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by: Aurore MacGyver Sr.


Aurore MacGyver Sr.
GPA 3.66


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This 99 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurore MacGyver Sr. on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OCEAN 506 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/192144/ocean-506-university-of-washington in Oceanography at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
Life Cycle of SeaIce S t Rough Conditions eawa er 39 39 gt FraZII or grease 3969 gt Pancake Ice 35 PSU small crystals 0 Ice Melt Bliplg 91 4 psu 65 0 Thickens 4 8 Nilas 00 9 Rotten Ice QC surface melt ponds 39 I H Thickening ce oes 98 lt5 MULTIYEAR ICE 14 psu Thickens FIRSTYEAR ICE Thermodynamic equilibrium 410 psu thickness 3m flat and ridged Ridges 1025m keels maybe 50m 12 m thick unridged Internal Structure of Sea Ice Ih 5 ID 9 K C 397 4 0 l 0 LI U 8 w Brine Channels within the ice width of human hair Brine rejected from ice 410psu away from surface but concentrates in brine channels long crystals as congelation ice small volume but VERY HIGH SALINITIES frozen on from below 6 deg C 10 deg C 21 deg C 100psu 145psu 216psu Pictures from A WI Brine Volume and Salinity O Erln Temp C Salmlty Volume v 5N0 A SEA ICE 20 39 quota 2 15 5 5 lt i39 In In 5 adie S of temperature saiinity and brine volume are puim ot seawater 7i c and e m of the ice dose to a39 azure although this is iargeiy depen ent on snow cover The iiiustra tiun shows huw snow cover can significantly reduce the amount of incid m irradiancc 10 Adapted from 31 with permissiun from Springcrr lerlzg From Thomas and Dieckmann 2002 Science adapted 39om papers by Hajo Eichen Impacts of Seaice on the Ocean ICE FORMATION and PRESENCE brine rejection OceanAtmos momentum barrier OceanAtmos heat barrier ice edge processes eg upwelling keel stirring ie mixing but lt wind Wind 10psu MELTING ICE I stratification fresher water u cf distillation as ice moves from formation region S Sa39t39er transport of sediment etc increases I START FREEZE MELT Impacts of Seaice on the Atmosphere ICE PRESENCE albedo Change OceanAtmos momentum barrier OceanAtmos heat barrier Water Sky Sea Smoke Heat balance SShortwave radiation from sun reflects off clouds and surface albedo how much radiatio reflects from surface albedo of ice 08 albedo of water 004 if sun overhead LLongwave radiation from surface and clouds FHeat flux from Ocean MMelt snow and ice P Precipitation TAtmospheric Heat Transfer q Atmospheric moisture transfer From N Untersteiner ice albedo feedback Sea Ice Motion OLD RULE OF THUMB Ice Northern Hemisphere moves with speed about 2 of surface wind about 45deg to the right of the wind Surface WIND 10 ms ICE 20 cms 45 deg to right quite a fast ice speed see next plots THORNDIKE AND COLONY 1982 speed 1 of geostrophic wind 5 deg to right of wind Geostrophic WIND 20 ms ICE 200ms 5 deg to right NB 500ms 1 knot 1 mph RIGOR ET AL 2002 39 lnfer Sea ice motion from Sea motion Level Pressure and Buoy tracks m 4 Analyzed elds of 5m for a 1979 and b 1994 gray m 7 Analued elds of SLP and 5m for Dee 1993 Dots mark edms The monthly pnsmons of me hue s are also 51mm me positions ofIABP bum and arrows slicwlmuy veiocmes Conluurs Jecmnes in individual buvys ue Indicated by black imee are shown every 1 up Rigor et al 2002 Response of Sea Ice to the Arctic Oscillation J Climate Seaice motion The dri of sea ice across the isobm s in these long tenn means Fig 3 re ects the in uence of the ocean currents upon On timescales longer than a year the contributions from the Winds and ocean cun ents in driving SIM are roughly equal but as shown in Fig 2 the hift ofsea ice on shoner timescales 51 yr follows the wind Thomdike and Colony 1989 011 short time Long term Ice Drift Winds Ocean Thorndike and Colony 1982 Sea Ice Motion in Response to Geostrophic V nds JGR Rigor et al 2002 Response of Sea Ice to the Arctic Oscillation J Climate 54 FIG 3 Seasonal mean elds of SLP and MM for 1979798 3 winter and b summcL HIGH AO Lower SLP gtmore cyclonic atmosphere Beaufort Gyre AC b weaker smaller More ice swept out with TransPolar drift more Atlantic Influence Warm Phase Seaice motion Rigor et al 2002 Response of Sea Ice to the Arctic Oscillation J Climate Higher SLP gtmore anticyclonic atmosphere Beaufort Gyre AC b stronger bigger Less ice swept out with TransPolar drift More stored in Beaufort Gyre less Atlantic Influence Cold Phase HIGH AO Lower SLP gtmore cyclonic atmosphere Beaufort Gyre AC b weaker smaller More ice swept out with TransPolar drift less convergence of sea ice ie less ridging ice thinner longer transit from Chukchi Seaice motion Rigor et al 2002 Response of Sea Ice to the Arctic Oscillation J Climate Years to exit through Fram Strait i rec1rculates A LOW AO Higher SLP gtmore anticyclonic atmosphere Beaufort Gyre AC b stronger bigger Less ice swept out with TransPolar drift More stored in Beaufort Gyre more convergence more ridging Seaice thickness 3 a E 100 00 300 10 500 Dlstance m How to define it mode maximum average Ice thickness distribution How to measure it Data from CREL from the SHEBA experiment western Arctic Tracking the Ai clic s shrinking ice cover Another extreme September minimum in 2004 C J C same M C Suneze F Fenem T Amsnei w Meiei J Maslanik S I and K Knowles GRL 2005 C h a n g e extent amsz v m a nu September Sea ice concentration anomalies relative to 19792000 pinkmedian of 1979 to 2000 Washington State 185000 sq km E E Texas 670000 sq km 5 U Alaska 1700000 sq km 