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by: Sallie Lind PhD


Sallie Lind PhD
GPA 3.84


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Class Notes
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sallie Lind PhD on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESRM 302 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/192032/esrm-302-university-of-washington in Environmental Science and Resource Management at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
Management Monitoring and Maintenance ESRM 302CFR 590 Restoration Design Performance Standards for Plants Survival Healthy plants that grow Cover of natives Cover of invasives Responses Remove invasives Replant Select different species Change locations of plantings Wildlife Either assess wildlife directly or Gauge the potential of the site to support wildlife Monitor macroinvertebrates amphibians birds mals Responses Change vegetation structure Modify microclimate or create microhabitats Add species Create wildlife features snags boxes Control predators Create refugia fences islands thick brush Elements of Site Management Performance standards for plants Hydrology Wildlife Invasives plan Herbivory System perturbations Routine maintenance Secondary planting Monitoring Hydrology Depth frequency and duration of inundation Depth to groundwater Responses Ch ange control of flooding if possible Gates valves diversions augmentation offlow Create impoundments or depressions Liners channels we39rs Replant at changed locations Invasive Species Management Plan Removal of invasives Control conditions Minimize disturbance Create shade Quickly plant cleared areas Create buffer zones Control offsite areas Monitor reappearance of invasives 39 Set response triggers for reaction Invasive Species Management Plan Responses should be appr priate for species Reed canarygrass remove immediately and modify conditions Canada thistle cut seed heads then herbicide entire clone English ivy cut down flowering stems pull down from trees schedule work events to roll up ivy mats and pile onto blue tarps Herbivory Beaver fence trees install beaver deceiver Geese fence installations around perimeter use twine with mylar ribbons over top Crows avoid shiny objects put bird netting over newly planted sites or containers Voles use tree shelters or pepper wax Deer tall fencing or draped netting Mountain beaver tree shelters plastic mesh tubes System Perturbations Preparations for periodically occurring and predictable perturbations Dry periods mulch irrigation DrywaterTM Fires plant in c umps Winter storms create surface obstructions depressions brush fences Floods plant high use flood tolerant clonal plant species Erosion use bioengineered installations brush layering fascines gabions Herbivory Herbivory may start immediately 39Geese 39 Herbivory may start after a lag time but proceed quickly Beaver 39 Defenses fencing tree tubes mylartape chemical defenses relocation beaver deceivers System Perturbations Periodically occurring and predictable Seasonal precipitation patterns temperatures animal activities lnfrequently or rarely occurring and hence unpredictable but probable Storm events dike failure changes in adjacent land uses Predictable disturbances should be incorporated in the design and operation System Perturbations lnfrequently or rarely occurring and hence unpredictable but obable events Choices 1 Go ahead roll the dice plantthere 2 Hedge your bets lf part ofthe site is likely to be lost avalanche hazard res ood damage invest some of your effort in nearby protected areas behind outcrops in tree clumps on high ground 3 Putyour effort somewhere else Routine Maintenance Secondary planting Maintaining antiherbivory features remain alert Replacement planting for introduction of new herbivores I I t Mulching n39p an mg Maintenance of irrigation systems and sequent39a39 plant39ng ultimately removal Matrix or key species planted rst Patching eroded channels Less common or scattered species next Removing invasive plants Specialcondition species eg shadeloving Replan mg Planting into conditioning plant assemblages Removal of tree shelters Keep interpretive materials in good condition and up to date Western red cedar directly into willows Oregon ash into created gaps Monitoring Monitoring for sake of data collection will not help the monitored site Monitoring must be keyed to thresholds which will trigger actions Actions must be specific eg Remove if found Actions must be keyed to species eg Bullfrogs Installation ESRM 302CFR 590 Restoration Design Construction Hydrologic design for wetlands and earns Hydraulic modeling is used to predict ows Modi ed grades at a site are used to intercept those ows and create impoundments or result in some duration of ooded or