Bio Chapter 5 Notes
Bio Chapter 5 Notes Biology 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Zagrodniczek on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 101 at West Virginia University taught by Sydha Salihu (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Chapter 5 – DNA structure, Transcription, translation mutations Protein Synthesis Genetic information flows in cell form DNA -> RNA -> Protein Each gene on DNA codes for production of a specific polypeptide/protein Sickle Cell Anemia Due to one cell DNA -> RNA -> Protein (down) Normal folding of hemoglobin molecule (square) Abnormal folding of hemoglobin molecule (chain like long shape) Glutamic acid Mutation A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Amino acid don’t change Causes of Mutations Why do dentists put a heavy apron over you when they X-ray your teeth? -Radiation, chemical, spontaneous Agent inducing mutations called mutagen How does DNA damage happen? 1-Modify nucleotide bases- phosphate backbone is broken 2-Mistakes during DNA duplication (spontaneous mutation) Codons- nucleotide triplets Types of point mutations 1-Base substitution (sometimes silent mutations) 2-Base insertion 3-Base deletion Are mutations harmful or beneficial? Depends on environment Examples of favorable mutations: -Atherosclerosis (Italians: mutation) -Sickle cell resistance to malaria -Antibiotic resistant bacteria (favorable to bacteria) Natural protection against mutation 1-DNA proofreading 2-DNA repair 3-Checking RNA’s as they are made 4-Eliminating malformed proteins 5-Genetic code DNA Replication -Relies on specific pairing of matching bases -Process by which DNA is duplicated -Occurs during the S phase of interphase -Replication ensures that all body cells (somatic cells) have the same genetic information; it is also the means by which genetic instructions are copied for the next generation of the organisms DNA replication -Very rapid -Very accurate -Semi conservative About mutations DNA polymerase -Makes 1 mistake/10,000bp But human cells -Contain only 1 mistake/billion bp Why are there less mistakes in the final DNA molecule Because DNA “repair” enzyme and DNA proofread enzyme correct mistakes Cancer Defect in cell Caused by multiple genetic mutations Sometimes they are inherited cancers Cancer related genes -Proto-oncogenes-----oncogenes -Tumor suppressor genes -Mutations in some genes will increase the overall mutation rate. What are those genes? Tumor-suppressor genes -Tumor-suppressor gene -> normal growth-inhibiting protein -> cell division under control -Mutated tumor-suppressor gene -> detective, nonfunctioning protein -> cell division not under control Breaks failed
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