8 g 9 L 3 E w E quot hum New 1975 1990 2005 Year Thinning anlie Arctic SeaIre Cover Yu and CA 1I ykut D ROEI U OC gm 3mm mainly L39nimsuv 0139 Wash 4 mm in mm nan m i m u i m m Tigur m m u mum rum in m Figurr us mww nh m mmquot W n Mum We a 4 mm m mm in i 4 ma Ami Lie Jdohu 4 AM by m AltHal wium GRL 1999 3mm My M v r Wva m mm h Arctic Seaice Change Thickness A A n my sex mm m 5351 We BUT seasonal cycle aliasing due to submarine tracks Increasing Arctic Air Temperature Observed Arctic Temperature 1900 to Present 7 i 11111 4 3 Jones et al 1999 upd ted 2 2 g moo I910 um mw 1980 2 1 Observed seasmal Arctic sea ice exte t 1900 2003 of mmquot m2 V1 2 2 Jrquot iimmm Chapman and Walsh Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment ACIA Report I500 l90 I910 I930 I740 I950 360 I970 I930 I990 1000 Annual w nmr umHu Spring Aphjun Summer JulSap Autumn On Dec 32004 ACIA Courtesy of Rigor Variations in the age of Arc c seaice and summer seaice cxlcnl Ema15 Rigm 3 and John M WallaceJ GRL 2004 C h a n g n 9 AG E of Sea ce Septem ber 1981 m a 1m slmws c a n n v mu m and 2mm fur me mumm Ax dmquot qu m mm mammd dmhug nun M1722 ou Septem ber 19M Lu 1932 bug lmijuly mu duh uuxknlg nun39hly nnwllu1 39 mm nnrmf a pnmmn mm mm H g 2002 Scp cmbm nfcnuh ycnr and an n 39npm went mm mm m undlhird ymrm m mumc inn hc Beaufa39t Gym and Transpolnr ma 5mm me also now b1 ack nnnw 1M Immlgmu or al Der74m mm th I 4x 2sz 75771792 Atlantic Branch Waters BVV Fram Strait FSBVV and Barents Sea BSBVV LMI 1995 a 1996 FSBW 11739quot temperature max ATLANTIC LAYER O B 1 temperature gt 0 deg C E j FSBW and BSBW 5 g o BSBW usually between 200 E 239 39 inflexion pt 1000m 5 I lquot quoty 39I I In water COIU mn g 39 39 No THEE BAREMTS SEA m 13 39 SHELF WATERS f f I I I I 394 tv Tmax usually between 200 and 500m depth I I I I I I I I I I 340 34425 345 3475 350 a SALINITY enters through FS surface cools cf rst picture may melt ice may freeze FSBWTRANSFORMED to subsurface Tm ax Along SLOPE may be capped with ice melt or perhaps shelf waters t St ANNA BSBW out ow mostly comes in at depth into FSBW core 1 below it maybe above AW does not really subduct below Arctic Surface Waters Instead they are formed from A W General AW Circulation Schemes e m r l a l M gummy graft lalst was Fig 9 Schematic diagram showing the inferred circulation in the Arctic Ocean of the Atlantic Layer and intennwiate depth waters between 200 m and 1700 m AagaardI 1989 topographically steered boundary current along slopes and ridges interior flow weak dominated by eddies based on current meters Rudels et alI 1994 mixing off St Anna cyclonic anticlockwise circulation based on TS and tracers Tracers of Atlantic Water TEMPERATURESALINITY presence of Tmax form in T8 space following a warming see later L111 1995 8 1996 439 I 39 I may TEMPERATURE DEGC uol mean BAnEurs SEA 39 W s SHiLF wmns I h II 339 l a 5 3475 3 o la SALINITY also dissolved oxygen Delta 018 not really NP ratios perhaps NONCONSERVA TIVE weakness and strength CHEMICAL TRACERS usually atmospheric source mixed into surface water and then isolated from the atmosphere CFCs ChloroFluoroCarbons solvents from 19605 onwards CCI4 carbontet is oldest then CFC11 CFC12 and newest CFC113 atmospheric concentrations KNOWN use presence or ratios to give age Cs and I from Nuclear Reprocessing ongoing concentrations KNOWN use presence or ratios to give age Bomb Tritium atomic bomb tests 1950s surface layer of tritium isotope of H decays to Helium3 halflife 124 yrs CONSERVATIVE but mixing important ch cancnnn Q S cram Figure 3 9 Conccmmiun of CFCH and CFCll m Nunhcrn Hemisphere Hopasphere versus urn Walker 2 19 9 m rm m nu CFCs 39nnmmrm 1 u 4 u 4m an m um um FITH IplnnIh r n u Renewal and circulation of intermediate waters Canadian B ha FX 33in uhserverl ml 1 in the mist Wuhan M Smethle Jr Peter Sewnmr and Gerhard E mscb Lzmnnerohe m in Tom rzyl39JnthxqvnImy nlColu h u S Hopkins JGR 2000 Palisades New van mpmmm niMnrinc Emu ml Avmosphcrit Sciuwcs Norm Czrulmn Slaw Un n my n u n m an n m H l pumau nli u m Ju H am I um um m m a m mu mu mun um DIEI39ANLTlKIU mm 1 m quot m u m a um um um an no man DILTANBM I ion by mim rm reprmzssing 1 cm from Sumlm Exsz 390m 1993 mm was luhnN 51mm and Kalhenne M E Mm smmm mm W Mm m mmwpm mm mm Tmme am was mMmeSmuwm 5W Um an Wm am iquot J 1m m4 4 y Em E m2 E m E g E E E m um I 5 n N a a a m rm 11mm ms 1 L Nrc o 3 39 hmmnrmrmq ILmm x giur Caasn uth NCC quotw my os nmcd 215 u par 1 ham and bysmlmsml ma m 1 Cs mum m n 1 5 me mm 39m39n m cm A c1 nmmw m ml and Cs mm rogc 39u m pmijS unimc mm time inform iar mmm in he cemrul Arctic Ocean revealed c Ice N Mg n mm mmrr H u M mm vnmrmmvmmnm m W mm up a w M Mr 1v wwmymmwmh H mm 4 um m nm H w WWW m v m haw hm WMmm n m W m A Mk M 4 v M M m H H mm W mm WNW Pathways and Ages transit time mI He ages mm on the nu er 2 MI tun pathway 01 Barents Sea Branch Wat d prevmus studxes Rudzlx a n 19 1997Frw1k 2m 1998 09 Smethie et al 2000 a a Mgurc b ages much higher than from advection speeds possibly due to CFC mixing model Smith et al JGR 1999 J if39g 2 Schematic circulation of surface water grey arrows and 39 39 the Atlantic Layer pins Upper R O u I n e C i niar Deep Water to depths of about 1700 111 black arrows the str aigl rt arrows represent a the mouths of major rivers 39 q quot Russiaquot LAPiTEV 32 SEA i 7 St Anna Vj 39 fraugh 1 AW circulation very different to PW circulation AW follows topography with exceptions 39 PW f ws quot 9 Jones et a 2001 Polar Research Lungmm variability of Amie Ocean waiers Evidence fmm a How AW vanes In