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by: Sallie Lind PhD


Sallie Lind PhD
GPA 3.84


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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sallie Lind PhD on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ESRM 311 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/192035/esrm-311-university-of-washington in Environmental Science and Resource Management at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 09/09/15
SOIL SURVEY King County Area Washington V UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with WASHINGTON AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION Issued November 1973 names and descriptions were approved in 1969 Unless otherwise indicated state ments in the publication refer to conditions in the county in 1969 quotm39 was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service King Count Washington Agricultural Experiment Station It is part of the technical assistance I furnished to the King County Soil and Water Conservation District I This 2 39 and the 1 Major ficldh39ork for this soil survey was done in the period 1966463 Soil 1 l I l Either enlarged or reduced copies of the soil map in this publication can he 39 made by commercial photographers or they can be purchased on iodiridual order from i the Cartographic Division Soil Conservation Service United States Department of Lngriculture Washington DC 30250 HUN TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY same limitation or suitahility For example soils rat have a slight limitation for a given use can be colored green thoso with a moderate limitation can be colored yellow and those with 1 Severe limita tion can be colored re Community planners and others can read about soil properties that affect the choice of Sites for THIS SOIL SURVEY contains information that can be applied in managing farms ranches and woodlands in selecting sites for roads ponds buildings and other structures and in judging the suitability of tracts of land for farming industry and recreation Locating 50113 nonindustrial building or recreation areas in All the soils of the King County Area are shown Eggciggz n Tum 4nd mun Planning am on the detailed map at the back of this publication This map consists of many sheets made from aerial I I I I II I photographs Each shoot is numbered to correspond fngl cr5 aid 111 53 find I d 50115 Iand with a number on the IndEx to Map sheetSI Engineeringquot table s that contain estimates of 5011 properties and mini nation about soil features that On each sheet ofxthc detailed map soil areas are I I I outlined and are identified by symbol5 All areas affeCt englneerlng PT1C2393PC marked with the same svmbol are the same k n soil The soil symbol i5 inside the area ifdtloiire Farmers and those 1139 390 Kim Fame can 193139 is enough room othenIiscI it is outside and a aboutIusIe and management or the soils from the soil Pointer shows where the Symbol belongs Ig fgptigns anddri omdth J discu55inn5 0 5 the 9313 j g ups an we land groups Foresters and other an refer t 39 I I I I I I o the section Finding and USIng lnLormatmn quothoodlantlquot where the l of the countv are grouper according to their suita39li lity for trees I The quotGuide to Mapping Unitsquot can be used to find information This guide lists all the soils of the Came managers sportsmen and others E 11 king count Area in alphabetic order by map symbol information about soillt andhcildlil 39 clan 1 and gives the capability and woodland classification quotWl1d1if6 i L in he 59 1an of each It also shows the page where each soil is described References in the headnotc show pages Scientists and others can rei 5 l for t1 T Creage Yield and engineering tables soils formed and how tnex are Quid Iu39m Lhe IIndIiindual colored maps showing the relative Section quotFormation and l39lt 39ltaw l 10d 1 tlie39 suitabiliti or degree of limitation of soils for L L51 hang Of US hmls39 many speci ic purposes can be developed 1w using the NeWCOInEl39S in the Pi 39 DI I I I I I I t n Lount v zen deiltnllminiaswf m the text Trans IH 613 l interm nalhoiipfla quot SOII IIII a II IIbC nI anIoverlay over the where broad patterns of soils are d5 quotH d If p n colored Lo shot 50115 that have the may also be interested in the scctignL r39EL It Tim i ma e 39 4i For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 115 Government Printing 016cc meington DC 20M CONTENTS Page HOW THIS SURVEY WAS MADE 2 GENERPL SOIL MP 3 1 Alderwood association 2 Uridia SeattIe Woodinville association 3 