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Introduction to the Environment Your Position Clicker Test University s Position amp Reputation Current Interest in the Environment Presidential Race Course Rationale ContextApproach for the Course University s Position amp Reputation Evaluation Criteria Administration Food amp Recycling Green Building Transportation 0 Investment Priorities Shareholder I Engagement COLLEGE SUS39I MNABILI39I39Y REPORT CARD How do you think the UW ranks nationally in terms of the environmental and sus an quot 9 1 Top 10 2 lnthe middle 3 Not so good 4 The bottom 5 Notaclue 1 Middlebury 93 2 Univ Colorado 915 3 Univ Vermont 91 4 Warren Wilson College w 885 v r 5 Evergreen State College 88 6 ASU 87 7 Univ Florida 86 8 Oberlin College 85 9 1 mm Univ Washington 84 O Tufts Univ 82 University s Position amp Reputation E w quotI m 538 Junior Colleges Colleges and Universities have signed President Emmert One ofthe first 20 Member ofthe Steering Committee hftn39lwvvvv 39 39 39 39 DhD University of Washington endeavors httpwwwwashingtonedufaciquottiesconserve httpwwwcpowashingtoneduHTMLSustain htm University s Position amp Reputation The Future Foci on Global Health Energy Informatics The Environment The College ofthe Environment httpcoenvwashingtonedul 1 UniversityofWashinglon 1 COLLEGE OF THE ENVIRONMENT The Nation Results of September 8 11 Gallup Poll I t will u I I Environment is Important Issues are there and will not go away Lots of pressure on global systems Biophysical resources contamination disposal etc Social population growth urbanization globalization economic development Ethical social justice As instructors we have a unique situation as the US becomes increasingly focused on non environmental issues how do we connect non environmental issues to environmental issues is there a connection Teaching Style Philosophy Problemsolving critical thinking exploration Format Lectures Readings Quiz Sections Testing Inclass readings with clickers Midterm final Quiz section components Posters Concepts Biophysical Social Ethical 39 quot VOIUme Implications 1650 100 or 39 i 1390 050 km3 Connections quot O l 2006 30 Links to Other W39 3933 39 Issues 39 39 quotto References Web httu 39 quot nvvltnlrreI 39 39 39 39 onnon 34050 Iaciers13mhtml httn39lnkvvatpruene 39 39 39 quot cascade1928 200000mparisonhtm httn39lmnwv nerr IIQHQ httn39ln irlr 39 39 balance html httpwwwgridunepchglaciers httpwwwwgmsch httn39lmnAnv r fr 39 39 39 39 PQI 401 mnrlpl htm Journal Reference Water Resources Africa Vo ro smarty CJ and others 2005 Ambio 34230 Goals of today s lecture Compare and contrast the invisible handquot with the tragedy of the commonsquot Understand a bit about supply and demand and other market mechanisms Welcome back to Selfishness Week 1 N The Tragedy ofthe Commons It s better for the group as a whole if everyone makes Choice A compared to everyone making Choice B Each person individually prefers to make Choice B regardless of others choices In these situations individual incentives lead people to make personal choices that are bad for the group as a whole Not every situation is a Tragedy of the Commons In many situations individual incentives lead people to make personal choices that are goodfor the group as a whole Sometimes we just get lucky And sometimes this happens because of the hidden orderquot that comes out of free market economics Adam Smith s invisible handquot metaphor Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 Man is at all times in need of the cooperation and assistance of great multitudes The woolen coat for example is the produce of the joint labor of the shepherd the sorter of the wool the woolcomber or carder the dyer the scribbler the spinner the weaver the fuller the dresser with many others These human interconnections like an ecosystem are evident In 1 l Pencilquot 80 2 Stuff 3 Both readings 4 Neither reading Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 But man s whole life is scarce sufficient to gain the friendship of a few persons and it is in vain for him to expect help from benevolence only It is not from the benevolence of the butcher the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner but from their regard to their own interest We address ourselves not to their humanity but to their selflove Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 and never talk to them of our own necessity but of their advantages Man is led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention Nor is it always the worse for society that it was no part of it By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it Leave all creative energies uninhibited is the message of 1 I Pencilquot 2 Stuff 88 Read s point about the post office is best exemplified by Fax machines Email Telegraphs Fed Ex Carrier pigeons 01pr This is known as congealed electricity Oil Aluminum Coffee The bicycle The condom 1 2 3 4 5 