I alysis of me EWG data set JGR 2005 39 the Arctic K Aagmud mm mm mummy WWW or Mumquot gum waging USA EWG data 19481993 w mm 45year mean of Temperature in each box L Tmmkhuv and E G Nikifmm39 um an 1 mm Rewardquot immune s 39 mu znc 4 s z 2 735 41 m rm TEVIPERATURE 39cr Does A W cool as it progresses Boxes numbered in order of our best guess at time since I s Fram Strait What else might be happening RA Wumiguh or at Dupier Romnuh I 45 21171 75771702 The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current Ch I 4N ff17 17571703 Wcler Depth 176 l m A 0 Hours Prussuru ldb l06m 76lm B E ll lm E AHK95 PTempLM1 Sap Ocl 39Nov bee dun Feb Man Apr Nuy 39Jun Jul YAug l n 2Aug95 0000 30 A20 10 0 m an so 40 a Distance km mean ow weak but with strong eddies topography followmg current 50 km wide equrvalent barotroplc Ie velocrty well correlated found over 5003000m isobaths at 3 IeVeIS centered over 1700m isobath NOT SEASONALLY VARYING no warm I V quot r east of ridge Mann 0 35quotquot quot WE 55W r m m r Woodgate et al 2001 DSR WE Map adapted lmm HDNomssl Transports large uncertainties but consistent with inputs Advection speeds a few cms consistent with Tmax translation faster than CFC ages Mixing Flow split by Ridge one branch N along Lomonosov Ridge one branch into Canadian Basin Some waters cross ridge 3 of 88N Small exchange of Deep Waters CBDWEBDW CanadianEurasian Basin Deep Water The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current BUT STILL DON T KNOW equivalent barotropicje KiWorth and Hughes 2002 what type of current it is 7 what drives it Neptune interaction of eddies and topography Holloway 1987 Potential Vorticity forcing Karcher al 2007 V ndstress 39om Greenland Sea Most and lsachsen 2003 Details still unclear quotA 963 Newton and Co39aclllnan 1974 l ll and IQSS Figure 2 Published Atlantic layer L Irclllal the you schemes black or red arrows showlllg lop anncyclonlc lclockwlse flow ln summerl lnrenor Canada Basin and a cyclonlc allllcluckwlse unrer llow the boundary current along N79 Alaskan coast or bottom only a cyclonic anllclackwlse Clrculatlan Flow from the norm Normwmd Ridge Into me interlol basin mp left and middle Is also suggested by racer data Smith 5 al 1999 Slnethla el al 2 on From Woodgate and Steele 2006 NSF proposal Warming in the Arctic 5 C h a n g i n 9 AW mm Innid m mwmnmm Q quotmm w M y m mm an mrww r my n quoty W masmm 51 mm Armin Omquot Wm him H mm 5c mmmmmmua came an m w thin vvmlziy mm m mm x 18quot 1990 Rossiya tourist cruise XBT section Signi cant Warming of AW 4 c LAPTEV 1mm V 1 m 9w E g 1 Summary in manner mmmm core lswmemmie m we Arimnt Kurei ubmnnn w h 139 r r r gt Mm ubsrr muum mde nu mm quotmm mm m n TkrsrrMKm tum 2 l39rhxh rm Lrwi L084 13 Amazsz mu um 4 Rum wan Atlantic Layer warming in 19903 collationmodel by Karcher et al 2003 Modelled full fields and observed circles AW core temperatures in various years PC 414 I 00 04 08 1392 5315 7 J 1569 m 16 39 7 M 20 r 24 28 d onequot 9 Andersmetal m4 Russiyn an IQundJ39usel 1 nu ma ll199 M j gw Palmsmn b NM moo sclcrzx 9x lwcmml Warmer since 1990s but slight cooling following the warming USE THIS AS TRACERll AW warming spreads also into Western Arctic X 1 Ialo v 35 V 39 Tmax from submarine cruises 35 1 n N See warming but data very sparse 35 1 th 35 9 p a M Ina395 I Vj y 35 V g IR gs Woodgate et al 2001 NSF proposal AW warming slow to reach Canada Basin Lzmm sunADA FTAL39 ATLAVTIC WATER IN THE CAVADA DASN LGsm Figure 1 a Yellow ninle in 5 39 Fxgum In dmoms um mooring lmnuon used m Fxgum 3 Shrmada 9 al 2004 GPL Changing Atlantic Inflow Ll7lxl5 POLYAKOV ET AL ONE MORE STEP TOWARD A WARMIER ARCTIC 2005 Ll7505 Figure 1 Pmpagauad nfwarm madam anomalies inm the Ami Ocean Lang red and yaudw armws indicate twu pulses nfwaml AW 39 39 L 39 H mm W a J 39 39 39 I 39 Tap Dapthrlime diagram nfwatar temperature 0 from the BBB mnnring Middle and bumm Time series nfwater temperature 0 nm me 39 39 39 Blua dud ma m rPd lins shdw six L 39 Qimnlmsd NOW 11 ref 11 mm quot I L 39 water empemmre andmauas are shdwn by black dashed lines Langterm variability ut39Arctie Ocean waters Evidence from a reanalysis of the EWG data set JGR2005 I II SwL n u u u v M n K Aagaard App Physms Lahnmw Unwusn39y MWuhmgmm Sunk wmmm um L meklmv and E G Nikifamv EWG data 19481993 Am m Ammcnc Resurch mm 3 mm Russ Temperature at AW depths in Box 3 2007 300 m V woe DEPTH 500 600 7on7 1950 l955 1950 955 1970 0975 1980 1985 Y How unique is this warming Have been previous warm periods Variability of the Intermedinke At antic Iler of the Al39ch Orean over me L 1 0 m JCIim 2004 L V POLYAKOV G V Amis x L A Tmox ox U s BELHr R L comm H L snmons D wusst I E Rum ma V F lawner quot a w lt Real data especialy sparse real data can be very very messy 3 9 2 4 a 4 u 7 24 I9 53 I 15168 naps 214053572vaa75225295 39 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 Do these warmings agree Swift et al 2005 ru rpsmswsaa kammkumm aauananuu L39nquu nuance 158 75245 21 405357 was 175225 295 59 11950 1980 20 00 Variability of the Intermediate Atlantic Vater nf the Arctir Ocean aver the L t 100 Y 39 JCIIm 2004 I V PoLYAxoV G V ALEKSEEV L A 39t39IMomxoxi U St Ezmn39 R L COIDNY H L Snmom D WELSH J E WALSH AND V F ZAEHAP039 r 393 lt5 What are the mechanisms n AWCT m was I t g 3 gt b Standam duvlutlons Kg a C c e Standard deviation mm 1920 15m ISED rsau zaou 900 IQZO IS 950 WHO 2000 WTM 10m water temperature at SAT surface Arctic Air Temperature area Station Mike 56M 2E 3909 3909 h39ckness 3 8 31quot quot1 Kara NAIt SST North Atlantic Sea Surface