PAC NW ECOSYSTEMS
PAC NW ECOSYSTEMS ESRM 201
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This 57 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sallie Lind PhD on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESRM 201 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/192034/esrm-201-university-of-washington in Environmental Science and Resource Management at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
ESRM 201 Sustaining Pacific Northwest Ecosystems Washington s De nition of Wildlife By Washington Administrative Code WAC 22216010 quotWildlifequot means all species of the animal kingdom Whose members exist in Washington in a Wild state The term quotwildlifequot includes but is not limited to any mammal bird reptile amphibian fish or invertebrate at any stage of development The term quotWildlifequot does not include feral domestic mammals or the family Muridae of the order Rodentia old world rats and mice Wildlife are owned by the people of Washington State and managed by the Washington Department of Fish amp Wildlife httpwdfwwa govO Wildlife Science Wildlife Management Wildlife Ecology Wildlife Science Animal Ecology Applied Animal Ecology Historically Wildlife Science or Management was game species conservation Conservation wise use or stewardship contrast with preservation Some basic ecology but most effort toward production management Species of concern upland game birds quail pheasant turkey partridge grouse waterfowl ducks and geese small game squirrels rabbits and hares and big game deer elk bear sheep Current Scope of Wildlife Ecology or Science I Concerned with basic biology and ecology of native species I Concerned with their conservation and When necessary their preservation l Concerned with the management positive amp negative of exotic species I Concerned with public attitudes toward Wildlife and public policies that affect them I Shift from utilitarian attitude associated with urbanization I Public understanding of science and sciencebased management Changing Attitudes and Public Policy I Current state of forest management in the Paci c Northwest probably inconceivable only 50 years ago I Concern over fate of late successional wildlife species owls murrelets has essentially shut down timber harvest on federal lands I Re ects an increasing environmental awareness by the public and the attitudes of an increasingly urban population Changing Attitudes toward Wildlife l Good Wildlife management is good forest management On national forests staggered setting clearcut harvesting Maximum edge environment minimum core forest habitat Provides road access and edge Creation and maintenance of early successional habitats Consequences for Wildlife Conversion of late to early successional landscapes many industrial lands managed on 55yr or less rotations Early successional species that were found primarily in areas of forest disturbance and riparian zones now common throughout the landscape The management prescription greatly favors deer elk hares and rabbits quail grouse large populations of eld rodents and their predators Concern began to grow over the well being of late successional species and the full complement of native species Maintenance of native biodiversity a current goal Regional Diversity Ethic I All species not created equal I Ranking species desirability a function of natural history and societal values I Locally common species vs regionally common species Threatened and endangered species Native vs exotic game species Nongame exotic species Rare endemic species Regionally common species Pets I Local vs regional faunal responsibility a potential tragedy of the commons Ecology and Management of Forest Wildlife ESRM 201 Sustaining Pacific Northwest Ecosystems Functions of Wildlife Within Forests I May be positive from a plant viewpoint A yth 39 no at t5 Increased pollination and germination Dispersal of seeds esp fruiting plants and fungal spores hypogeous vs epigeous fungi Mycorrhizal associations of woody plants Role in increased nutrient recycling Role in soil turnover and aeration Moderator of plantplant competitive effects