Buckley Aldemood association 4 Everett association 5 Beausite Aldexwoud association 6 Aldcrwood Kjtsap Indianola association 7 Puget Earlmont Snuhomish associatinn DESCRIPTIONS OF THE 50115 Aldemood series Arents Aldemood material Arents Everett materi a sen es lndi anola series Mixed alluvial land Neilton series quot N Nooksack series Norma i Orcas 39 Oridia series Ovall series Pilchuck series ge 39 u Puyallup series Ragnar JUL Renton series Rivemash Salal series 7777777777777 H Sammamish serie Seattle series 77777777777777 H 28 Shalcar series 23 Si seri a 25 Snohomish series Snohomish series thick surface varian Sultan series A Page Tukwila Sari es Urban 4 Woodinville series 0 Sanitary land Retreat Playgrmmds Camp areasw i Picnic areas Paths and trails H Wood 4 Woodland groups and production of wood 139 111 H Capability grouping Estimated yields Wildli FORMATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE 50 Factors of soil anna on Parent material un Clixnas Living organisms A A Topography A T Classification of the soils Laboratory data CLIMATE GE ULDG I LI39l hRA l39URE CITED GIDSSARY GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS F0110wing 100 SOIL SURVEY OF KING COUNTY AREA WASHINGTON BY DALE E SNYDER PHILIP S GALE AND RUSSELL F PRINGLE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE IN COOPERATIW WITH THE WASHINGTON AGRICULTURAL EXPERTMFNT STATION THE KING COUNTY AREA covers 445500 acres in the western part of King County fig 1 For this part of the county this survey replaces a soil survey of the entire county published in 1952 l3 3 Seattle was first settled in 1851 and the Green River Valley south of Seattle in about 1853 e major commercial ventures during the first years following settlement were in the lumbering industry Lumbering is still a major industry in the Area 393 MW 1 s Figure 1Location of the King County Area in Washington lhe first cultivated crops were produced almost exclusively for home consumption Farming however became productive enough that many carluads of fresh vegetables were exported from the county Also numerous manufacturing enterprises were established The large increase in pulntion associated with industrial activity has increased the demand for residential and commercial sites The demand has been so great that during the period 1954 to 1966 farmland was converted to other uses at the rate of about 3900 acres per Fresh vegetables are now imported from other States 24 version of farmland to urban uses is significan because only about 9 percent of the county outside of the National Forest is considered suitable for farmin thor limitations to use of the soils are erosion Hanson Dam and by construction of dikes along the river 1 AUn erscored numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited page 97 HOKl THIS SURVEY WAS MADE Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of Soil are in the King County Area where they are located and how they can be used The soil scientists went into ne county knowing they likely would find many soils they had already seen and perhaps some they had not They observed the steep ness length and shape of slopes the size and speed of streams the kinds of native plants and crops the kinds of rock and many facts about the They dug many holes to expose soil profiles A profile is the sequence of natural layers or horizons in a soil it extends rom the surface down into the parent material that has not been changed much by leaching or by the action of plant roots The soil scientists made comparisons among the profiles they studied and they compared these pro files with those in counties nearby and in places more distant They classified and named the soils according to nationwide uniform procedures soil series and the soil phase are the categories of soil classification most used in a local survey Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil series Except for different texture in the surface layer all the soils of one series have ma 39 t are similar in thickness arrange C aphi c r other geogr Aldcmood and Renton for example are the names of two soil series All the soils in the United States having the same series nams are essentially alike in those character istics that affect their behavior in the undisturbed landscape Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface soil and in slope stoniness or some other characteristic that affects use of the soils by man 01 the basis of such differences a soil series is divided into phases The name of a soil phase in dicates a feature that affects management For