The world s 2ndbiggest export commodity is Cotton 78 Oil Paper Corn Coffee 1 2 3 4 5 A freemarket experiment 1 Write down the last four digits of a phone number yours or someone else s lfthe first digit is even 02468 you are a seller You own one fish and would like to sell it if the price is right lfthe first digit is odd 13579 you are a buyer You would like to buy one fish if the price is right N 9 A freemarket experiment Sellers the 2quotd digit is your selling value which is the minimum amount you are willing to sell a fish for You want to try to sell one fish for as much as possible but not less than your selling value Example My phone number is 0431 so I m a seller and my selling value is 4 A freemarket experiment Buyers the sum of the 2quotd and 339 digits is your buying value which is the maximum amount you are willing to buy a fish for You want to try to buy one fish for as little as possible but not more than your buying value Example My phone number is 5790 so I m a buyer and my buying value is 7916 A freemarket experiment Sellers you want to try to sell one fish for as much as possible but not less than your selling value Buyers you want to try to buy one fish for as little as possible but not more than your buying value You may not be able to buy or sell If you can trade note the transaction price What was your transaction price 10 1 2orless re than 2 lt 4 8 1 than 8 lt 10 More than 10 lt 12 7 More than 12 19 8 Couldn tmakeatrade What was your transaction price 1 1 2 orless More than 2 lt 4 v u ore an 0 0 6 Morethan 10lt 12 I 7 Morethan 12 26 8 Couldn tmakeatrade Obsened phenomena I hope The law ofone price Prices for the same good tend to converge to one price This is an example of hidden order instead of chaos there is structure Anotherexample during rush hour lanes of traffic on the 520 bridge travel at about the same speed law of one speed What determines prices Diamondwater paradox Water has more value than diamonds so why is a glass of diamonds worth more than one of water Are prices set by supply production cost By demand willingness to pay Alfred Marshall 1890 We might as reasonably dispute whether it is the upper or the under blade of a pair of scissors that cuts a piece of paper Price sh 1D 2 4 6 8 Quantity of sh bought or sold More observed phenomena The law of demand The amount that buyers want to buy varies inversely with the market price At lower prices buyers want to buy more At higher prices buyers want to buy less Similar incentives work on the supply side Market forces are so strong you should think about using them to protect the environment Market mechanisms can be used to correct externalities align individual incentives with social goals Example lTQs in fisheries establish private property rights over the commons Example Capandtrade or carbon taxes Fish tax example We re going to use a fish tax to limit overfishing tragedy of the commons Should the tax be on the buyers orthe sellers Sellers If you sell a fish you now have to pay the government a 3 tax What was your transaction price 1 1 2 orless Z More than 2 lt 4 n 4 lt 6 8i 12 6 More than 10 lt 0 7 More than 12 27 8 Couldn tmakeatrade Obsened phenomena I hope Reduced catch The tax reduced the number of fish bought and sold Market price increase The sellers paid the tax but they effectively passed part of it on to the buyers This is an example ofthe tax equivalence result Government revenue that can be used to reduce existing taxes or promote sustainable fisheries Goals of today s lecture Compare and contrast the invisible handquot with the tragedy of the commonsquot Understand a bit about supply and demand and other market mechanisms Welcome backto Sel shness Week 1 The Tragedy of the Commons It s betterfor the group as a whole if everyone makes Choice A rather than Choice B Each person individually prefers to make ice B Cho In these situations individual incentives lead people to make personal choices that are bad for the group as a whole Not every situation is a Tragedy of the Commons In many situations individual incentives lead people to mak personal choices that are good for the group as a who e Sometimes we just get lucky And sometimes this happens because of the hidden ordel that comes out offree rket economics Adam Smith s invisible handquot metaphor Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 Man is at all times in need ofthe cooperation and assistance of great multitudesThe woolen coat for exampleis the produce ofthe joint labor ofthe shepherd the sorter ofthe wool the woolcomber or carder the dyer the scribbler the spinner the weaver the fuller the dresser with many others ese human interconnections 1 I Pencilquot 2 Stuff 7 quot 3 Both readings 4 Neither reading 16 5 5 s a be 9 A asquot 63 Th like an ecosystem are evident in Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations 1776 But man swhole life is scarce suf cient e brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner but from their regard to their own interest We address ourselves not to their humanity but to their selflove Adam Smith The Wealth of Leave all creative energies Nations 1776 uninhibited is the message of and never talk to them ofour own 1 I Pencilquot necessity but of their advantages 2 Stuff 34 Man is led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention Nor is it always the worse for society that it was no part of 39t B rsuing his own interest he 39equenty than when he really intends to promote it Read s point aboutthe post office This is known as congealed is best exemplified by electricity 1 Fax machines 1 Oil 5 2 Email m 2 Aluminum 3 Telegraphs 3 Coffee 4 F Ex 4 The bicycle 5 Carrier pigeons 16 5 The condom 11 m 5 5 f 3 5 i a 3 I 3 aquot The world s 2ndbiggest export commodity is A freemarket experiment 1 Cotton m 1 Write down the last four digits of a phone 2 on number yours or someone e se s 3 paper 2 lfthe rst digit is even 02468 you are a 4 Com seller You own one sh and would like 539 Coffee to see it for a pro t 39 3 lfthe rst digit is odd 13579 you are a buyer You would like to buy one sh if 5 5 W W the price is right his 9 a if he A freemarket experiment Sellers the 2quotd digit is your selling value which is the minimum amount you are willing to sell a fish for You want to try to sell one fish for as much as possible but not less than your selling value Example My phone number is 0431 so I m a seller and my selling value is 4 A freemarket experiment Buyers the sum of the 2quotd and 339 digits is your buying value which is the maximum amount you are willing to buy a fish for You want to try to buy one fish for as little as possible but not more than your buying value Example My phone number is 5790 so I m a buyer and my buying value is 7916 A freemarket experiment Sellers you want to try to sell one fish for as much as possible but not less than your selling value Buyers you want to try to buy one fish for as little as possible but not more than your buying value You may not be able to buy or sell If you can trade note the transaction price What was your transaction price 2 1 2 orless o 2 More than 2 lt 4 an 6 lt 8 lt 12 0 7 More than 12 5 8 Couldn tmakeatrade What was your transaction price 0 1 2 or less 0 2 More than 2 lt 4 10 than 10 lt 12 0 7 More than 12 a 8 Couldn t makeatrade Obsened phenomena I hope The law ofone price Prices for the same good tend to converge to one price This is an example of hidden order instead of chaos there is structure Anotherexample during rush hour lanes oftraffic on the 520 bridge travel at about the same speed law of one speed What determines prices Diamondwater paradox Water is more valuable than diamonds so why is a glass of diamonds worth more than a glass of water Are prices are determined by supply cost of production By demand willingness to Pal7 Alfred Marshall Which edge ofthe scissors cuts the paper Class poll oldfashioned way Observed phenomena I hope The law of demand The amount that buyers want to buy varies inversely with the market price At lower prices buyers want to buy more At higher prices buyers want to buy less Similar incentives work on the supply side Price per sh 10 2 4 6 8 Quantity of fish bought or sold Market forces are so strong you should think about using them to protect the environment Market mechanisms can be used to correct externalities align individual incentives with social goals Example lTQs in fisheries establish private property rights over the commons Example Capandtrade or carbon taxes Fish tax example We re going to use a fish tax to limit overfishing tragedy of the commons Should the tax be on the buyers or the sellers Sellers If you sell a fish you now have to pay the government a 3 tax What was your transaction price 0 1 2 or less 0 2 More than 2 lt 4 ore than 4 lt 6 6 lt 8 o 6 More than 10 lt 12 0 7 More than 12 7 8 Couldn tmakeatrade Obsened phenomena I hope Reduced catch The tax reduced the number of fish bought and sold Market price increase The sellers paid the tax but they effectively passed part of it on to the buyers This is an example of the tax equivalence result Government revenuethat can be used to reduce existing taxes or promote sustainable fisheries What is IPAT and how does it help frame environmental issues What are current projections for human population growth economic growth and technology Why should you be technological realistsquot about climate change PAT 1mpact on the environment Eopulation x Activity per person or Affluence x Iechnology impact per activity P A x T o How many of us are there How much stuff are we doing How environmentally damaging is the stuff we re doing Units analysis example 30 miles per gallon x 1 gallon per 450 30 miles per 450 66 miles per dollar Similarly IPAT Impact Population x Activity per person x Impact per activity IPAT and climate change 1mpactGO2 and other GHG emissions