saturated soils Construction Grading plan Existing topography Proposed topography reas to be excavated lled or graded Wetlands that will be altered Cut and ll quantities stockpile or disposal areas Construction Grading plan continued sse 39ons in typical or important areas Any proposed landforms Hummock i Wetland ben Construction details for engineered elements Wen dikes swales infiltration systems swales pits islands peninsula Ches Construction Construction should occur in the dry season Planting should occur in the wet season Construction Staging areas Site on uplands Haul roads Keep traf c on assigned roads Rip plow scarify when project is complete Construction Management Timeline or timetable should be created V ndows Lead times Customgrown or selfgrown plant materials may take several years Purchased plant materials may need to be ordered in the fall Constraints bottlenecks Minimize bare ground exposure Avoid rainy season disturbances Construction Management Identify overseers and their responsibilities Some activities require presence of designer or biologis Plant removal Herbicide application Grading Planting Placement of logs boulders wildlife structures Construction Management Erosion Control Timing Runoff management Swales silt fences hay bales sedimentation ponds Shortterm erosion prevention Logs rocks wattling Jute mats brush mats Cover crops Construction Management Stockpiling salvage soil or plants on y from sites where construction grading or conversion is You begin to lose urganisrns Within Weeks Plants Salvaged plants ould be watered and kept in shade Protect from herbivo Short term storage only in summer though salvaged plants may be overwintered ou might choose an offsite salvage facility with irrigation wet beds and capillary beds Pla nts Planting Plans Prepare a schematic plan view w39th proposed vegetation communities overlain on topogra hy For wetlands you need crosssections h wing proposed vegetation at anticipated elevations and water lev Plants On the Planting Plan Show polygons within communities Pulyguns are small areas Wltp speelrled plant 5 gruuplng Species and number of plants should be ygon speci ed for each pol Spacing or clumping may be suggested Fleld placement snuuld pe dlrected by pluluglst Plants Tran sport Plant materials are heavy and sometimes do not stack well Closed trailers or vans provide protected ion transporiat Keep plants covered while in transit Deslccatlun ean happen gullle 92 M Ecnanlcal darna Plants Planting Organizing plants for planting day Gruvv ln samerspecles gruups MlX speeles euntalners tn ereate batches fur plantlng Mlerlg may be dune ln yards parkan luts flelds 7 Use tempuvavy SpllnkiEY sys12ms 7 Garden huses and lawn spllnklevswuvk Plants Planting Match plant batches to polygons Flag plants or batches eg with engineering tape with same color as target polygons eg with wire ags Plants Atthe site on planting day you may need Plants Tools wheelbarrows gloves Firstaid equipmen Portable toilets Water shade hats Food donations work well Herbivory fencing Mulch Plants Planting V th volunteer labor try to get a team leader trained for each ve volunteers V th volunteers you may install a large area quickly V th few planters you may take weeks Protect stored plants Water them protect from herbivory Plants Planting techniques Container plants Inspect root systems Tease out roots or out vertical cuts Plant in wide hole plant hi h Water in water well continue to water Plants Planting techniques terial Heelrin to Store Water in do not overrwater Plants Planting techniques Divisions Place into moist Soil and keep moist Herbivores lovethem so protect Plants Planting techniques Live stakes Cut in winter and stick in moist soils V llow poplar redosier dogwood snowberry Create fast shade Work best on wetland edges Herbivory Protection Geese chicken wire fencing twine mylar ribbon Crows netting Deer fencing netting Beaver hardware cloth cylinders Mice and voles tree shelters hot beeswax Mountain beaver plastic mesh tubes Rabbits chicken wire fencing Irrigation Irrigation Some environments will be too dry to PVC pipes with risers and rainbird initially support container plants or live sprinklers are common stakes Supply lines may be laid on soil surface Normally risers are removed and supply lines left in place a er system no longer use Most irrigation is designed to get plantings past first two years Examples Dry sites slopes south facing quick soils Constructed but not connected wetlands and streams Interpretation Signs 7 5tgrrs are exeeuerrtrnethedster Educatmg and fur reatmg netghburhuud suppurt Trails 7 Trans and uvertuuks earr aHthhe destg Where Vtstturs tn a res uratmn stte gu preteet refuge ar rt ner tn huuse and may hetp 7 Art earr hetp generate netghburhuud pammpatmn m a