Temp Swift et al 2005 AC courtesy LRigor Relaxation of cemral Arctic Ocean liydrograpliy m pic19905 climatology GRL 2006 I Mnrisnn M 3mm 39139 Kikuch K Falkner and w Smcuhie m Wm M in 20005hydrography at NP Ls returning to Ne19905 state Ea 3 W M 3 1 may relate to A0 i magenta red marks 3quot u Avenml so w Ind mm rel c Anmalla Nu Nana m I a 1m mu mo me mm mm Var 39quot r 2 Winlcr AK Index NDJFMA from 90 2005 in blue WM 3 lagged rslvurdur incur mspum in magenm and average ol Nnnh l ole hydrugmphic seclion temperature and salinity unmnalles from Figure l wilhln 100 km of he qu and lo 300m VOL RNAL m iLOPHYSlCAL RI AxrnmuL HZ 043014101 mungzonmunmnm2007 On the dynamics of Atlantic quotatel cil cnlatiun in the Arctic Ocean R memes L Hnnke andJ Zhang4 h We use a subscl of models from Ilm cnmdmalcd expernnem oflhc Alum Ocean Model Inlercolnpansnn ijccl Aownm m nnalyze differences m uncnsity and sense of rmalmn annamm Walcr circulalmn A focus on he inmprclalmn nflhc pomnnal vnmmly Vb alancc Rcsnlls mare mamahy for me Eurasian an Ameman Basins oflhc Amllc Ocean We nd nmeannns that in me Eurasian Basin the 1mm ncl ux of PV ls a Siglu cam mixer for me dclcllnmatmn of the SCHSC n I39omlmn or Anenne Walcr enenlnnen on nnneseales beyond pcmadc The main senree nflngh PV causing cyclmuc mrcnlmmn n vhe LIu39asian Basin 39 the Barcms Sm slicifand funds me Annnne Wmer L ver AWL m he Alene Basins Hzmmcr m xhe Amemnan Basin vemen 9v uxcs ale me more nnpnnam faclm csc am elnsely ed to wind eld changes We nd an uncnsc response of lm AWL flow In wind 0 H ee um Canadian Basin which desenbes about half me vananee of AWL aw of he Alncmsian Basin An cxpcl39uncnl dnvcn mi 3 mpcamd alnmsphcnc clunmnmgy malnlms extra in ease when a pcl39mancm Ingh pl39cswrc synem mcl39 the Beaufan Se donnnalcs the cu39culanon m the Amernmn Benn dclnnnsu39almg the polcn al nflhc can 1 nyre m a 1 1 m such a way as m snppmss a eyehn m AWL ow m the Alncmsian Basin In nme realism eases me anfnn Gyrc sun Inndulalcs thc Alncrasian Easn WL enenlannn signi cantly The Warming of the 19903 1062 CARMACK ET AL WARMING DF ATLANTIC wxnzn IN THE ARCTIC OCEAN 3 Va iul plo lunfefmhinmimlmfrm Amipuwnwbohhndcmdm m w snrel91xgtimmpuihuapotaunpenmn mm Ming um mm m wilhhn wAm cOmpub dndbmihniknv mm Wv eumuuwmumcndeum the Wing mm at am observed n nun WINMMW200MZSDm mmmwa melsmamwdnn un4m gm me Ilaer aleq gaming Annie mum 1993 Larsen 1 deg warmer on the Mendeleev Ridge inversions in temperature and salinit Carmack et al 95 and McLaughlin et al 96 Atlantic Water zigzags A0894 mumm quotmummy ABIAS on 16 15 SIan 1 4 Inmumy ASIAS am Line up Nest all through the Arctic 5000km Potential Temperature deg C Angles of the Zigzags I 39 gt match double diffusive 5470 3474 3473 3432 3486 3450 theory Salinity psu Carmack et al 1997 Mixing and Double Diffusion in TS TEMPERATURE SALINITY Mechanical mixing in TS space creates straight lines between water masses Space I I SALINITY TEMPERATURE In double diffusive processes heat diffuses faster than salt So in TS space resultant waters are not on a straight line between the parent water masses Theories for formation and for E3 EELS growing to a large IE E amplitude steady state Turner Ruddick Toole Georgi McDougaII Walsh Carmack Rudels 5 i 3435 34 343 May aal u Diffusive Convection Salt fingering Regime Regime Cold Fresh Warm Salty Warm Salty Cold Fresh unstable in temperature unstable in salt Temperature unstable Salinity unstable T S Zigzags in the Arctic Interaction of two water columns therefore can learn something about origins Reg eg e e W unstable m temperature unstable m salt TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE V Double Diffusion 396 SALINITY d SALINITY Line up throughout Arctic 5000km therefore LOW ENERGY environment Can be used as a tracer of the boundary current Spread by any refs self propagating spread at QOdeg to front most Carmacky Walsh 0 McDouga fossil intrusions carried advectively for overview see Woodgate etal 2007 new Waters Boundary Current Deep Basin 9 in uenced New Summary Current f 6 7 wow wow WSW 12 N o ThelatdegC a 3475 348 3485 3475 343 3485 3475 348 3485 Chukchi Borderland Atlantic Water Circulation Only shown Fram Strait Branch 76 Water but Barents Branch very similar 7 NEW MID Woodgate et al FSBW Cool WARM COLD BSBW COLD Cool WARM 2007 JGR httppscaplwashingtoneduHLD Lars Kalesohke 1998 Fram Strait North of Spitsbergen from 500m altitude Routes in theArctic 5 t 1 1 aurf39ace water munmmhgnfm jmrivers I r 1v Ia 753 M V LAMEV 77 1km FSBW I EAS SIBERIANE 3t quot 1 35quot V f 3 l l 5 temperature max 1555 V r r u L or 9 i quot Jaw9 2 w 2 V 39 39 w r 39 DHUKCHI i 1 u SEA 44 I BSBW nA l gk uty 39 in39flexion pt E quot TEMPERATURE DEGC Eurasian W Ban rcula on Greenland quot394 AW f66W Iberipl39iy39With39 k p39tidh I I I I 39 I I I I I I 39 I I I I I I 39 H PW follows ice RubDuk r ducks So do we a 75 TRACERS CFCs Cs URING TRA CHANGE IT TEMPORAL ClENEE 7393 TSande WW H TS Zigzags W H M IHWWWHWW e 39 L quot1 429 g Illnlwll It OPEN QUESTIONS L 7 3 1 r M t we I f pathways transit times 7 u r J U d L drivmg meChanisms YEAH 7 why models don t agree Swift et al 2005 How to form halocline water F3 U1 5 a inf WTquot F39f39 quotIt 439 V39I P T cannot form Halocline water simply by mixing Aagaard 1981 53 u Joientici Temperaiurs 2 Adapted from Steele and Boyd 1998 ADVECTIVE HC Aagaard et al 1981 W ADD COLD SALTY CONVECTIVE HC wvw Steele and Boyd 1998 source of halocline water differs advective or convective Woodgate et al 2001 temperature of halocline water differs convective