exam ple Kitsap silt loam 2 to 8 percent slopes is one of several phases within the Kitsap series After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had been worked out the soil scientists drew the boundaries 0F the individual soils on aerial photographs These photographs Show woodlands buildings field borders trees and other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately The soil map in the back of this publication was prev pared from the aerial photographs Th areas shown on a soil map are called mapping units 011 most maps detailed enough to be useful in planning the development of urban areas and the management of farms and fields a mapping unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase It is not exact 1y equivalent because it is not practical to Show on such a map all the small scattered hits of soil of somepther kind that have been seen within an area that is dominantly of a recognized soil phase These scattered bits are referred to as inclusions Some mapping units are made up of soils of differ ent series or of different phases within one series Three such kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map of the King County Area soil complexes associations and undifferentiated groups A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils so intermingled or so small in size that they cannot be shown separately on the soil map Each area of a complex contains some of each of the two or more dominant soils and the pattern and relative proportions are about the same in all areas e name of a soil complex consists of the names of the dominant soils joined by a hyphen An example is Everett Alderwood grai39elly sandy loams 6 Lo 15 per cent slopes fl soil association is made up of adjacent soils that occur as areas large enough to he shown indi vidually on the soil map but are shown as one unit because the time and effort of delineating than separately cannot be justified There is a consider able degree of uniformity in pattern and relative extent of the dominant soils but the soils may differ greatly one from another lhe name of an association consists of the names of the dominant soils joined by a hyphen Ragnarlndianola asso ciatinn sloping is an example An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more soils that could he delineated individually but are shown as one unit because for the purpose of the soil survey there 15 little value in separating them The pattern and proportion of soils are not uniform An area shown on the map may be made up of only one of the dominant soils or of two or more The name of an undifferentiated group consists of the names of the dominant soils joined by quotandquot Alderwood and Kilsap sol 15 very steep is an exam n mnst areas surveyed there are places where the 5011 material is so rocky so shallow or so severe ly eroded that it cannot be classified by soil se ries These places are shown on the soil map and are described in the survey but they are called land types and are given descriptive names Coastal beaches is a land type in the King County Area While a soil survey is in progress samples of soils are taken as needed For laboratory measure field or plot experlmenL on the same kinds of soil Yields under defined management are estimated for all the soils But only part of a soil survey is dnne when the soils have heen named described and delineated on the map and the laboratory data and yield data have The mass of detailed mormtion readily useful to different groups of users among them farmers managers of woodland engineers urban planners appraisers and homeowners basis of performance yield and practice tables and other data the soil scientists Set up trial gro The test these groups by futher Study and by consultation with farmers agronomists urban planners engineers and others and then adjust the groups according to the results of their studies and consultation Thus the groups that are finally evolved reflect up ta date knowledge of the soils and their behavior under prosent methods of use and management GENERAL SDI L MAP The general soil map at the back of this survey depth Stoniness drainage and other characteristics shows in color the soil associations in the King that affect their management County Area A soil association is a landscape that The seven soil associations in the King County has a distinctive proportional pattern of 50115 Area are described in the following pages It normally consists of one or more major soils and at least one minor soil and it is named for the ma or soils The soils in one association