Eopulation x Affluence GDP per person x Iechnology Emissions per unit of GDP I P A xT now you do the units analysis Gross Domestic Product measures a country s economic output and income IPAT and climate change Emissions Population x GDP per person x emissions per unit GDP What s happening with population What s happening with the economy GDP per person What s happening with technology emissions per unit GDP Which statement is false according to the McKibben reading McKibben agrees with Hardin that we need coercive population control The prejudices of early social scientists showed up in their work For the most part only children are just like other children N 0quot What is McKibben s solution to the population Tragedy of the Commons Invisible handquot Education Appeals to consciencequot Vigilante actionquot Mutual coercionquot o e wewwe The McKibben reading will in uence my decisions about family size 1 Yes very strongl 2 Yes butjust a little 3 No not really 4 Nowlwa t n to 0 0 0 0 have twelve kids IPAT and climate change Emissions Population x GDP per person x emissions per unit GDP What s happening with population The Lutz et al reading says that there s an 85 chance that in 2100 1 World population will be lt6 billion World population will be lt10 billion World population will be declining to w The Lutz et al reading says that there s a 60 chance that in 2100 1 World population will be lt6 billion 2 World population will be lt10 billion 3 World population will be declining The Lutz et al reading says that there s a 15 chance that in 2100 1 World population will be lt 6 billion 2 World population will be lt 10 billion 3 World population will be declining oa quotquot Europeanpartottne I formerUSSR 05 2 a m l 304 o x thnareglon 02 x r ubrsaharan Amen 1 nn omomommmomomomomomamo OarrNNnvammmo rmmmmo oooaooooooouuouoaooov NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN Year Figuret Fureeasted probability that population will start to decline at or before the indicated date Umw Nah10 Miami E Medlurl h acme World population estimates Population for S 1950 lower bound estimates from US Census Bureau Historical Estimates of World Population Population for 2 1975 UN Population Division World Population to 2300 2004 Table 1 World Population est 10000 to Year 1 Millions 0 710000 r7500 75000 72500 World Population est 500 to 1850 1200 Millions o oo 00 900 7500 0 500 1000 1500 World Population est 0 710000 r7500 75000 72500 2500 Total Fertility Rate 1940 2001 1941 1946 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 19 1991 1996 2001 Note The law remmy rare 15lhe avenue number ulcmldren lhal wmrm be born in a wuman dunng her Manner Qwen lhe JgersDemlm1erl1l1lvrales m gwen ear Hr mrrm How many children did your grandparents have on average One Two Three Four Five Six or more OQFWN How many children did your parents have One Two Three Four Five Six or more OQFWN How many children do you want One m Two Three or more m Unsure W Zero no kids 5 Zero adoption G P Pwpr Total Fertility Rate 1940 2001 1941 1946 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 1976 1981 19 1991 1996 2001 Note The law remmy rare 15lhe avenue number ulcmldren lhal wmrm be born in a wuman dunng her Manner Qwen lhe JgerSDemlm1erl1l1lvrales m gwen ear Hr mrrm Demographic transition World population is still increasing but it appears to be heading for a peak of around 9 billion Why Coercion Environmental awareness The invisible hand Mostlyjust blind luck Is 9 billion a lot or a little The UN s range for 2300 is 2 to 36 billion my Mummy tinyu is m Wm u m it in m i r it mm tit i i u i i u it um i t H t WWWWW From UN The World at Six Bilion Ofthe 78 million people currently added to the world each year 95 percent live in the less developed regions Countries with population over 100 million 7 in iBEEI China lndia U s Russianfederatiun 7 in 2mm add lndunesia Brazil Pakistan Bangladesh Japan Nigeria 7 in mm add Ethiupia Cungu MEXiED Philippines Vietnam iran Egypt Turkey World population density will increase from 44 peoplesq km in 1999 to 66 in 2050 Hillmns World Population est i 1800 to 2300 mun 1900 mm mm mm min Ellllnns World Pupulatiun est riEI EIEIEI tn 23mm 1 7mm 775nm 75mm 725nm H mm IPAT and climate change Emissions Population x GDP per person missions per unit GDP What s happening with population What s happening with GDP per person Per capita GDP Gross Domestic Product is a measure of the size of economic activity in a country US 2005 42000 GDP per capita China 2005 6800 ndia2005 3300 In 2005 world GDP rose by 4 5 so per capita GDP growth was 3 4 ClA Wurld Factbuuk mm W lmennmmmus mam Lnvgy Gunsummnn W cm usm cm IPAT and climate change Emissions Population x GDP per person x em39 39 Issions per unIt What s happening with population What s happening with GDP per person By 2100 population may be 50 higher and GDPperson may be 50500 higher Conclusion lfwe re going to reduce GHG