materials may take several years Purchased plant materials may need to be ordered in the fall Constraints bottlenecks Minimize bare ground exposure Avoid rainy season disturbances Identify overseers and their responsibilities Some activities require presence of designer or biologist Plant removal Herbicide application Grading Planting Placement of logs boulders wildlife structures Erosion Control Timing Runoff management Swales silt fences hay bales sedimentation ponds Shortterm erosion prevention Logs rocks wattling Jute mats brush mats Cover crops Stockpiling salvage soil or plants only from sites where construction grading or conversion is to occur Salvaged soil Avoid weedy donor sites Keep wetlands soils wet Cover upland soils Time sensitive You begin to lose organisms within weeks Plants Salvaged plants Should be watered and kept in shade Protect from herbivory Salvaged plants probably do best when transferred directly to a restoration site but they may be overwintered You might choose to set up a temporary off or onsite salvage facility with irrigation wet beds and capillary beds Planting Plans Prepare a schematic plan View with proposed vegetation communities overlain on topography For wetlands you need crosssections showing proposed vegetation at anticipated elevations and water levels On the Planting Plan Show polygons within communities Polygons are small areas with specified plant groupings Species and number of plants should be specified for each polygon Spacing or clumping may be suggested Field placement should be directed by biologist Mmgam Plan Frnmssd Planting Plan map Map mm Lee tss l Map of Rastaratlon Area Showing Planting Phases NV 1 FALL Fi If FALLth WW 31E FALL zoos my m 5cm m untruth Apex mu mr m mmm Transport Plant materials are heavy and sometimes do not stack well Closed trailers or vans provide protected transportation Keep plants covered while in transit Desiccation can happen quickly Mechanical damage Planting options Premix species in crates Individual species are grown together in nursery You may mix species in containers to create batches for planting Mixing may be done in yards parking lots elds Use temporary sprinkler systems Garden hoses and lawn sprinklers work Planting options Keep species separated Match plant species to their correct polygons For smallerjobs Flag plants or batches eg with engineering tape with s 39re ame color as target polygons eg With WI At the site on planting day you may need Plants Tools wheelbarrows gloves Firstaid equipment Portable toilets Water shade hats Food donations work well Herbivory fencing Mulch Planting With volunteer labor try to get a team leader trained for each five volunteers With volunteers you may install a large area quickly With few planters you may take weeks Protect stored plants Waterthem protect from herbivory Planting techniques Container plants inspect root systems Tease out roots orcutverticai cuts Piant in Wide noiei piant nign Water ii i waterweiii continue to Water Planting techniques Bare root material Plant before leafout Keep roots moist Heelin to store Water in do not overwater Planting techniques Divisions Piace into moist soii and keep moist Herbivores iove them so protect Planting techniques Live stakes Cut m Wmerand SUCK m mowst 50MB vwxow pomar redroswerdogwood snowberry twmberr Create fast Shade Work best on We and edges Herbivory Protection Geese chicken Wire fencing twine mylar ribbon Crows netting Deer fencing netting Beaver hardware cloth cylinders Mice and voles tree shelters hot beeswax Mountain beaver plastic mesh tubes Rabbits chicken Wire fencing Irrigation Some environments will be too dry to initially support container plants or live stakes Most irrigation is designed to get plantings past first two years Examples Dry sites slopes south facing quick soils Constructed but not connected wetlands and streams PVC pipes with risers and rainbird sprinklers are common Supply lines may be laid on soil surface Normally risers are removed and supply lines left in place after system no longer used 25 Interpretation Signs 7 exceHent methods foreducatmg and for creatrng nerghborhood support Trails r TraHs and overtooks can aHoW the desrgnerto choose Where vrsrtors to a restoratron Srte go and may hetp protect refuge areas Art 7 Art can herp generate nerghborhood pamcrpatron m a project and create a Sense ofptace ESRM 479 Restoration Design httpcourseswashingtoneduesrm479 This class reviews disturbancebased examples of restoration Agriculture Grazing Water storage Recreation Solid waste disposal Mining Urban environments Salt marsh disturbance Wetland dredge and fill Marine bed disturbance Coastal diking Forestry Transportation Water extraction Transmission corridors Ecosystembased restoration examples are presented