ma occur inJanother but in a different pattern y 139 lggEEggg 2 El g A map showing soil associations is useful to peo ple who want a general idea of the soils in an area who want to compare different parts of an area or that have dense very slowly permeable glacial till who want to know the location of large tracts that at a depth of 20 to 40 inches on uplands and are suitable for a certain kind of land use Such a terraces map is a useful general guide in managing a water shed a wooded tract or a wildlife area or in planning engineering works recreational facilities and community developments It is not a suitable map for planning the management of a farm or field or for selecting the exact location of a road building or similar structure because the soils in any one association ordinarily differ in slope Moderately well drained undulating to hilly 0115 This association occurs as large tracts on up lands and terraces in ho the northern and southern parts of the survey area It is about 85 percent Alderwood soils 8 percent Everett soils and 7 per cent less extensive soils fig 2 This associa tion occupies about 52 percent of the survey area H 3 Shulcur Figure 2 Pattern of soils and parent material in soil association 1 Alderwood soils are moderately well drained grav elly sandy loams that are 24 to 40 inches deep over consolidated glacial till They havc convex slopes Slopes are dominantly U to 30 percent but range to as much as 10 percent Slopes of more than 15 per cent are generally no more than 200 feet long Everett soils are nearly level and undulating to moderately steep They are on terraces and terrace fronts The less extensive soils in this association are in depressions or on terraces along small streams These soils mostly the Norma Bellingham Grcas Shalcarl and Seattle soils have impeded drainage and are subject to flooding There are significant acreages of Kitsap soils which have a Silty sub stratum in the major valleys and around Lake Wash ington and Puget Sound The soils of this association are well suited to pasture and timber production but are poorly suited to cultivated crops Urban development is occurring rapidly Limitations for homesites are moderate and slight on most of this association but are severe on Kitsap soils Oridia Seattle Woodinville Association Somewhat poorly drained and very poorly drained nearly level soils in major stream valleys This association is in major stream valleys or nearby level areas in both the southern and northern parts of the survey area It is about 17 percent Oridia soils 13 percent Seattle soils and 10 per cent Woodinville soils About 60 percent is soils of small extent mainly Briscot Edgewick Newberg Nooksack Pilchuck Puget Puyallup Renton Si Sultan Snohomish Shalcar and Tukwila soils This association occupies about ll percent of the survey area Dridia soils are somewhat poorly drained strati fied silt loams Briscot Edgewick Newberg Nook Sack Puget Renton Si and Sultan soils which are are stratified well drain ed to poorly drained sandy loams silt loams and silty clay loams Most are subject to flooding Seattle Shalcar and Tukwila soils are very poor ly drained deposits of peat and muck Pilchuck soils are sandy excessively drained and subject to flooding Woodinville and Snohomish soils are poorly drain ed silt loams that contain layers of peat Most soils in this association are well suited to row crops but a few are better suited to pasture and forage crops In general these are the most desirable soils for farming in the survey area Site preparation for urban development is more costly on this association than on most of the other associa tions Limitations are moderate and severe for residential and commercial sites 3 Buckley Alderuood Association Poorly drained and moderately well drained nearly level to rolling soils that have dense slowly per meable and very slowly permeable glacial till at a m 39 we 40 inches on glacial till plains and This association is on glacial till plains and uplands in the southeastern part of the survey area It is about 60 percent Buckley soils and 35 percent Alderwood soils fig The rest is soils of minor extent This association occupies about 7 percent of the survey area Buckley soils are nearly level poorly drained silt Ioams and gravelly loams dense substratum Aldcrwood soils are undulating to rolling modere ately well drained gravelly sandy loams substratum is consolidated glacial till Among the minor soils are level poorly drained peat and muck soils of the Seattle Tukwila Shalcar series and moderately steep Beausite soils