emissions it s gotta be technology Good news Energy use per unit of GDP is falling Our economies are becoming less en rgy and carbonintensive Enemlmx v mm mummswu vam Bad news The drop in T technology has not been keeping ace with increases in P population and A af uence usmmmmmzmmm Technological realism If China and the U 8 keep bull Ing coal plants like crazy IPAT suggests that carbon emissions will not fall China s Carbon Emissions by Fuel What is IPAT and how does it help frame environmental issues What are current projections for human population growth economic growth and technology Why should you be technological realists about climate change International Experiences Introduction to Environmental Exploration Science Seminars httpdeptswashingtonedu explore UW Worldwide httpdeptswashingtonedu Today s Class goals 1 Begin Regular use of clickers 2 Define Environment 3 List amp Compare Environmental Issues 4 Understand Scale 5 Understand borders Assigned Readings amp Questions 1 Ass39gned Read39ngs 8 QueSt39onS 39 2 A National Research Council s Committee B httpwwwmetrokcdovenvironhtm on Grand Challenges in Environmental examine amp anSWer3 Sciences 2001 Grand Challenges in 1What major enYiFODmental iSSEJeS in your Environmental Sciences National Academy OP39U39Onv that are h39ghl39ghted 0 th39s page are similar to the grand challenges Cited by the NRC Press waSh39ngtoni DC Pd mime paper see 1 above select no more than six enVIronmental challenges listed in this 2 what is meant by stewardship mil 7 3 what is a green building 4 what are biosolids 5 what is a watershed and what is the Cedar River Watershed THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES m gm a g m minquot i imsiuisiimmnmim min a m l ational Academies Reading question National Research Council listed 8 National Academy of Seiences is an honorific enVIronmental Issues sOCIety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to 80 their use for the general welfare 139 JESSSLRquot The NAS was signed into being by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3 1863 to keep pace with the 239 BIOIOg39CaI dlvers39ty growing roles that science and technology would play 8 eCOSVStem in public life functioningquot National Research Council in 1916 Which of these two National Academy of Engineering in 1964 was one of them Institute of Medicine in 1970 Main floor of Suzzallo library Highest Priority for Study Landuse d namics AXL Evaluate King County s Environmental Web Page Environmental Issues NRC vs KC Two Relatively New Local Initiatives Snohomish County Biodiesel proposal Washington State Cut greenhouse gases emissions from 2005 by 15 by 2020 7 States 4 Canadian Provinces Gregoire s goal 1990 emissions by 50 by 2050 References httgwwwecywagovclimatechangeindexhtm h n39lwww Merl wa 39 ghg99 pdf Questions What were levels in 2005 1990 Which greenhouse gases all orjust 002 Why isn t Alberta part of the Canadian group Definition of Environment The combination of all things and factors external to the individual or population of organisms in questionquot Example bald eagle Time Space Scale what is meant by scale Scale dimensions of space and time Often used to refer to levels of biological organization Example Cell tissue organisms bacteria flea cat elephant ecosystem region the globe Patterns processes measurements Why relevant Lots of knowledge about small scale things Lots of questions about large scale processes amp patterns Scales of Biological Organization Seconds Molecular Space Region Learning FormatScaling UpperSKugif Id Eagle Endangered Species Act Equot Concepts Population Biophysical Population Social Ethical Cultural Implications Relevance Deve lo pment Recreation pnuaryzsanJms t u u Two Recent Border Issues WA 3 12 Fires of 2006 Trail BC Smelter Subject to US Superfund Law Confederated Tribes of the Colville vs EPA mm mm The series of Washington State Fires of 2006 DID NOT involve the following border 4 4 80 13 1 BC WA 2 North Cascade National Park US Forest Service 3 King Pierce Counties 4 Chelan Okanogan Counties Environmental Issues list Air and water pollu ion Climate Change Ozone depletion Loss of biodiversity Invasive organisms Loss of habitat Hazardous chemicals Population growth and consumption Energy and energy use Poverty environmental and social justice Summary Environment defineexploration Environmental issues Scale Examples using eagle amp ozone or smog Environmental problems do not follow human borders Makes measurements and solutions interesting 81408 Green collar jobs provide a marketbased solution 1 True of 2 False Green collarjobs are concerned solely with creating cleaner industries 1 True 2 False 95 This report seems like a good idea 90 0 10 1 Yes No All this economics has me confused wrv Green Collar Jobs Disproportionate burden Environmental ju 39 Crafting your m Green collar in Case studies Creative and crm Environmental Racism Environmental racism