must be at freezing temperature advective may or may not be at freezing Halocline formation 2 4 helwv en12 nmx sonnn Lu 139 I y39 9 r 39 139quot Q 39 V V v w m r a w e a a a m 5 a a 7 s L 39L k m V 393 sun quotI m mnusu 2 g 5 W39 5 90quotE IUJ 4 ILII 3 s 39 39 quotW E s IlllVlllll llllIIIIIll 340 3425 345 3475 350 Woodgate etal 2001 SALINITY Samex i995 Scicex was 9 men I591 A w 43an Slvmt ltQX In 1995 only Makarov has a cold halocline Use salinity in 4060m band as an indicator Retreat of the Cold Halocline Steele and Boyd 1998 Nunsen Bush I mu 1 Nansen Basin I Z a 2 l 6 r v m g in n m 5 2quot u m b I a J 1 n 1 2 10 m m m m m m 3quot 5 Suiiailpsuiu u 3 m man 39cl 5am lnsu Amundsen Basin Amundsen Basin 0 z n 1 6 Z n no 3 K E n mt 395 ga m 5 2 H R5 no I m 5 J 10 32 am 135 300 35 31 min a 39 Selini PsU Pnhnl ial Tampamhr m Salinity PSI Mukuluv Euain nu 335 an MS 35 samePsul no at Salim Sin Retreat of the Cold Halocline Plate 1 Mean salinity in the interval 4060 m fura SCICEX39QS b SCJCEX39QS and c Ddzn39gl A cross at me Steele arid Boyd 1 998 north pole is aligned along east lungilurlles GURU and DIP 210 Also shown are d 40 year 1950 1989 maxi mum salinitics from the Environmental Working Group W6 19 winter climawlugy interpalm unto the sta nnJrruprrlnlinggm quotmumu Myst scrczx os 39 Srlnrx u Injection point of freshwater Russian Rivers has changed Backed up by chemical data Ekwurzel et al 2001 PREVIOUS RW into Eurasian Basin CHL in Eurasian Basin 1995 RW along shelf instead no CHL in Eurasian Basin Decadal averages of Russian Data 1950s to 1980s as httpfnsidcorgdatag01961html 4 Data Products amp quot in imam in Environmental Working Group Joint USRussian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean Onler Dnln i D in i mm 1995 Thiswuvk MGM i m m i y i n m Parameters n nn y M y m n POTENTiAL DENSiTV i m m SALiNiTY pvuducis cumained in me WiMEV aiias WATER TEMPERATURE 19m iBEEIs ui i run um iimi ubservaiiuns ave nm mama un We CDVR OM EWG Juim U 5 Russian Avciic Sea ice Aiias nee niche 2 OWWE CD39POM MEWS see also Swi et al 2005 annual averages in boxes 19481993 p lodfucsd edupubjswi arcticaarim ethodB LeVitUS for http pscaplwashingtoneduClimatologyhtml 01m science center vdrogmphic glimatologv C A 01ml 0m Hylh ngraplly mu 2 High Quality Arctic 0m and M Le w Ermold 5 212 Palm Sammy CenterApplxed Physms LabUmversxty of Washmgtzm maze WA 98105 USA jg Wireless quotmm Inund El Ehck m Dunne2A m a wus ess nelwmk x0 m Mimi Avenged Venictu uvcr 1m mi EX x quotD cum I995 and 96 upper Icn panel I 9x um39mr righl I999 quer Ian and mum lawn rigm Baum 996 mu I997 SCICEX mum IIILI no he rmvlmm tum ml of H195 and IQQX 72000 m unnbmcd mm I995 and I998 um I 4 nm e n mpunmm Abbrmmlium In mm 39 rm 0 n the mt m mm m he lower rigln mm mum BM MB Amundsen Bmm MB Numun Emu NB EM Sihunm 3 55 and Lawn smLs The partial return of the Cold Halocline Boyd et al 2002 Consider upper 80m 8 over Lomo Ridge 1995 34 psu no CHL 1997 3355 psu 1999 33 psu 2000 333 psu CHL returning What could be causing this So far this is EASTERN Arctic story what about the Western Arctic Western versus Eastern Arctic Halocline WESTERN ARCTIC PACIFIC HALOCLINE greater salinity range fresher at surface general Tmax above Tmin very varied rich in nutrients Adapted from Steele and Boyd 1998 EASTERN ARCTIC ATLANTIC HALOCLINE less salinity range saltier at surface sharper bend in T8 space Shift of PacificAtlantic Front Physical and geochemical prupel s across the AtlanticPaci c W8 er mass from in the southern Canadian Basin I I JGR 1996 Fiona A McLaughlin Eddy C Cnrmack and name w Macdonnld H mm i Irquot James K 3 Bishop u v m i h r a 39xrlnm v 1 39 mvw Firm 1 Map a xludy m mm mummy m1 m mm 0 mm mm mamas wax Modem1 ARKTIS lVSV use TS and chemistry to show Pacific Atlantic Front retreated from Lomo Ridge to Mendeleev Ridge by 1993 Lung liSA idrncc from a Icrm v 1in ul r iL rLan altrs rk illl i sis ul39 lit Ii i lulu sci JGR 7005 39quot I anppdmulLlI u stadium meu m mum Sm Draw u mm mm Us I967 ix Amish d 1W 1mm L uwum or mumm uni 14an m L 1miner midi K iiuiorm AKH m arm a unntu Hume ltlt Pclx i hm uum 303 mm Lquot i996 Historic Russian Data silicate profiles in central Makarov Si max disappears in late 1980s Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea Nutrientrich Anadyr waters BenngSheH wa te rs Alaskan Coastal Current warm fresh seasonal Siberian Coastal Current cold fresh seasonan Stagnation Zones over Herald and Hanna Shoals COLDER SALTIER WARMER FRESHER LOWER IN NUTRIENTS RICHER IN NUTRIENTS To the East Siberian Sea Cpe Lisburne aim Ho s i r 170 W quotmg K my me To first order except for cooling input from coastal polynyas Chukchi dominated by input through Bering Strait Export to Arctic Input through Bering Strait Woodgate et al DSR 2005 http39pscaplwashingtoneduChukchihtml ircululiuu ul mmuur I minc Imluclinu water in luv Amh 0mm thhnc Slcclc mum Vlnlmm quy meM gmmm Rxgnr and Mark mums my mum mm mm mm mumm mm x VV MMM mm mm m JG Ru 5mm R 2004 mnhbmwsmmcmd mmmmm mm 1 s 39 1 ACWAIaskan Coastal Water sBSW summer Bering Sea Water 4 L39mn39u wmm m 11 u x n Generic Pacific Water circulation Steele et al 2004 100 ivunm mu m Wm 9 K D Oagzmm B T doesn t always match Fram Strait outflow is there a better tracer how get the Pacific Water off from the Chukchi f5 t b AO change in pathway with change in Atmospheric state shift of PacificAtlantic boundary from Lomonosov Ridge Atlantic ator Four main outflows 1 Barrow Canyon 2 Central Gap 3 Herald Canyon 4 Long Strait Most nutrients in West Outflows move east amp