prujectand create a sense at ptaee 5n Case Histories Restoring modified marine bed habitat Orth RJ MC Harwell and JR Fishman 1999 A rapid and simple method for transplanting eelgrass using single unanchored shoots Aquatic Botany 6477 85 e was an unprecedented decline of eelgrass in Chesapeake Bay in the 197039s Numerous restoration techniques were tried Bundles cores turfs etc There was varying success Planting meth 39 od Shoots selected roots had 12 cm of rhizome with Placed in bundles of 50100 Diver using SCUBA would then insert rhizome at an an le Would be 12quot dee 70 plants placed in 2x2 m2 plot Results39 4B plots measured at four sites me 39 Increased from 5 to 3 A Shoot density increased from 16 to around 600 per m This paper reports on the success ofa simple method oftransplantation Adult plants shoveled from York River Virginia roots and rhizomes intact Stored 2448 hours in tanks with owthrough river water Davis RC and FT Short 19 7 Restoring eelgrass Zostera marina L habitat using a new transplanting technique the horizontal rhizome method Aquatic Botany 59115 Zostera marina plays a critical role as a Eelgrass lters nutrients from the water nearshore abitat column It has also suffered extensive losses supports large and diverse faunal Seagrass restoration is an evolving technology assewb ages39 Most common method is the transplanting of Stabilizes sediment aduquot Sh 5 Dissipates wave energy Seed dispersal may no longer provide natural colonization because of loss of nearby popu a ions Populations have declined P llution Site Impact at New Ha Portsmouth New Under clean Water act any impact Transplanting to take place at several sites in 39 estuary totally 2 existing populations must be mitigated Restoration done in estuary of riv h borders Maine and o mpshire Port Authority pier Periodic wasting disease Hampshire Piscataqua New 39 er whic Hampshire Collection Done in three 1 x 300 m rectangles in a healthy 6 ha donor site Vegetative shoots selected Approximately 3 to 5 cm of rhizome taken Stored in large coolers containing some seawater Goals of any seagrass restoration Persistent vegetative cover Equivalent acreage gained for that lost Increase in acreage if possible Replacement of the same seagrass species that was lost Development of a natural faunal community Horizontal rhizome method Two shoots anchored with a bamboo staple Rhizomes parallel pointing in opposite directio Spaced on half meter centers Gill netting used to make cages and Results suppress bioturbation by green crabs overwinter survival was Baited crab pots were emptied twice a week Majority of intertidal plants were killed by ice dama e Unprotected subtidal plots had severe damage from bioturbation by crabs Pickerell CH S Schott and Sandy Harvest and sowing ofseeds has been WyllieEcheverria 2005 Buoydeployed investigated as a restoration method seeding39 demonstration ofa new eelgrass Large scale applic 39 stera marina L planting method beca Ecological Engineering 25127 n may be 39mited us ofthe infrastructure required to collect store and process seedbearing reproductive shoots Reproductive biology of Zostera Detached oating reproductive shoots can transport shoots over 100 km from donor populations They can drift for 4 weeks while releasing seeds Ovules mature 4 weeks after being pollinated wia Seed buoy developed Holds reproductive shoots underwater in the same general location over the period of seed release Method Reproductive shoots were collected during the second week of seed release Shoots placed in mesh bag with 9mm mesh Bag tied to lobster pot buoy with wire 64 mm oating polypropylene line used to tie buoy to cinder block Section of garden hose used to protect line where it goes through cinder block Typical SK Hillg Diurillulinu muull a Inglr Bum Results Seedling recruitment measured to be 7 of available seeds Buoy location tended to be determined by prevailing win s Case Histories Natural landscapes that have been turned into brownfields Capped landfills often highlyengineered Modified with nutrientpoor clay soil This limits cover grassland common state Trees do not colonize or survive well Potential tree uses Shortrotation forests Bioremediation Wildlife habitat Recreation Local climate modification Athy ER OH Keiffer and MH Stevens 2006 Effects of mulch on seedlings and soil on a closed landfill Restoration Ecology 142233 241 Tree growth has been discouraged Designers thought roots would pierce cap Windthrow would expose fill material Recent studies have discredited this idea as a hard rule Depending on depth of cap tree roots may stay within the cap material Mulch Commonly used in horticulture to modify soils Improves moisture nutrients temperature Evaporation decreased


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