refers to intentional or unintentional racial discrimination in the enforcement of environmental rules and regulations the intentional or unintentional targeting of minority communities for the siting of polluting industries or the exclusion of minority groups from public and private boards commissions and regulatory bodies Wikipedia 81408 Figure 1 Locations oi Faclllhes wnn A r Releases as Recorcea In the Tom Release tnvunlmy urTRl Relative w Nergnmmoo Demogranhrcs n ma scanty say Area 7 4 7 W 7 Yudc alanulvwmtny 39 an Rowan norm 2W3 Parar11 mu cm 3 51 Chum Hum u in mm a Center for Justice Tolerance and Community at UCSC Figure 3 Percentage Households wnnin One Mil cl an Active mi 200 by income and RaceEtnmaty in in 9Cuunly Bay Area 50v Muv oc c 15mm A ncan AmtJinan 7 m raw 5 3 WV r 7 Nana spancwm 3 m w E B 20 a mm y r 1 r smx sum stars 52er 5m saw 15Krgtsruux 515K 525x 535K ssux 575x smax nuanhom imam Center for Justice Tolerance and Community at UCSC Community Coalition for Environmental Justice EPS Toxic Release Inventory Social Justice Environmental Justice 1960s70s Social and environmental movements 1980s Environmental Justice 1994 Clinton Administration Executive Order 12898 Identify and address disproportionately high adverse health and environmental effects 81408 Washington State Environmental justice joins social and environmental movements by addressing the unequal environmental urden often borne by minority and low39ncome populations Environmental justice seeks to lessen unequal distributions of environmental burdens pollution industrial facilities cn39me etc equalize bene ts and balance access to nutritious food clean air amp water parks recreation health care education transportation safe jobs etc in a variety of situations Selfdetermination and participation in decision making are key pieces of environmental justice Green Collar Jobs Connect the jobs that most need to be done with the people who most need the jobs Van Jones Green Collar Jobs A paid position providing environmentallyfriendly products or services High standards regarding fair wages equal opportunity and healthy working conditions Employer may be a private business government nonprofit or cooperative Green Collar Jobs Organic farmer Sustainable forestry worker Recycling technician Solar panel manufacturer Urban planner Environmental lawyer Raquel Pinderhughes Director of Urban Studies Program at SFSU Bicycle repair and bike delivery services Car and truck mechanic jobs production jobs and gas station jobs related to biodiesel Energy retrofits to increase energy ef ciency and c rvation Green building Green waste composting on a large scale Hauling and reuse of construction materials and debris CampD Hazardous materials cleanup Landscaping Manufacturing jobs related to large scale production of appropriate technologies ie solar panels bike cargo systems green waste bins etc Materials reuse Nontoxic household cleaning in residential and commercial buildings Parks and open space expansion and maintenance Printing with nontoxic inks and dyes Public transitjobs related to driving maintenance and repair 81408 Recycling and reuse Small businesses producing products from recycled materials Solar installation Tree cutting and pruning Periurban and urban agriculture Water retrofits to increase water efficiency and conservation Whole home performance including attic insulation weatherization etc Wag BUILDINGS TRANSPORTATION 400M Aquot lNULSTRY quot zun ff clric Tons of Carbon 1950 ran3 2mm Political Economy Research Institute Building retrofitting Mass transit Energyefficient automo i es Wind pow er ma ovonllmliss m m cm Econom Solar power Cellulosic biomass fuels lwwgmuim Mm We show that the vast majority of jobs associated with these six green strategies are in the same areas of employment that people already work in today in every region and state of the countryquot American Solar Energy Society Establish a rigorous de nition ofthe RE amp EE Industries Allowing an estimate ofthe size and composition ofthe RE amp EE Industries including technology sales tax revenue jobs occupations and skills I it Kd t mamy Forecast the growth ofthese industries to 2030 under three scenarios American Solar Energy Society In 2006 more than 8 million Americans worked in these industries RE amp EE generated 933 billion in revenue By 2030 in an aggressive deployment forecast scenario there could be 40 million Americans employed in these industries Nearly one in every four working Americans Under this aggressive scenario the RE industries could generate 453 trillion in annual revenue 81408 Green Industry Vable 252 ms Renewable Enemy and Enaqu Etrlzrcncy industries in 2030 um macm Adwrmd am mama am we as 5mm 5mm ask Smnar a scene a 5597 same Management l ar39mdhml Servlces Inc an Aamp rdn Solar Energy Swarm1007 Wordwatch nstitute Stimulating GramCollar Jobs and Oppurtunity in the New Energy Economy Employment