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by: Sallie Lind PhD


Sallie Lind PhD
GPA 3.84


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Class Notes
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This 37 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sallie Lind PhD on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESRM 150 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/192029/esrm-150-university-of-washington in Environmental Science and Resource Management at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
Wildlife Toxicology An Overview Christian Grue Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit University of Washington i Outline Definitions Abbreviated History of Wildlife Toxicology Examples of Lab Controlledfield and Field Studies Northwest Issues i Definitions Wildlife toxicology study of the direct and indirect adverse effects of contaminants on freeliving animals Contaminant substance that is not a natural constituent of a habitat or naturally occurring constituents in a form or quantity different from that occurring naturally in the environment i Definitions Pesticide chemical used to control undesirable organisms eg fungicides herbicides insecticides and rodenticides Direct toxic effects an effect resulting from direct exposure to a contaminant Secondary poisoning poisoning resulting from the ingestion of a target organism Definitions Sublethal effects direct toxic effects that do not adversely affect reproduction or survival HOW LETHAL ARE SUBLETHAL EFFECTS g Definitions Indirect effects effects of contaminants on the environment of an organism eg food cover intra and interspecific interactions i Contaminant Issues PreWWII Lead shot Pesticides Naturallyoccurring compounds eg arsenic copper sulfate mercury pyrethrum strychnine thallium After WWII dramatic increase in manufacture and use of synthetic chemicals including pesticides v Abbreviated History 1960 s The Beginning Silent Spring Organochlorines Lipophilic Persistent Biomagnify DDEinduced eggshell thinning Abbreviated History 1970 s The Legislative Years FIFRA Guidelines for pesticide registration and reregistration Restrictions on the use of organochlorines dirty dozen Human dimension of the g banning of DDT I can tell you that DDT is not a carcinogen and did not cause birds to die and should never have been banned I can tell you the DDT il 1 ban has caused the deaths of millions of poor 1 w people mostly children whose deaths are directly attributable to a callous technologically advanced western society Banning DDT is new one of the most disgraceful episodes in the 65M 1 Yw T39 Mquot g twentieth century We knew better and we did it better anyway and we let people around the world die and didn t give a damn Michael Jl llii li Creighton 2003 39 P 7 39 39 39 39 31am um 39 39 l SE r a wpmmmomr an 39 I 39 39 wndpli 39 TOXIC TRADEOFF South Africa deploys DDT against malaria away an nskc mm a Mr mm m o a pa 2 mum titanquot r hulk1 4 rquot 11 39 5 ml n a m rugx but 02 Ir nn 0cm emu hc 2mm rmhn 9 long axil39 main m Wu Mbmlj is 41er WWFUXD nunlmn Inn nun1 m 0 r39rx r mmmmrr m V yam I gg f k gf MalanauIxairmgmmmfdrllh htldrm mninSmAfnttL v Abbreviated History I 1980 s The Golden Years Organophosphates and carbamates Acute toxicity Low persistence No biomagnification i Abbreviated History 1990 s The Decline EPA s New Paradigm Synthetic pyrethroids Low toxicity to vertebrates except fish Acute toxicity to invertebrates Low persistence Low biomagnification Organochlorines estrogenic effects i Abbreviated History 2000 s Old Issues New Directions Organochlorines PCBs and PBDEs flame retardants Pesticides and the Grasshopper Effect Pharmaceuticals Bioengineered pathogens and resistant crops Sublethal and indirect effects Abbreviated History 2000 s Old Issues New Directions Putting risk in risk assessment Landscape approach to pesticide regulation Chemical mixtures Chemical interactions Active Ingredients vs End Products 2 billion lbs Al annuaW Adjuvants and Carriers 41 billion lbs inert ingredients annually i Laboratory pen studies il i3 i2 ii i a a a 7 s s a a z i a i ALKALiNE EM 50 45 an 15 Acid rain from burning of coal leading to airborne sulfurous and nitrous oxides i King of Birds 39 w aaf39le JJJJ39 39 V J JJ Controlled Field Studies Field studies d Mr 39wmm I quotm Hrvrm u 00 NOT ENTER This Fielxw Has Been Sprayed With Parathion 1 CASE or EMERGENCY GAIL quot1 umml Ecnltr Huspllul mm H 75 77 39H m University of Minnesota graduate students imprinted mallard ducklings onto themselves and used the broods to study the effects of synthetic pyrethroids on duckling survival and growth i Northwest Issues Lead shot and lead sinkers and swans Pesticides and salmon PCBs salmon and their predators Mercury and aquatic wildlife Radioactive waste management at Hanford i Lead shot and sinkers alternative and it protects loons eagles and other wildlife Tackling the problem Lead is a toxic metal that in suf cient quantities has adverse effects on the nervous and reproductive systems of animals found in most shing sink like Jigs and smkers this metal is poisoning wildlife such as loons a Stone and eagles These pebbles and sinkers were found in the gizzard ofa leadpoisoned loon More anglers are using shing from Minnesota You can see how loons can mistake lost shing weights for the pebbles they seek to help grind their food Loons die within two to three tacklemade from 0 Pmsonous weeks after swallowing a lead sinker orjig materials such as tin bismuth steel and tungsten And these tagtzrlndatives are becoming eaSIer Nonlead and There39s been an explosion of Xray of a dead can with ingested Ennovat39ons m the taCkle lead shing tackle found in a northern 39ndUStry and Your Minnesota lake options are becoming more plentiful each year Tungsten l Bismuth Glass i which have themselves swallowed lead tackle eaths 70 lead shot Tungsten composite Bismuthtin Bismuthtin More resources wwwmoeastatemnussinkers Made in Minnesota j Pesticides and salmon i j 39 LAF PLUS 2 LAWN PamquR AND a ylnl uxlawn 39mx mum mam um i zm and mm 391 Ubruidlealnendl 39f quotd mm mm m amquot quot W39s quotp wimm quot ung inquot lawn M quot m i 5000 50 FY 3393 m 5cm 7 a 7 Salmon have been an integral part of the culture and economy of the Paci c Northwest A 3 Laws and LLquot L I an rho 1 nlumlnu llvq lm Lvlln mrl 13quot l l llml wuuM mlmulm rwn IHr quotleI r when ml 0 Jurlrmrn I ul luring 01le umtrurlul dung m ll v lmllmu pm Wow Ing f n urrx Jul llmm In l39hcq livat39l In laquot 1r lnlc l J r nSJmmaybnmhmanu 11 salmon bl l ilomecom39mg season for Many communities celebrate the return 1 of the sh each 39 yeah lumen nannnlm quotgamma n m mm L quanan u m m a mm mm 39 I ll InnIi nymnssyimwmi l N 39 We have even named and painted aircraft after salmon This is Alaska Airlines new Salmon 37 However today many runs of salmon are listed as threatened or endangered These data and an increase in pre spawn mortality in coho salmon in urban environments in Western Washington have led to the hypothesis that the two are linked at home Supported by funds from the City of Balnbrldge Island and the Washington State Department of Ecology PCBS salmon and killer whales TO MARS AND BEYOND BUSH39S PLAN FOR SPACE nunAu First steps W Ad ective reporter takes Snowshoeing l or eiple ve on a novel for novi 25 on LETE FCC chief challenge Mount Rainier A A takes a stand nunm a mm m m N m l carry high l PCB levels But state says health bene ts of eating the sh outweigh risks PCB LEVELS IN SALMlJN my 3 If you want to learn more Fish and Wildlife Toxicology FISH 455 ESRM 457 Winter 2009 32 split Lecture 3 crediits Lab 2 credits No prerequisites Meets natural world requirement


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