north Seasonal amp interannual variability in TS thus density and equilibrium depth and also in volume hukchi Sea Outflow TOPOGRAPHIC CONSTRAINTS Potential Vorticity Conservation Taylor columns in Chukchi flow along isobaths eastward BUT WE SEE PW GETS AWAY FROM TOPOGRAPHY FRICTION TOP or BOTTOM DENSITY DIFFERENCES dense water outflows WIND EFFECTS upwelling and downwelling undercurrents EDDIES INERTIAL and TIDAL OSCILLATIONS AND MIXING Chukchi slope velocity 20022003 red73 20N blue73 37N 1Tquot Distance in km 200 0 200 400 600 800 Distance in km PRELIM v w 3 mow PHELIM DATA sbi3r sbi4b 3 2 V E x 39 x 1 w l g 39 r 5720 V n 5 I J I 7 E 2 5 207 203 209 210 2 1 212 213 2 4 215 21E 0 JDU QODZ w 20 x x H 5 x E 200 250 300 350 A00 A50 500 550 600 5 l E mmzooz g 2 207 205 209 210 an 212 213 214 2 5 216 mmzmz Temp degC Chukchi Slope 20022003 TS properties FRELIM DATA 7 sumopr shi4roprmch r r o g I E o a r h P71 L A mm H MW t r r r r r 2 250 3 350 400 4 0 500 550 600 JDHI 2002 34 r N r r r r a 33 V e W m W A m TV Wx r r m i w W 39r 032 f r T New avquot ue dwarf k r r r r 20 250 300 350 40 4 0 500 5 0 600 JD Ill 2002 Temperature Maximum is December March ie advective from the south Intrusions of Atlantic Water in Autumn 73 20N red 73 37N cyan 60m110m water navy 100m1 10m water 60m70m water chukchigl7 39 Dense Water Outflow eg from coastal polynyas 4s 39 eg Martin et al 2004 X V nd Ice gt 1 mm 1 10m 172 1544 l S flux as neWIce Dense water on shelf ICE Temperature mm znnnmzxw Dense water ows lCE down shelf as a Thickness descending plume entraining water ie down but not OUT Distribution and lntcrannllal variabilit of dense water production from coastal polynyas on the Chukchi Shelf ls Peter vlnsor 2002 JG R 5 7 David C Chapman 2 y gt u r l m n 7 05 m Dense naler ionnalron from eoaslnl polynyns un lhe Chldrehl Shelf IS examined M using a pnmlln39eL qualinn uoean model forced by surface huuyuney lhlx r from a lime donendenl pulynyll model for the mnlcrs ot39ule 197871998 period The model s to u all observrllmns or Nalional Cenler l or Enuronnrenlal Predlchon quot2 nng lhe 21year period lhe surface forcing and the dense nalerproducllon vary by a factor on Usmg meleumluglcal u o n ah rn masl Vinl 15 lb nllzll amuunls ui water will a dellslly Ill 31V oi al 1 of l N P lorein l de anolnahe pl lly 15 h 08 kg m 110 psu but are rarely a lrnge as l kg in mm mcleumluglcal mm 1 ng the producuon of dense water i dlrly llnli39nnn throughout lhe enlile perlnd A widr NCEP fowl ear die walcr wilh de anumal greener than quot5 12 i g1 o dpcrludll xr 984 nilhlhe VI u 1 y rarely machmg l kg le 5 null with large differences helween sueee I 1 ha E U8 lee llaler roducllon Mosl of are observed arldblhly earl be 5m 05 x lields wth onshore Winds eleallng poly el veen 30 and 39 emlxtl39 o Aan Usan a climalulugically based mean milla N u 110w lhal maxlmum mines produced rarely emcee 335 l a Fllnh lS ln Benny Sh v 80 p more on the has of moored ohsen inlennnunl vanahrluy of lhe ininal salinrly V9quot vallablllly ln ellse slur runTIulanl and lb 1 39 39de se c l ls oflhe he marnllude us buth are e uallv m lu ll m halochne layer 01 roduc 39dmm39l 5 Figure 7 Dislnbuuon or volumes or mler produned ll39l i poll enoth lu conlrlbule lo llle Euld ln model within dill uren d w lelher or nol wrnler wrller l5 e ldmsily anomaly ranges lor lhe AIcli39 ocean Ainl u uh l h fracnons of offshore winds can 1 each winler using n melmmloglcal and lo NCEP lbmng up lo I 39 l l 7 p u n llnm lnl Densuya onnlreslroornnodrnnnrennnulrornozlozkg a a g m l lugtlllcr with Lhe varymg llllmll l gt eld lm nehleve ale 39Ilh nmlnlunl sallnilies up In 354 psul szlll we nd lhal ll denv d lce m um ens um prodllcuuns me big 1y e lo the forclng y n lnleleomloglcal vs NCEP and comparison vllh In siln Dbsen39zmons is high ICED 7 39 7 r nr by 02 kg or scale on rlghl side l l e ADEYTEILIS 420 Do onhy Gelleml Arm and Anrlronr ocenlmguphy can et the salinities r mlcgruphy39 Gmml urnerlcnl modelan 4540 Dcmnogmphv Pllyilial39 lce lnctlmnlcs and nlr g AEnmRDs deuuunmn pnlyllasllcll mellow lulocllntlnyer but volume Is small sen e Chukrhl Sex Bering Snalr Armc 0min Wind effects X Wind MW isopycnal 39 Upwelling of deeper water can come up canyon onto the shelf cf Chukchi slope canyons Barrow Canyon and many others X Wind If initial stratification enough can get undercurrent opposite to the wind Yoshida Undercurrent cf Beaufort slope Results of a strong westwar 3rd October Abngs op u my 5 5 757er 00 mad man m an a Drstance km Ship s ADCP of the Beaufort slope current system red towards you Andreas Muncheow UDeI a dryind mm m 1quot Arorqsbp uzzn 5m 005 m 0501 720m m an m 5n Drstance km Use Silicate to track Pacific Water in the Chukchi Borderland Upwelling versus polynyas Temp degC a1 34 psu SiOS umolkg at 34 psu alenjc Terrpernlure quotCl Temp degC 1 V V r V r r H 3 Can we get this E418 j r r r A 30 1 i i 25 T8 from Bering i 12 i 20 14V V r 1 r r r r r r n 1 6 739 1quot77 x 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 H 15 18 sloa umoukg 32 33 34 35 Salinity psu B cu NO salinities are only near 34 psu in extreme winters Bi and then the waters are at freezing not warmer 4 2 Bering Stratr A I i D E E i idengi 4 2 a 30 31 32 33 34 35 411 Salinityr psu 7 f t Ll A i 39 Berin Strait eggyywwuu i T8 1 990 1 991 Woodgate et al 2005 i i widow61030 195 34 33 272 32 7 v 21 Temp degc Sa inily psu Do the volumes work out Volume PW at 331 psu per year 6x 10quot12 m3yr 06 8v for 4 months In Arctic half pure half mixed with AW 11 Thus need 3 x 10quot12 m3yr AW to be