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by: Kurtis Spencer I


Kurtis Spencer I
GPA 3.56
Intro to Linguistics
Laura McGarrity

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Intro to Linguistics
Laura McGarrity
Class Notes
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This 100 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kurtis Spencer I on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Ling 200 at University of Washington taught by Laura McGarrity in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistics in Linguistics at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
Today Announcement HW6 post to course website III Myths vs facts about sign language III Structure of ASL Readings 15 27 1324 LING 200 McGarrity 1 MCGurk Effect Demo LING 200 McGarrity McGurk Effect Auditory ba Visual ga Perceived da III Speech perception involves both auditory and visual information LING 200 McGarrity 3 Sign Language III 1 in 1000 babies born deaf III 9095 of deaf babies are born to hearing parents III 150 sign languages in the world I American Sign Language ASL httpwwwlifeprintcom LING 200 McGarrity 4 MYTH ASL encodes spoken English into signs Signed Exact English SEE I translation of English in 1to1 encoding I used to teach English to the Deaf Fingerspelling I used for words for which there is no sign s A 3 6 D st F mag H W1 J K t 5 em 90 43 m 62 es s t t till X en 2 LlNG 200 w McGarnIy 5 MYTH Sign language is purely iconic 1 Some signs are X iconic eg house eat cat milk sit mix LiNG 200 w McGarniy MYTH Sign language is purely iconic III But if all signs were iconic I Nonsigners would understand sign language I Wouldn t be able to sign abstract concepts I All deaf people would have same signs El lconicity is not unique to signed languages LING 200 McGarrity 7 MYTH Sign language is universal El Many different signed languages El They are mutually unintelligible American Sign Language British Sign Language ASL Mmma g nelmt or p V m 6R es er u gv g K W x WV 22 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII FACT Sign language is a true language III Exhibits all of the design features of language III Uses visualmanual not vocalauditory modality mode of communication LING 200 McGarrity 9 Structure of ASL III Phonetics I Parameters Discrete units of a sign El El El El Handshape Location place of articulation Movement Palm orientation httpwwwifeorintcom httpcommtechlabmsu edusitesaslwebbrowserhtm LING 200 McGarrity 10 Imsamjmvm gtnnrm Lmgtr0cm fx f 1quot V v Loca on SUMMER Movement NAME SHORT EGG Palm orientation WANT FREEZE ASL Phonology III Rules I Assimilation a sign assimilates the handshape of a sign that follows it El My name is El I know LING 200 McGarrity 15 ASL Morphology El Negation I REVERSALOFORIENTATION suffix u A rapid turning over of hands at the end of the sign DON TLIKE DON TWANT DON TKNOW III Use of space to mark pronouns I 1st vs 2nol Person palm orientation I Possessive vs Nominative case handshape I Sinqular vs Plural Number movement LING 200 McGarrity 16 ASL Syntax 1 Use of space to mark subj obj 3rd pers I snow vou vou SHOW ME we mm W M anm lt7 Facial expressions III Carry linguistic meaning I YesNo questions brow raise widened eyes tilt head forward I WHquestions draw brows together tit head back I Negation shaking head from sidetoside LING 200 McGarrity 18 Commonalities w spoken Iang III Dialects accents III Acquisition I Babbling I Same stages I Overgeneralizations III Critical Period I Signing performance related to age of exposure to ASL not to of yrs studied LING 200 McGarrity 19 Announcements r3 Exam review Thursday in section III Midterm exam Friday 29 BRING PURPLE SCANTRON SHEET BRING NO 2 PENCIL Today El Coordination El Tests for constituency Readings 65 66 Conjunctions Words and phrases of the same category can be combined using conjunctions eg and but or NP 9 NP conj NP Cats and dogs are furry VP 9 VP conj VP He will run and jump S 9 8 con 8 You can run but you can t hide Ungrammatical coordination Different categories cannot be conjoined Julia wrote a memo Julia wrote to the dean Julia wrote a memo and to the dean NP PP Coordination test Laura loves linciuistics Laura teaches enthusiastically Laura loves linguistics and teaches enthusiastically Conclusion loves linguistics and teaches enthusiastically are the same kind of constituent VP Coordination test Reveals information about whether a group of words is a constituent l VP slept I slept and dreamed about Linguistics I slept and dreamed about Linguistics what kind of constituent it is I saw deer and florp in the meadow I want to go run and florp in the meadow Tests for Constituent structure i Substitution iZI Movement I Deletion Substitution i Only constituents can be substituted for with shorter wordsphrases Substitution NP Substitute for NPs with pronouns he she it they etc eg Laura will buy the Battlestar Galactica DVD tomorrow Rita will buy it Wednesday NFthe BSG DVD She will buy V for Vendetta next week NPLaura Coordination and Substitution The professor and a TA were talking to several students and some faculty about the joy of syntactic analysis They were talking to them about it She and a TA were talking