Estimates mitt WWW 300000 in Wind energy 170000 in solar energy 624000 in solar thermal energy More labor intensive jobs mans ga build mm vernal shimmm 3an W n s ns imam mma M Solar Richmond Barriers to employment Lack of job skills Lack of education Languagecultural barriers History in juvenilecriminal justice system 81408 RichmondBUlLDS Nine week paid internshipapprenticeship One week solar training 1 millionfirst year Graduated 21 Found jobs paying 2030hour Solar Richmond Free labor to home owner Equipment at cost Low interest loan available through the City of Richmond Goal of 50 solar installations for low income home owners by 2010 OAKLAND GREEN JOBS CORPS OAKLAND APOLLO ALLIANCE Green Jobs Corps 100000250000 from City of Oakland to develop pilot Expected to launch this year 40 participants 1835 years 3 month training Followed by 6 month paid internship After 4 years 85 employed with 10 in college I BRONXE IRO MENTAL STEWARDSHIP TRAINING Sustainable South Bronx By 1998 handled 40 of NYC s waste Higher concentration of power plants sewagetreatment facilities dieseltruck fleets and wastetransfer stations than any other section ofthe city Higher asthma rates than any other community in the nation Founded 2001 by Majora Carter 81408 Sustainable South Bronx Bronx Environmental Stewardship Training Established 2003 10 week certification program Trained 70 in landscaping ecological restoration green roof installation hazardous waste cleanup 85 employment 10 college enrollment Bronx Environmental Stewardship Training River Bank Restoration Sustainable South Bronx Landscape 101 Bioremedlatlon l nts trees shrubs identi cation Green Roof lnstallaion Water and Soil Quality Green Roof estin Phytoremediation Ecological Restora ion Maimemme Wildlife Identi cation Brovim eld Remediation Wetland Restoration Cleanup Asbestos Abatement Power Tool Safety amp Operation Stabilization Sustainable South Bronx Bronx Environmental Stewardship Training First Aid and CPR NYC Tree Pruner Entry Level Tree Climbing 40 Hour Hazardous Waste Clean Up 10 Hour OSHA HerbicidePesticide Applicator New Orleans Four local nonprofits have grants to train for green jobs 800 1624 years expected to participate in 4 months oftraining Politics of Solution An orientation that offers a powerful new politics of hope achievement and optimism Term suggests visionary urban policies that emphasize multiissue solutionoriented change in urban communities Ella Baker Center Politics of Solution Interdisciplinary Multiissue Creative Critical thinking Job here too How can capitalism save us Put a price on pollution Three possible solutions Voluntary approaches Give a hoot don t pollu equot Mandatory commandandcontrolquot approaches Fuel economy standards governmentfunded RampD research and development etc Mandatory marketbased approaches Make polluting expensive Three possible solutions Voluntary approaches Give a hoot don t pollutequot Problem Voluntary approaches often don t work very well because of the Tragedy of the Commons Clean Dirty Clam 30011 Good Worst Best D39rt I y Best Worst Bad Bad Three possible solutions Mandatory commandandcontrolquot approaches Fuel economy standards governmentfunded RampD research and development etc Problem These can work but often they are unnecessarily costly ie inefficient And do you really want the government picking winners Consider corn ethanol Three possible solutions Voluntary Give a hoot don t pollutequot Mandatory commandandcontrolquot Mandatory marketbased approaches Make polluting expensive Which idea was notdiscussed in the reading 1 Carbon taxes 95 2 Carbon offsets 3 Capandtrade permits 3 2 f a a cry a 3 5 Three possible solutions Mandatory marketbased approaches Make polluting expensive This is the best idea since sliced bread Market approaches use the power of the free market to protect the environment Two varieties of sliced bread Taxes Capandtrade permits Both act as a surrogate for missing market pricesincentives Pollution creates negative externalities The resulting external costsquot are not included in market prices The invisible hand breaks down leading to the tragedy of the commons We can use taxes or capandtrade to internalize those external costs These policies heal the invisible hand Story 1 Paper Before 1998 it was free for students to print at the computer labs on campus More correctly it was free the money came from student tech fees rather than individual students The result 35000 pages printed per day 10005 of those pages unclaimed 25000 per month for paper and toner Price of printing Demand curve At different prices how many pages do students want to print Which point A B or C shows how many pages were printed when printing was free When printing was 010 per page 020 010 C Quantity of printing Which point shows how many pages were printed when printing was free 1 PointA 89 2 PointB 3 PointC 3 7 m Which point shows how many pages were printed