that have bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches Most of the farms on this association are dairy farms Seasonal wetness and gravelly soils are the main limitations for row cro 5 Residential development on this association is of moderate extent and has been mostly on Alderwood soils Al erwood soils have moderate limitations for homesites and Buckley soils have severe limitations Both have severe limitations for septic tank filter fields Seattle Shalcar and Tukwila soils have severe limitations for homesites and septic tank filter fields ey have a very 51139 4 Everett Association Somewhat excessively drained gravelly gently undu lating soils underlain by sand and gravel on ter races lhis association is dominantly on terraces in the southeastern part of the survey area smaller areas are scattered throughout the northern half The association occupies about 14 percent of the survey area It is about 70 percent Everett soils 15 per cent Neilton soils 7 percent Alderwood soils and 8 percent less extensive soils fig 4 Everett soils are graveily sandy loam to a depth of 18 to 36 inches They are underlain by very gravelly sand Slnpcs are dominantly 0 to 15 per cent but are as steep as 30 percent on terrace rents Neilton soils also are on terraces gravelly loamy sand to a depth of 18 to They are 30 inches 1 around soils have consolidated glacial till in the substratum These soils are rolling and hilly Slopes range up to EU percent Less extensive in this association are the lndianola Seattle and Norma soils Indianola soils are somewhat excessively drained and sandy Slopes Aldermod n MN 4 Figure 4 Pattern of soils and parent material in soil association 4 i n O i t a i c 0 s s a 1 i o S n 1 l a i I e t a m t n e r a P d n a S 1 1 D S f o w m P 3 e r u g 1 F are mostly 2 to 15 percent Seattle muck and Norma sandy loam are very poorly drained and poorly drained They are in depressions and on flat ter races adjacent to small streams e soils of this association are pom1y suited to farming but are moderately well suited to timber production Everett soils have the fewest limita tions for residential and industrial development of any soils quotin the survey area 5 Beausite Aldemood Association Well drained and moderately well drained gently m1 ing to very steep soils that have sandstone or shale or dense very slowlz permeable glacia ill at a deEth of 20 to 40 inches on uplands This association is in the central and eastern parts of the survey area It is about 55 pETcent Beausite soils 30 percent Aldezwood soils 10 per cent Oval soils and 5 percent less extensive soils Aiderwood fig 5 This association occupies about 399 percent of the survey area Beaming soils are rolling gravelly sandy loans that have sandsLone at a depth of 24 to 40 inches Slopes are mostly 15 to 30 percent but in some areas are as steep as 75 percent Alderwood soils also are rolling gravelly sandy learns and have consolidated glacial till at a depth of 24 to 40 indies Slopes are 6 to 30 percent in most places Oval soils are rolling to hilly gravelly loans that have strongly weathered andesite at a depth of 20 to 40 inches Slopes are dominantly 6 to 25 per cent but are as much as 75 percent in some areas Soils of minor extent are mostly the poorly drain ed Norma Bellingham and Tukwila soils All are in depressions on the uplands or on terraces adjacent to small stream The soils of this association are Well suited to timber production but poorly suited to farming Th gently rolling areas are moder pastime Limitations for residential and commercial sites are moderate to severe In most places limi tations For septic tank filter fields are severe D Glacial 1i Figure 5 Pattern of soils and parent material in soil association 5 6 Alderwood Kitsap lndianola Association Moderately well drained nearly level to steep soils that have very slowly permeable glacial till or glacial lake deposits at a depth of 16 to 40 inches and somewhat excessively drained rolling deep sandy soils on uplands and terraces This association occurs as three scattered areas in the northern half of the survey area It is about 50 percent Alderwood soils 30 percent Kitsap soils 15 percent lndianola soils and 5 ercent o ier soils fig 6 This association occupies about 5 percent of the survey area Alderwood soils are rolling soils on uplands and terraces They have consolidated glacial till in the substratum s are dominantly 6 to 15 per cent but range from 1 or 2 percent to as much as 50 percent where the upland plains break into the ravines and major valleys Kitsap silt loans