differential herbivory positive effect for the plant that is not eaten I May be negative from a plant viewpoint 5 Herbivory may be intense defoliator outbreaks bark g1rdlmg by porcupmes and voles grazing lawns formed by elk May alter course and timing of forest succession forests Without herbivores show very different species composition and structure exclosure experiments Ungulates and bears can damage or kill trees by antler thrashing and debarking Soil turnover and herbivory may arrest forest succession for decades gophers and voles Bark probing and cavity excavation may lead to fungal infection and tree death beetles birds Plant Reactions to Herbivory A coevolutionary race ongoing between plants and herbivores I Plants generate secondary plant compounds that are toxic or interfere with animal digestion I Plants produce thick bark and epidermal layers I Grasses armor their leaves With glass silica I Plants produce thorns stinging hairs and resins Herbivores counter with better dentition more complex and evergrowing microbial digestion and behavioral diet selection Approaches to Management I Single species management occurs at the population level management of individuals generally indicates management failure I Management is indirect focused on resources needed by the population I Resources are provided for population growth or stability over M t1me 39 I Resources are removed for population declines I To provide critical resources one must know natural history Approaches to Management Multiple species management occurs at a landscape scale by providing suitable habitats at appropriate spatial and temporal scales I Must decide which species to manage for or against I Must know specieshabitat relationships to predict occupancy I Must know speciesarea requirements for sensitive area species I Must know dispersal capabilities of species This is a regional biodiversity approach managing landscapes over space and through time The Nature of Populations I Population a group of conspeci c individuals occupying a particular place at a particular time I This is an operational definition I Population Features I Abundance number of individuals Density number of individualsunit area Natality production of new individuals Mortality loss of individuals due to death Emigration amp Immigration loss or gain to a population due to movement of individuals Factors of Change in Abundance Birth Immigration gt Abundance gt Emigration Death Terms Related to Habitat Habitat An area With the combination of resources and environmental conditions that promotes occupancy by individuals of a given species and allows those individuals to survive and reproduce Habitat Sink A habitat incapable of supporting a reproductively active population More Habitat Terms Coarsegrained Species A species Whose individuals perceive their environment as consisting of large habitat patches Must manage for all life history requirements Finegrained Species A species Whose individuals perceive their environment as consisting of small habitat patches Must manage an array of habitats Area Sensitive Species A species that requires large areas of a particular habitat to survive What Habitat Elements to Provide I Deceptively simple Shelter food and water I Diverse needs for diverse species Rodents cover objects litter layer forage plants Shrews cover objects invertebrate prey Bats old large trees snags nocturnal ying insects Song birds nesting sites tree shrub ground invertebrate prey seeds fruits Cavitynesting birds 1 or 2 snags and bark insects Amphibians standing or owing water inverts cover Hawks and Owls small birds and mammals roosting trees Reptiles inverts small bird and mammal prey cover Structural Diversity Within Forests Logs I Protection from physical The trunk provides The mat wad ls used by 39 a W 0 mourners e peeling enV1ronment 5 woodpeckers parlrcularly by grouse for dusdng and 3 pileaxed woodpecke i by luneos for neslmg Protection from predators Elevaled areas are used as loo uuls and leedmg sltes lebs are used as perches and lr hollow as nesl cavities Food sources Lookout structures Display structures Travel