in ESRM 473 Winter Either course counts as 5 credits toward the Restoration Certificate We We ek 1 Introduction Design Process Landscape Impacts eks 24 Elements of a Restoration Project Weeks 210 Project examples and Design Exercises Week l Weeks 210 Design labs Elements Design case studies Site assessment Designing for ecosystem functions signing res Salt mar Corridors Agricultural modification Grazing damage Wetland dredge or fill Surface mining Solid Waste Disposal Recreation damage Urban creeks toration projects for sh 00l J39IJgtAI Each Thursday design lab will be based on the Wednesday morning project example or lecture You will work in teams Grading 10 Weekly reading report 30 lnclass exam week 7 35 Each design lab exercise will be turned in for review 9 labs t4 for each 25 Final compilation of design lab solutions Project grades for individuals will be determined by 1 The grade that instructors assign the project 2 Adjusted by the peer evaluation you are given by your group members McLaren Gold Mine Cooke City Montana Midreach of Daisy Creek Lower reach of Daisy Creek Important steps to go through in any restoration design problem Site Analysis Determine ecosystem type condition before disturbance including ecological elements successional state diversity stability resilience natural disturbance regime functions that should be performed by such a system in good shape Ecological Functions What functions does this system perform when it is intact Assess damage done Estimate functions lost Tasking What is the range of projects that it is likely that you as designer would be asked to come up with What level of repair is possible Predict the level of repairthat is possible What is possible in such an ecosystem What is possible in such an ecosystem if the surrounding environment has changed What is the prospect for autogenic repair Estimate level and speed of autogenic repair that can be expected What are your options Determine a range of restoration outcomes Low stabilize the site and allow autogenic repair to occur High create a site that functions as well as the original Provide many shortcuts to assist plant growth soil development structure Constraints List the constraints Functional requirements Underthe most likely scenario what functional requirements will likely be specified by the problem owner What resources will be required Plants materials equipment manpower transport Prepare a site design Grades plant material access sediment control storage ecological elements Make a map Include what is there now Add what you are going to change Estimate quantities Sequencing and timing Lay out sequencing flow and timing when events must occur for the site preparation and installation Continuing activities What must be done continually during project preparation and installation What must be done after installation May include Sediment control Invasive species management Limitedtime irrigation Replacement of dead plants References Guidelines for The Conserva rion and Res rora rion of Seagrasses in The Uni red S ra res and Adjacent Wa rers Fonseca e r al 1998 NCAA Coas ral Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series No 12 Seogross Res roro rion Lec rur39e Objec rives Ou rline rhe impor ronce and criteria of si re selec rion in seogr39oss r39es ror39o rion In rr39oduce rhe moi n r39es ror39o rion co regor39ies Ou rline specific me rhodologies and con rex rs in which They are appropriate Time for39 ques rions MiTigaTion vs ResToraTion Summarized from Fonseca eT al 1998 MiTigaTion A permiT requiremenT To compensaTe for The desTrucTion of exisTing habiTaT when The agenT of loss and The responsible parTy are known ResToraTion When The agenT of loss is known buT There is no responsible parTy idenTified Summarized from Lewis 1989 MiTigaTion The legal compensaTion for loss resulTing from permiTTed acTiviTies ResToraTion The reTurn of an alTered or modified siTe To one ThaT is comparable To The siTe condiTion before alTeraTion or modificaTion occurred SiTe SelecTion Does The siTe have a hisTor39y of seagr39ass Is The donor39 populaTion from The same depTh Is There adequaTe lighT Is There bioTur39baTion pr39essur39e Is This a deposiTionaIer39osion zone Is The sedimenT qualiTy accepTable SiTe SelecTion Golden Rule quotIf Seagmss does 1707 grow fhere now whaf makes you fhnk if can be successfu y resforea Fer39ede r re e r al 1985 Seagrass Absent Seagrass Present lTurbidjE 1 quot Turbiditv E 1 39gt 39 gt I Current Velocity I 39 k I I 1 V n Resuspension 39439 1 Japonlca I 7 r d f Sedimentation Sediment Figure 1 Adapted from Madsen et at 2001 Conceptual model of the impacts of seagrasses on physical processes Solid lines indicate positive interactions and broken Lines indicate negative interactions Ca regories of