have silty platy lake sediment in the substratum Slopes are dominantly 8 to 30 Generally the steeper soils are on terrace that face the major valleys and drainageways Indianola soils are sandy and 60 inches or more dee Slopes are 15 to 30 percent in many places on terrace fronts adjacent to the steeper Kitsap soils 0n terraces northeast of Juanita slopes are mostly 3 to 8 percent Less extensive in this association are somewhat excessively drained very gravelly soils poorly drained silty soils and very poorly drained peaty soils The suitability of the soils in this association for farming ranges from fair to poor Most of the soils are well suited to timber production Limir totions are slight to severe for residential and commercial sites 7 PugetEarlmont Snohomish Association Poorly drained and somewhat poorly drained nearly level soils that have layers of peat within a few feet othheisurface in major stream valleys This association occurs as three distinct areas in the Sammamish and Snoqualmie Valleys in t e north crn half of the surrey area t is about 25 percent Puget soils 25 percent Earlmont soils Snohomish soils 39 tent This association occupies about 3 percent of the survey area 510 es do not exceed 2 percent Puget soils are mostly silty clay looms that formed in alluvium Farlmnnt soils are mostly silt loams that formed in diatomite Snohomish soils are silt loans that have peat or muck in the substratum lhst of the soils of this association are well suited to farming and are anmng the more productive soils in King County for truck crops The soils have a seasonal high water table and are subject to flooding except where flood protection structures ave been installed The high water table and high compressibility of these soils cause moderate to severe limitaLions for residential and commercial sites and for septic tank filter fields Jenn Figure n Pattern of soils and parent material in soil association 6 m DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SOILS This section describes the soil series and map Aldorwood 39 39 quot Each soil berries row are the most soils are used for timber pasture crops and urban development They extensive soils in the survey area what is stated about the soil series holds true for the ma ping units in that series Thus to get full information about any one mapping unit it is necessary to read 8 both the description of the mapping unit le Representative profile of Alderwood gravelly description of the soil series to which it belongs sandy loam 6 to 15 percent slopes in woodland n important part of the description of each 450 feet east and 1300 feet south of the north oil series is the soil profile that is the quarter corner of sec 15 39 24 N R sequence of layers from the surface downward to rock or other underlying material Each series AlrvU to 2 inches very dark bruKn IOYR 2f2 contains two descriptions of this profile The gravelly sandy loam dark grayish brown first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman lDYR42 dry weak fine granular struc The second detailed and in technical terms is for ture slightly hard friable nonsticky scientists engineers and others who need to make nonplastic many roots strongly acid thorough and precise studies of soils Unless it abrupt wavy boundary 1 to 3 inches thick is otherwise stated the colors given in the B2 2 to 12 inches dark brown lOYR 4l3 gravelly descriptions are those of a moist 5 i1 sandy loam brown lOYR SIS dry moderate mentioned in the section quotHow This Survey Was medium subangular blocky structure slightly Madequot not all mapping units are members of a soil hard friable nonsticky nonplastic many series roots strongly a to a soil series but nevertheless is listed in 9 to 14 inches th alphabetic order along with the soil series BS 12 to 27 inches grayishbrown 25Y SlZ Following the name of each mapping uni s gravelly sandy loam light gray 25Y 72 This symbol identifies the dry many medium distinct mottles of light 39 Listed at olive brown 25V SIG hard friable non sticky nonplastic many roots medium acid abrupt wavy boundary 12 to 23 inches thick mapping unit has been placed The woodland deslg IlC 27 to 60 inches grayishbrown SY 5 2 nation and the page for the description of each weakly to strongly consolidated till light capability unit can be found by referring to the gray 25Y YJZ dry common medium distinct quotGuide to Mapping Unitsquot at the back f this survey mottles of light olive hrown and yellowish The acreage and proportionate extent of each brOhn 25Y 516 and lOYR 516 massive no mapping unit