routes The spaces between loose bark Prolecled areas under me and o d are used as hidin log are used as nesnng and Ihermal cover by inverleurales cover by grouse and as and small verlebraes such as he hiding and thermal cover Pacific treefrog by snowshoe haresv Figure 49 The mean of COVE prawded by logs for small vertebrates 15 directly Iealad 10 SIZE 0 the lo the larger 13979 mg me longer r1 takes to decompose and the longer r prevrdes efecnve cover Large logs provide more habitat and they last longer We are still realizing bene ts from stumps and logs from the original forest We are not replacing these elements Structural Changes in Snags and Logs l Different structures provide different habitat values As decomposition proceeds species use different decay stages A diversity of stages is present in high quality habitats Exfoliating bark of old trees provides bat roosts and barkgleaning bird foraging and nest sites Placement in uplands and south exposures for bats Provides substrate for large cavity nesting birds and arboreal mammals Source for large snags Provide thermal choices for bats Cavities provide space for bat maternity colonies Provide bird nesting and roosting sites May need buffering with live trees and replacement schedules Spatial Arrangement of Habitat Elements I Management of coarse vs negrained species I Must provide all requirements of life in one place for coarsegrained species Management by habitat patch I Terrestrial salamanders I Small mammals l Management must provide a mix of appropriate habitats for finegrained species from which individuals select requirements Habitats must be spatially accessible I Ungulates deer elk goats sheep I Large carnivores cougars bears I Bats all 12 forest dwelling species Small Mammals amp Forest Succession Vagrant shrew Marsh and Trowbridge s shrews Townsend s mole Shrewmole Meadow voles Coast mole Jumping mice Tree and flying squirrels Deer mouse Southern redbacked vole Gophers Keen s mouse Ground squirrels 395 Chipmunks 1 Grass Shrub forb seedling Mature sapling growth Six successional stages Bats amp Forest Succession Foraging Grass forb w ll 9 Shrub seeclling sapling Successional Staes Roosting 5 6 Mature Old growth Use early successional areas and water bodies for foraging Roost in forests with suitable trees amp snags High quality habitat is close to food water and roosts Commuting a hassle for bats as well L Monika Moskal PhD Assistant Professor of Remote Sensmg and Blospanal Analysis Preuslon Forestry Cooperative What exactly is geographic information and why is it important How does this information relate to data knowledge evidence wisdom and understanding What kind of decisions make use of geographic information What is GI System and how would I know one if I saw one What is GI Science and how does it relate to the use of GIS for scientific purposes How do scientists use GIS and why do they find it helpful Dr John Snow London39s 1854 cholera outbreak Deaths Jar Number or Cholera I U rmr C rmrm 10000 J F quot1 househoids deaths house holds Southwark and Vauxhall Comp anquot r im en39emamzer 4010416 1263 315 London senior of river Lambeth Company Lrilr m r hamoeozwU 2610 98 3 reader npr ner J a ration R225 qflaim on 256423 1423 59 Snow39s cholera outbreak map 1854 Geospatial Tools Working Together Remote Sensing Photogrammetry Image Interpretation I FeatureExtraction I Programming gt I i GPSSurveying Spatial Statistics Geovisualization What is GIS Science System Study Abstraction CAUTION L ZZESW I Field vs Object Fields continuous variation operational forms include raster TIN C O nto U I Raster I Image time is represented as a discrete event 39 layers Objects discrete variables human perception introduces bias operational forms are shapes points lines polygons etc time can be represented as a continuous function GIS Data Models E u n itrm 1121 JV QT 1 Gerg mlgh if J nfgnm zmgw EL We assume that T may be empiiricalliyvefified Thememaucwsuanzauqn11cm 39 tea vegetationtopagraphytel1su data papulatlun density How would you make these maps O 21 ampamp Washington from Space 7 Landsat TM dam 7 Wash Gap Analysis Jan 1995 