Approach Sodcore Bare roof and rhizome Seed General benefiTs of each Sod Less dis rur39bonce To The roofs and rhizome Resis ron r To erosion or39 wove pressure Bor39e Roo r Less impoc r on donor39 si re High success low cos r Seed Po ren riolly low impoc r oc rivi ry Time and cos r efficient oECOSUB ECOSUB I Developed Murdoch Univer39siTy in WesTer39n AusTr39alia for39 a large scale miTigaTion pr39ojecT 1000 m2 Capable of coecTing and insTaing 13 05 m2 75 for39 ECOSUB II per39 day ProTocok The machine is oper39aTed by Two divers and is posiTioned over39 The seagr39ass The ECOSUB Then cuTs a 05 m2 sod of seagr39ass and sTor39es iT in an onboard happen The ECOSUB is Then floaTed To The surface using Tanks and Towed To The r39ehabiIiTaTion siTe where The cuTTer39 head clear39s a spoT for39 The sod and iT is Tr39ansplanTed ECOSUB Photo D A Lord and assoc ates 2005 Plug me rhod Photo Fonseca et al 1998 Photo Seddon 2004 Plug MeThod MeThods A PVC or meTal core is used To remove a seagrass rameT and surrounding sedimenT The corer is caped To creaTe a vacuum allowing The removal of The core The core and rameT musT be sTored properly in TransiT An equivalenT sized hole is excavaTed or sofTened aT The resToraTion siTe CompleTe rameT and core are insTalled in The new locaTion MoniTor Photos Fonseoa et al 1998 Plug meThod Benefits Drawbacks Less dis rur39bance To roofs and Impac r To donor39 si re rhizomes Less impac r fr39om sedimen r chemis rr39y Resis ran r To erosional forces 353 wor39k min per39 plan r Increased cos rs Applicable uses Mi riga rion salvage har39ves r In rer ridal HRMrhizome Me rhods To Anchor39 or39 no r To anchor39 The Me rhods develo ed by Davis and Shor r 997 and Or rh e r al 1999 are very similar Benefi rs Decrease donor39 r39equir39emen r Efficien r 108191 minuni r for39 bo rh gt70 o sur39vival a r 1 mon rh and equivalen r densi ry ro con rr ol popula rions a r 20 mon rhs HRMrhizome Me rhods To Anchor or no r To anchor Drawbacks SCUBA requiremen r Donor si re impac r Lack of success in in rer ridal zones Photo Fonseca e a 1998 Applicable uses Mi riga rion or Res rora rion To ougmen r na rural recoloniza rion i L Photo S WyllieEcheverria Al rering Sedimen r Chemis rry To enhance survival Perry Gayaldo 2002 Demons rra red The impac r of oxida rion reduc rion Eh on survival of seedlings Shock of Transplan r Impac r of Eh on plan r survival Increasing Redox po ren rial leads To increased survival Oxidation Sulfate t Anaerobic Bacteria Sul de TERFSTM ransplanting elgrass Vemotely with rames ystems Batth Ital 50 eelgrass plantsframe Transplants a 025 m2 eelgrass patch Short et al 2002 Fish numbers trap N o m o Unvegeta ed Temperature I Eelgmss Terfs SorT of Seeds Benefi rs Drawbacks LOW COST Slower es rablishmen r Po ren rial low impac r Ideal for si re Tes ring Mimic na rural processes Harves r and deploymen r in one day Appropria re uses Ideay Sui red for Res rora rion BUDS Buoy Deployed Seeding 00Ej Pickerell et al 2006 Gel Seeding Method Gel Seeding MeThod Developed by ScoTT Nixon IT The M UniversiTy of Rhode Island eThods A sled is Towed behind a booT creoTing o furrow Seagross seeds suspended in gel ore injecTed inTo The furrow A Troilin weighT fills The furrow and covers T e seeds Gel Seeding MeThod Benefi rs Drawbacks Speed of plan ring Seed so ing Con rrol over seeding densi ries No divers or we rsui rs 39 Experimen ral Increased germina rion ra res Po ren rial impac r on donor popula rion Seagrass Transplanting Costs Planning Restoration Monitoring Adaptive management budget for these expenses but hope not to use them lac 04 ha 15K Fonseca et al 1998 lac 100K RKK 2001 1 ac TERFS method projected at 32M Walker 2003 1 ac staple method projected at 41M Walker 2003 No one really knows the cost of lost habitat functions Conclusion Many different me rhods which are more or less appr39opr39ia re based on Cos rs Resouces available Con rex r of effor r mi riga rionr39es ror39a rion NOT a r39es ror39a rion is successful Si re selec rion keyll Site Assessment ESRM 479 Restoration Design Site Assessment Plant Materials Site Conditioning Site Modification Installation Management Elements Determination of ecosystem t es Hydrology and water quality Topography and drainage Soils Boundaries Ecological communities External conditions Functions performed Local climate History Any site constraints Resources Go to site look Subdivision plats USGS topo maps Suney maps Digital images Personal inteniews Aerial photographs USFWS Wetland GIS databases anentory State stream catalog 39 Local ert39and Vegetation manuals InYentor39eS Plant manuals so maps Determination of Ecosystem Types Terrestrial or riparianwetland Forested vs open Shallow soil vs deep Stressful environment vs mesic Restoration Sites may contain a mixture of