raised onto shelf Observed upwelling events in Barrow Canyon 23 x 10quot11 m3 per event Therefore need 10 events and there are multiple wind events and multiple canyons So plausible Also this ventilation rate is an order of magnitude higher than estimates of polynya water formation Woodgate et al 2005 GRL The Eddy Bandwagon HLV na os 5101mm NWRu lge 11130cx 267mm DRAFT Pie Cal 17Oct2003 HLYVOfHS slope lo NWRIdQe r H430c 2670284 DRAFT Pre cai 0232ch0037 gt N 0 mm ldegC nma mgr so 100 an 60 D smnoe km 20 4o 50 40 50 Distance km D slance Ikm E a 9m 7 20 so 100 40 so Dwsanc lkrn 4n an 40 60 D slanc km Dlsane km Eddies in the Beaufort Sea egHunkins and Manley Plueddemann and MANY others httpWWW Wh oi eduscien cePOarcticgroupprojectseddies htm CANADIAN J BASIN quot sent3 quot5 at at 1 t 597 I 5 01 quotquot 1 quott i39 t 9quot V BEAUFORT Figure 2 Drift tracks tor three IceOcean Environmental Buoy IOEB deployments where subsurface velocity data were available Beaufort Gyre 1992 B92 solid Beaufort Gyre 1997 BS7 dashed and SHEBA 1997 897 dotted Drift tracks have been smoothed over 6 days The 78 eddy encounters are separated into 62 with complete statistics filled circles and 16 with only position information open circles Predominantly Antioyolonio quot5 hGUUlI Ic dc 20 b a 0720 m g 15 215 93 S 310 810 8 O O 2 5 2 5 l I 1 50 110 170 230 290 50 100 150 200 center depth m thickness m 1 2 C Arctlo Rossoy RaQILs U D m 1215 810 E 7 2 E 5 7 7 510 8 B o 5 o g B g 5 ll H A r l l Tl l u u 0 5 0 515 25 35 45 1 Vmax cms radius km Figure 3 Physical properties of 62 eddies encountered during 10000 km of buoy drill in the Beauton Gyre Shown are histograms of a center depth the depth of maximum velocity b thickness the depth range with velocity greater than B crnIs J 6 maximum azimuthal velocity and d radius at maximum velocity Eddies in the nonBeaufort Arctic 7S N BOON SOON 750M GREENLAND Core black warm TWO EDDY TYPES magmas Cold Tf Fresh near surface AC likely from shelf polynyas Warm Salty 1000m deep AC instabilities on upstream front eg St Anna 40 cms 10km radius but volume flux 01 Sv or less Upper Arctic Ocean Circulation and Ventilation 393 1 39139 HALOCLINE BASICS N g Shift in rivers outflow Formation possibilities x g V quot Retreat and recovery of CHL Western versus Eastern Arctic t l Shift of PacificAtlantic Front Different branches of PW yu 39 a n i 53 534 a gt Greenland it MECHANISMS OF SHELFBASIN EXCHANGE Winddriven upwelling and mixing of AW with PW A Potential vorticity conservation following topography Dense water outflow from polynyas I m Eddies AC scale of Rossby radius ICONVECTIVEHC Winddriven undercurrents Yoshidajet 39 V quot Tides and inertial oscillations 7 39Russia Greenlan Sea Greenland Atlantic Water through the Pacific Water through the a Fram Strait and the Barents Sea Bering Strait deep 0 4000m shallow O 50m quot quot quot quot W order 10 Sv order 1 Sv comparatively salty comparatively fresh warm seasonally warmcold OUTF LOWS Through Fram Strait Pacific Atlantic and surface waters deep 0 4000m order 10 Sv comparatively salty warm Greenland 3 Through the Canadian Archipelago mammmmmmmmm m m m Pacific and surface waters All into Atlantic shallow O few hundred m Some short term southward flow order 1 Sv through the Bering Strait comparatively fresh OTHER INPUTSOUTPUTS EP rivers RIVERS Russian and US INPUTS order 3000 km3yr freshwater EvaporationPrcipitation Bering Strait order order 2000 km yr freshwater 2500 kmgW Ice Export through the Fram Strait equivalent to order 2000 km3yr freshwater Serreze et al 2006 JGR ATLANTIC LAYER warm salty largest volume input 1 7 77 39 7 Grnnnlanrl x J waters above 0 deg C deeper than 200m 1 2 branches Fram Strait Barents Sea i roughly 200800m 3 a follows elepee and rieilgee i i l quite weak strengest floweseelelies 5quot 395 5 mm39mmm eepara tee 39frem slepee semel i lew cools somewhat during transit transit time 1 or more decades PACIFIC WATER nutrient rich source of heat and freshwater 5i 2 highinutrient waters multiple routes switches with 39 139 a dimes net ailiways 39ieliiiew tepegraphy 2 5 mere driven fey surface framing mmmgmiwGELMLHWMMW m M a eddies may be significant part i ew cools to freezing during transit transit time order a decade Arctic SeaIce Climatology MINIMUM September MAXIMUM February httpnsidcorg u o w M m Ifqu wanna ummmmnmn am Rag MEAN 19791998 Arctic Surface Air Pressure ie Surface Wind BUT ANY PAR39ITCULAR DAY CAN LOOK VERY DIFFERENT 69 7 Summer m 3 5mm mean ddgtnf5LPandSDifa 793 my erex and b summzr Rigor et al 2002 Changes in Arctic Climate are related to the Arctic Oscillation A0 A0 Index 1900 2006 Covariance of Sea Level Pressure with A0 index hPal30 years mo no Index islandaidlzadl A L o l a 950 960 970 1950 1mm 2mm Years AG has variability at many different time scales IAO explains 52 of the variance in SLP during winter and 36 during summer over the Arctic Ocean based on Thompson and Wallace 1998 CourtesyoflRigor HIGH AO A pattern of lower than normal atmospheric pres sure over the Arlic laa s WAR M PH ASE in than statutes here at quot53 quot am des a number at stertlmg changes to the Arctic Ocean Ne wind and water currents have drawn relatively warm it 1 into the Arctic than usual belowlr Meanwhile the la er of especially a r h eHhe Arctic ice itself by an e t 1 a w a it u u u 9 39 w III higher 3 nmtunl tmnspheric pressure over the cemral Atlanticstrunu HIGHER 39 push erd northern Europe Strong trade wmds preva39 the suhtm 39 WARMER THAN MonMAt THAN NORMAL Couler Arctic wa e V armerm avmcw COOLER