are shown in table I Many of the roots medium acid Many feet thick terms used in describing soils can be found in the Glossary at the end of this survey and more de tailed information about the terminology and methods of soil mapping can he obtained from the Soil Survey Manual 13 Alderwood slopes AgC irregular in acres in six gravelly sandy loam 6 to 15 percent This soil is rolling Areas are shape and range from 10 to about 600 E cid clear wavy boundary lc The A horizon ranges from very dark brown to dark brown The B horizon is dark bro 9 wn grayish brown and dark yellowish brownl consolidated C horizon at a depth of 24 to 40 inches is mostly grayish brown mottled with yellowish bro n layers in the C horizon slake in water areas there is a thin gray or gruvishbrown A2 The Aldcrwood series is made up of moderately Alderwood Series horizon well drained soils that have a weakly consolidated to strongly consolida 24 to 40 inches hese soils are on uplands They formed under conifers in glacial deposits to 3 percent the poorly drained Norma are 0 to 70 percent The annual precipitation is Bellingham Seattle lukwila and Shalcar soilS 35 to 60 inches most of which is rainfall between some are up to 5 percent the very gravelly Everett The mean annual air temperature is and Neilton soils and some are up to 15 percent p The Fr05tfree season is 150 to znn Alderwood soils that have slopes more gentle or Elevation ranges from 100 to 800 feet steeper than 6 to 15 percent Some areas in New a representative profile the surface layer castle Hills are 25 porcont Beausite soils some and subsoil are very dark hrown darksbrown and northeast of Duvall are as much as 25 percent Uvall grayishebrown gravelly sandy loam about 27 inches soils and some in the vicinity of Dash Point are thick The substratum is grayish brown weak y 10 percent Indianola and Kitsap soils lso consolidated to strongly consolidated glacial till included are small areas oF Alderwood soils that at extends to a depth of 60 inches and mor have a gravelly 10am surface layer and subsoil In most areas this horizon has been destroyed through logging operations ted substratum at a depth of Soils included with this soil in mapping make up no more than 30 percent of the total acreage Some areas are u TABLE lAPPROXIMATE ACREAGE AND PROPORTIONATE EXTENT OF THE SOILS Area Extent Extent Alderwood gravelly sandy loam 0 to 6 Alderwood gravelly sandy loaml 15 0 percent 510 es Alderwuod and Kitsap soils very steep v Arents Alderwood material 0 Opes Arents Everett material iiiiiiii if Beausite gravelly sandy loam 6 t l 0 539 lupes Bcausite gravelly sandy loam 4G Buckley silt Ioam Coastal beaches Edgewick fine sandy loam Everett gravelly sandy loam 0 to 5 percent slopes Everett gravelly sandy loam 5 to 15 percent slopes Everett gravelly sandy loam 15 to 30 percent slopes EverettAlderwood gravelly sandy lo 6 to 15 percent slopes Indianula loamy fine and 0 to 4 percent slopes Indianola loamy fine sand 4 to 15 percent slopes Indianola loamy Fine sand 15 to 30 percent slopes Kitsap silt loan 2 to 8 percent slopes Kitsap silt loam 8 to 15 percent 5 apes Kitsap silt loam 15 to 30 percent Acres 22000 Isa1m 14230 59000 3500 5000 700 600 2700 390 2610 5430 12130 1105 1140 2340 5500 15100 5300 8405 2670 2500 500 Percent Klaus gravelly loamy sand 6 to 1 percent slopes Mixed alluvial land Neilton very gravelly loamy sand to 15 percent slopes Newberg silt loam Nooksack silt loam 77 Norma sandy loam Oval gravelly loam D to 15 percent slopes Uvall gravelly loam 15 to 25 percent 510 es Uvall gravelly loam 4D to 75 percent slopes rrrrrrrrrrrrrr if Pilchuck loamy fine sand 77777 77 Piwallup fine sanoy loam Ragnar fine sandy loam 6 to 15 percent 510 es Ragnar Fine sandy loam 25 percent 510 es 4 Ragnar lndiannla association 510 in Ragnarelndianola association moderately steep Renton silt loam Riverwas Snohomish silt 103m Snohomish silt loam thick surface Variant Sultan silt loam Woodinville silt loam 445500 H H MAWKGND Cnr Ln N U JeJhOOD l Percent What are diatoms Diatoms are unicellular eukaryotic phytoplankton that are encased in a cell wall made of silica SiOz ie glass There are two general orders of diatoms l the Pennates which are penshaped bilaterally symmetrical and are predominantly found in fresh water and 2 the Centrales which are cylindrical radially symmetrical and are predominantly found in marine environments Diatomaceous deposits are commonly mined and used commercially in abrasives and filters Pennate diatoms from Lake Joy WA


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