ecosystem types plus gradients of resources like water between them Different ecosystem types on a site may mean that entirely different restoration strategies are appropriate for each Vegetation manuals or monographs are good resources for finding typical makeup of an ecosystem type eg riparian forest in western Washington Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington by Franklin and Dyrness Silvics of North America USDA Forest Senice Hydrology and Water Quality An assessment of hydrology at a site must be done with the understanding that there is a characteristic annual pattern You need observations throughout the year Or records that reflect past patterns There are also longerterm fluctuations LAKE WASHINGTON SHIP CANAL 2 4 4 quot M m I 41 I I 4 NH I t II W c 21 4 2 5 NE 8 3 x I 3 a LOU iv an a it 33 19 I I I I 19 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 11 SUMMARY HVDRUGRAFH 19791999 HID We munch 5m mm mm 2 mm 2128 7 r r r r r r r r r r 7 21 s 7 212 a L 2122 a v 2121 I m 223 r a a 2125 T 212 2n22 7 Hum 7 928 HHHHHHHHHHHHH a 1U 12 m 15 m 2H 22 2A 25 2a 3n n1 DE as M MaxZEIEIE APIZUUE stc Hvdxumet Observed Elev Like wanna mun eject Observed Lake Level Monday 7 April 2008 Hydrology can be determined indirectly in a number of ways Evidence of hydrology Drift lines on vegetation or waterlines on tree trunks Blackened leaves on soil evidence they sat under water Soils Gleying low chroma concretions mottles peat Hydrophytic vegetation List of facultative or obligate wetland species wwwfwsgovnwi Topography and Drainage Topography is critical for wetland restoration Slope and aspect impact local climate Landform influences resource allocation and retention Topography offsite influences site Soils Soils are good indicators of past vegetation at a site wetland indicators Soil condition is often degraded Removal filling Compaction Erosion Hydric conditions in wetland t o Organk matter hmlds up methane an nilmus xma gas is reLeased 39 ed seLenium is Welland drainage aevates the SoiL pm le with oxygen and revevses these pmcesses We and sum Gveat P ams may sm pvume Boundanes Project boundaries are often set by property lines Wetlands are delineated there are specific regulations within wetlands shoreline zones buffers Ecological Communities Inventory native vegetation 7 May be ca di 7 May need to be controiied offsite Inventory wildlife 7 VWdiife features 7 Herbivory r onrnatives buiitrogswid pigS External Conditions Context matrix Seed sources Weed sources Fire sources Climate modifiers Watershed changes Disturbance source Feral animals Complaining neighbors Functions Performed Hydrology Water and air quality Habitat Supporting processes Regulating processes azusvamn 52mm mm a man mm wivm mm mm 1 wmwulnuw a M mnmx he quotmmmm nthin hm m Wm Mmm uw Elam Examples of quality habitat High structural diversity Adequate buffers from other uses Functioning corridors to other habitat Diversity and abundance of native plants and animals Seasonal or intermittent water Absence of damaging predators herbivores Local Climate Moderation of climatic extremes Canopy creates convective heat loss at top of canopy in summer keeps ground cooler Canopy blocks winter reradiation and clear night freezing keeps ground warmer Evapotranspiration Microsites History Historical condition Record of disturbances Record of uses Major modifications on or off site Topo maps often indicate past agricultural uses buildings roads impoundments Soil maps show locations of past wetlands Site Constraints Limited access for equipment Steep slopes Utility lines manholes Overhead wires Adjacent property cannot flood Neighbor s view Look at site with restoration in mind Why is it degraded What is the prognosis for repair What is the most appropriate community What is most likely community to flourish What modifications need to be made What can we afford How can we minimize subsidy and get site to help with restoration Look at site with restoration in mind 2 What kind of plant material will we need How can we get it Is there water If not how can we maximize the efficiency of water use Are there herbivores What is the likely required frequencyof return for maintenance Look at site with restoration in mind 3 What kinds of passive restoration are available What phases should restoration installation be divided into What animal features are appropriate How quickly do we need to get onto the site When do we start How long will it take to install Look at site with restoration in mind 4 Are there any access problems Is there a storage location on site How likely is volunteer help at this site Are there potential conflicts with neighboring uses Is the project eligible for grants free labor free plants


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