warren Fm MODEL DEPlcTs WATER LAYER AT 520 1 1w FEET BELOW SEA LEVEL THAN NORMAL THAN NORMAL from National Geographic In cooler peri winds maim atmosphere 39 w a r snutherly latitudes hase t Is w the us gels a cold 39 the Arnic39s quotnormalquot pattern winter 1 7 With lower man normal atmosphevic pressure in me mral Atlantic an weak weslerlles om northern Europe garms develop over me Mediterranean region Wgak uade winds prevail Arm s Ocean Athlltu Ocean 4 CaalerArclic water Wanner Atllnlil watev FROM NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE MARCH 2000 SOURCES DOUG MARTINSON WIESLAW MAsLowsKI DAVID THOMPSON AND JOHN M WALLACE ART BV ALAN DANIELS Figures from Bob Dickson CEFAS pressure difference Iceland to the Azores North Atlantic Oscillation 500 1000 Pressdb 1500 2000 Potential Temperature cold at surface small subsurface Tmax only in western Arctic deep subsurface Tmax in all the Arctic cooler below Typical Arctic profiles Aos94 r38 Eurasian Basin b10 Canada Basin 0 0 500 500 1000 1000 1500 1500 2000 2000 0 2 32 33 34 35 24 26 28 ThetadegC alinitypsu Sigma0kgm3 S al i n ity fresh at surface fresher in western Arctic 8 always increases with depth most salinity change in top few 100ms Density Sigma0 looks like salinity most stratification is top few 100ms ie away from surface barotropic MIXED LAYER Usually thin no wind stirring PACIFIC WATER High nutrients Shallow lt200m Tmax Comparativer fresh lt33psu Mosty only in Western Arctic ATLANTIC WATER TgtO C deeperthan 200m Tmax and layer below Higher Salinities Radionuclide tracers Eastern Arctic warmer Bottom Water l5ressdb H 0 2 r5 EuzsimagmeEda Basin 100 200 300 400 500 24 6 28 I 2 Sigma 0kgm3 the rest A0894 r38 Eurasian Basin b10 Canada Basin e 500 7 3 anu 3 3 E 393 g 1000 g 4000 1000 9 2 D n 1500 I 4500 1500 000 3000 2000 2 nnO 2 32 33 34 35 24 2B ThetadegC Salinitytpsu Sigma0kgm3 Western Arctic warmer Pacific and Atlantic in TS Space Press db Temp degC Press db I I O h l l D Atlantic TMax n 30 34 32 Sail Ipsu n D 36 71 o 1 Temp IdegC Atlantic T Max g 71 31 32 Salt su p I Pacific Nutrient Max Potemia Temperature 0 EDENSQV39PSJPAquot wmrp Fram Strait Branch Wa e The watermass zoo Polar Ware Poiar Intermediate Water Upper Amie Kntarmediate Water Lower Arctic Intermediate Water Allantic Water anadian Sector Surface Water UHW end member LHW end member r Bamnts Sea Branch Water Selected waist mass de nition provided in rlure 175 Carmnck 1990 578 Jones and 10 t 1986 narhm n and Earner 962 31 32 33 34 35 35 Coachman and Barnes 1961 and 12 and 13 r 1 19 r The dur e holtl for collected in Lhr upper 300 m durmg ARK CTIC91 and A0594 From Ekwurzel etal 2001 JGR Atlantic waters Paci c waters 1 l39raml nr nut into the dcep buin is an integrator of the properties of the Bering Sea dominates the water properties of the Chukchi Sea Coachman et al 1975 Woodgate etal 2005 650 17quot N b Bering Strait Basics The only Pacific gateway to the Arctic Ocean 17o w 150 W Why does a little Strait matter so much 85 km wide 50 m deep divided into 2 channels by the Diomede Islands split by the US Russian border ice covered from January to April annual mean northward ow 08 Sv ANSF Aleutian 1 Exit route North Slope Current The Bering SeaBering Strait Relationship From Stabeno Schumacher ampOhtani Anaclyr 7999 waters colder Alaskan saltier Coastal nutrientrich Current warm fresh Bering seasonal Shelf Waters in wane 172v 156 1 o 176 W172 between 168 164 160 By providing an exit Bering Strait influences flow over the Bering Sea Shelf although the deep Bering Sea Basin may not care Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea Nutrientrich Anadyr waters To first order except for Bering Shelf cooling waters amass A I input from coastal Alaskan 70w polynyas Coastal Current 39 warm fresh Chukchi seasonal 68 dominated by input through Siberian Bering Strait Coastal Current cold fresh Export to Arctic seasonal Input through Stagnation 170 W Bering Strait Zones over Herald and Hanna Shoas Woodgate et al DSR 2005 httppsoaplwashingtoneduChukchihtml The role of Pacific waters in the Arctic Important for Marine Life Paci c waters are the most nutrientrich waters entering the Arctic Walsh et al 1989 Primary Productivity 90 m2 yr1 Courtesy of and adapted from Codspot Sten Atlantic waters Paci c waters 391 Transfer out into the deep basin Macdonad and others 2005 The role of Pacific waters in the Arctic E K e e i 394 Chlorophyll from SeaVWs Satellite from NASAGoddard Space Flight Center and Orbimage Sea ice concentration from SSMI IABP t 39 w a 39 Twyfm Implicated in the seasonal meltback of ice In summer Paci c waters are a source of nearsurface heat to the Arctic Paquette amp Bourke 1981 Ahln s amp Garrison 1984 Woodgate et a 2006 Arctic auay Fr 20 August mm o Argos Huey The role of Pacific waters in the Arctic Cold Halocline Press db S4 36 28 30 71 o 1 32 Temp IdegC Sali lpsu Important for Arctic Stratification In Winter Paci c waters fresher than Atlantic waters form a cold halocline layer which insulates the ice from the warm Atlantic water beneath Shimada etal 2001 Steele et al 2004 The role of Pacific waters in the Arctic ARCTIC FRESHWATER FLUXES Bering Strait 2500 km3yr 008 Sv Arctic Rivers 3300 km3yr PE 900 km3yr Fram Strait water 820 km3yr Fram Strait ice 2790 km3yr Canadian Archipelago 920 km3yr Significant part of Arctic Freshwater Budget Bering Strait through ow 13 of Arctic Freshwater Vijfes et al 1992 Aagaard amp Carmack 1989 Woodgate amp Aagaard 2005 Serreze et al 2006


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