Land Cover Vezsion 6 August 1996 mumm wage Tn D Agnmmn mmm mmmmmm mm mm mevnummm m mum m maummmm Dmmmu mmm mm mm m m M w mu nut olonvon mm mm mgmm mannaJ mm m was much u wwwm mm mm mm m Dwainm m 1 mm m mum wumm huwnnmmu ma mm mummy 1 Wu m munam magnum my mm D cum1 mm uny um mmwm mm man mu am pm mam mwsmHmusk mm m w mam an m on raw summitmu ms my mum sunnmnnwnmgus um mm Li cult mu m m thx m x Irma1 mu mm mm sum mama Dmmm mmmanm Dmmmnmnniamt hm mum m was Iamumwmha ahhhmmwnmm mnwrmummammmmh cumlumewImmovmuunywmmnmmmm mm mmmwmmmmxm Ecmmmmmmm mummm canmmmnmluq mumnxxmmmmmm mloynqmumuuwhxm WNWm umwmm gm mm my um umlylwwummmnlun m gm mmnugvxmmhmml m um um mm m4 m a margin goon mmnn um 39 WMWEMmm Mmquot cmuomknmnumwammmmmm manualwanting hummer1m we munu DmmIMIMWnImn 39 hmmmhm m1 mmmwnm my m mmmmmmmmuu 9n mlbdiwemgam Dmmmm may mm mm mmmm 1mg m Dunmm lmmupununu m n uhnwumummvymmmmmnxw w x m mkmm mm an 171 mm m M Textbook de nition of remote sensing the art science and technology ofobtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording measuring and interpreting images and patterns of electromagnetic radiant energy and other phenomena Lillesand amp Kiefer 2005 The electromagnetic spectrum Microwaves 4 2 2 Radar Gamma X39raYS Xrays Infrared rays hard soft E 3 EHF SHF UHF VHF HF LF TV radio I I I I I I I I I I I 001 01 1 10 100 01 10 100 01 1 10 1 10 100 Approximate Wavelength mm Visible Light 05 Microns micrometres Reflectance Many vegetation types can be distinguishedjust by looking at their spectral curves LU HEALTHY VEGE39ATION 09 03 0739 06 05 UNHEAUH MEG EWAHC N 04 393 REFLECIANCE 03 SOIL WAVELENG39IH Quantifying Change Landscape Level Change Detection Using Statistical Metrics Patch Analysis in GIS Central plateau cover types post 1988 fire Despain 1994 Central plateau cover types pre 1988 fire Despain1994 Pre 1988 Fire Post 1988 Fire Difference Patch Densityamp Size Metrics Number of Patches 561 2973 2412 A Mean Patch Size Ha 161 30 131 V Edge Metrics Total Edge m 3513864 4701417 1187553 A Edge Density mHa 39 52 13 A Mean Patch Edge mpatch 6264 1581 4682 V Shape Metrics Mean Patch Fractal Dimension 12987 13576 00589 A Dive rs ity Metrics Shannon39s Diversity Index 19576 20525 00949 A Moskal 2003 Ion t a t n e m g a r F t a uh b a H Example 2 1998 Satellite Image 1996 Satellite Image mmltn mvm nom Horne Flanges Minimum Convex Polygons 6 Classified Imagery 1998 Landsat TM Image Moskal 2000 Maximum Likelihood Classifier an Wetland trees Wetland opened ater E Shrub lt1800 m Shadow lRock l0pen deciduous Open conifer lMixed deciduous lMixed conifer Mine Herbaceous reclamation Herbaceous lt1800 m Cut 3to 12 years Cut oto 2 years Dclosed deciduous Closed conifer Recent burn o to 2 years Apine grass What s the favorite habitat of a Grizzly Bear Mt Adams Mt Goats Spatwotempora ana ysws ofthe GPS data resu ts m the mtrayannua estabhshment ofthe home range p0 ygons m bwyweek y cyc es AugzgSep 1906 Ocn ocmo IduvziDecozn DenaJana lum Fabmuv Feln Maros w feiarnAproEov MraaMvo o39r MayzsJu39losn Tll39l ris JuI z ldynor MIGM9124 AlignSquaw L Tx me se es EVI Indwces and homerange James amp Moskal 2008 forone annua cyde Example 3a Urban Expansion Springfield MO 1912 36996 Acres of urban Land Cover 1972 2000 140000 7 120000 100 000 77 lForesl Y EIGrassland 3 00000 77 2 60000 7 ECropland 40000 7 EIBare 20 000 7 ElUrban 0 i i i i i i 2000 1972 1979 1904 1900 1992 2000 Moskal et al 2005 Years 103567 Acres of urban 11504 acre increase I Water quality and availability I Wetland characterization I Carbon storage and sequestration I Biodiversity I Biofuels and bioenergy I Fire and insect susceptibility Anderson 302 Active and Passive Remote Sensing EXAMPLE OUICKBIRD EXAMPLE LIDAF NewTrends in Remote Sensing Technology DataSource 39 MODlSAVHRR Applications Change analysis 0 Monitoring Tools HiiannonicAnalysis Moskal 2008 Data Source 39AVIRlS Hyperion Applications Vegetation Health Species identification invasive Species Tools 395 u ectral Analysis Data Source Lidar Ouickbird Applications Forest inventory Forest Structure Tools Feature Extraction
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