when printing was 010 1 PointA 98 2 PointB 3 PointC Price of Demand curve At different prices how pnn ng many pages do students want to print Supply and demand X marks the spot A B C Quantity of printing Charging for printing is most similar to which idea from the reading 1 Carbon tax 86 2 Auctioned cap andtrade 3 Grandfathered capandtrade W 7 M a g a of of 65 at a I so 04 Story 2 Sulfur dioxide 802 Under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act This example is most similar to which idea from the reading 1 Carbon tax a Amendments a cap and tradequot program 75quot was created for 80 from ower lants 239 Aucnoned cap 2 p p 39 andtrade Any firm wanting to emit SO2 needed to 3 G df th d turn in 1 permit for each ton of emissions ran a ere 24 capandtrade In 1980 emissions were 20m tons but by 1 2000 the government only gave out 10m tons worth of permits Cut pollution in 12 g 9 of Allocations based on historic emissions f fquot v59 0quot Mn quotm Price Of Demand curve At different prices how sumquot much sulfur do utilities want to emit quot39 Which point A B or C shows A quotm 1 m M the price of emissions before um quot3939 f39 A the capandtrade What about E noon 3min with a cap of 10m ton 3 no i m I B w 39 uwlmw ni c 9 ung Quantity ofsulfur Source Pew Centeroi i Global Climate Change Which point A B or C shows the price Which point A B or C shows the price of emissions before the capandtrade of emissions with a cap of 10m tons 1 Point A 1 Point A 98 85 n 2 Point B 2 Point B 3 Point C 3 Point C 12 i 3 2 0 3quot 3 quot 9 squot a 3 Price Of Demand curveAt different prices how Lesson Taxes and cap and SU39fur much sulfur do utilities want to emit trade systems are very simiar A tax is a price instrument and capand A Supply and demand trade is a quantity instrument but the Xmarksthe spot 39 demand curve tells us that price and quantity are related to each other B 0 Quantity of sulfur prim Lesson 1 Taxes and capand su39f quot trade systems are very similar A tax is a price instrument and capand 200 trade is a quantity instrument but the demand curve tells us that price and quantity are related to each other 100 If we know what the demand curve looks like I can tell you the quantity of emissions from a given tax or I can tell you the 5m 10m 15m price of emissions from a given cap Quantity of sulfur Price of sulfur 200 100 5m 10m 15m Quantity of sulfur Price of sulfur 200 100 Em 0m 15m Quantity of sulfur Complication 1 We don t know what the demand curve looks like exactly So we can t say exactly how much carbon reductions will come from a 100ton tax on C02 And we can t say exactly what the price of carbon will be with a capandtrade that reduces carbon emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 and 50 below 1990 by 2050 Still don t forget Lesson 1 What is Lesson 1 A Taxes and cap andtrade are very similar 98 2 Taxes and cap andtrade are totally different 2 m fry 33 quot j j Lesson 2 It s all about the money The best way to think about capandtrade is to think about its price equivalent even if we don t know exactly what that price equivalent will be Example Any auctioned capandtrade system is equivalent to some tax What about grandfathered capandtrade Lesson 2 It s all about the money Grandfathering permits to existing firms is equivalent to giving them money Exactly equivalent Give them permits and they can sell them for money Give them money and they can buy permits Is it a good idea to give companies a bunch of money 1 Yes 2 No 71 3 I m not sure What else could we do with money from a carbon tax or auctioned capandtrade Fund RampD into clean energy Give rebates for energy efficient appliances Reduce existing taxes BC is implementing a revenueneutral tax shift that will generate 600 million per year from a carbon tax and spend the revenue on tax cuts and rebate checks Who wants a tax shift Charles Krauthammer Fox News For 25 years I have been advocating a US energy tax as a way to curtail consumption and keep the money at home by recycling it back into tax reductions George Will Washington Post A carbon tax would be a clear and candid incentive to adopt energysaving and carbon minimizingtechnologies and produce a commensurate reduction of other taxes Who wants a tax shift Al Gore It39s important to change the light bulbs but it39s much more important to change the laws Tax what we burn not what we earn William Nordhaus Yale economist To a first approximation raising the price of carbon is a necessary and sufficient step for tackling global warming What s so great about a tax shift Right now we tax goods things we want more of employment saving investment and don t tax bads things we want less of carbon pollution traffic congestion This is like pouring your wine out on the carpet and drinking out of the toilet bowl Taxing bads instead of goods is smart economically and smart environmentally
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