to Substitution VP Substitute for VPs with as so dodone so eg Laura has eaten lots of Halloween candy As has Julie Vpeaten lots of Halloween candy So has George Matt has done so too VP substitution cont 9AUX has will etc is outside the VP constituent Ii John will study linguistics and love it Ii Mary will do so too Ii Mary do so too VP substitution and coordination John will VP go to the linguistics lecture and learn about syntax Mary will do so too Mary will go to the lecture and do so too Movement lZI Constituents can move to positions in the sentence other than where they would normally go Obligatory Question formation Optional Topicalization Word Order r3 English is an SVO language Subject Verb Object Harry rides brooms Ron makes jokes Trevor eats flies Obligatory Movement 1 Question formation Laura will drive her car on the weekend What will Laura drive on the weekend T f When will Laura drive her car T Optional Movement Topicalization optional movement used to emphasize something I don t like peas but Qeanuts I like t O S V They didn t think he could win the election but Win the election he did l Coordination and Movement I John ate NP beans and rice D What did John eat D What did John eat NP beans and Constituent tests The cow attacked the farmer with the axe Substitution test I The cow attacked him NP the farmer with the axe D The cow attacked him with it him NFthe farmer it NFthe axe Movement test Who did the COW attack the farmer with the axe f Who did the cow attack the farmer with the axe t Deletion D A constituent can be deleted from a phrase when there is an identical constituent in the discourse to supply its meaning Deletion VP El Imelda is going to see The Nutcracker Emmett is going to see The Nutcracker too Thaddeus is going to see The Nutcracker too John will go to the store on the corner and Mary will too Announcements III Guest lecture by Dr Emily Bender on Monday 121 I Download slides from course website prior to class III Extra Credit Assignment posted to course website I Due 124 in section LING 200 McGarrity 1 Today El Conclude creoles El Language change I Diachronic vs synchronic El Types of language change I Sound change I Morphological change I Semantic change Readings 121 123126 LiNG 200 McGarriiy 2 Structure of a creole III Have fullyformed stable grammars III Many creoles show remarkable structural similarities LING 200 McGarrity Hawaiian Creole Sranan Haitian Creole super Eng super Eng super French 5 P0 Ch sub w At Dutch sub W At he walkeds He walk A waka Li mach he had walked He bin walk A ben waka Li t mach he wouldwill He go walk A sa waka L av mach walk he iswas He stay walk A e waka L ap mach walking he would have He bin go walk A ben sa waka Li t av mach walked he hashad He bin stay A ben e waka Li t ap mach been walking walk he willwould be He go stay walk A sa e waka L av ap mach walking he would have He bin go stay A ben sa e Li t av ap been walking walk waka mach LING 200 McGarrity 4 lnnateness III Derek Bickerton These structural similarities come from child learners due to innate bioprogram ie Universal Grammar I Evidence Nicaraguan Sign Language creole httpwwwpbsorqwgbhevolutionlibrarvO72l O72 O4html LING 200 McGarrity Language change III Languages are constantly changing III Language change is normal III Language change at decay corruption LING 200 McGarrity Language change III Diachronic variation I language change over time Historical Linguistics 1 Synchronic variation I language variation at a particular point in time LING 200 McGarrity 7 Why do languages change Some causes Language contact Children can introduce innovations Isolated groups develop separately Optional rules may become obligatory or vice versa III EIEIEI LING 200 McGarrity Types of language change III Sound change I Phonetic I Phonological III Morphological change III Lexicalsemantic change LING 200 McGarrity A Brief History of English El Old English 4491066 w quottil Faeder ure bu be eart on heofonum t Si bin nama gehalgod El Middle English 10661500 Oure fadir that art in heuenes halewid be thi name El Early Modern English 15001800 Our father which art in heaven hallowed be thy name 1 Modern English 1800present Our father who is in heaven May your name be kept holy LING 200 McGarrity 10 Old English 4491066 Beowulf Him oa Scyld gewat to w Forth he fared at the fated gescaephwrle moment felahror feran on frean sturdy Scyld to the shelter of waere God Hi hyne pa aetbaeron to Then they bore him over to brimes farooe ocean39s billow swaese gesipas swa he loving Clansmen as late he selfa baed Charged them penden wordum weold wine while wielded words the Scyldinga winsome Scyld leof landfruma lange ahte the leader beloved who long had ruled httpwwwkamidemoncoulddesithasmediabss2631ram LING 200 McGarrity 11 Middle English 10661500 Canterbury Tales Whan that Aprill with his a shoures soote The droghte of March hath perced to the roote And bathed every veyne in swich licour Of which vertu engendred is the flour Whan Zephirus eek with his sweet breeth Inspired hath in every holt and heeth When April With its soothing showers The drought of March has pierced to the root And bathed every vein in such liquor By Which power the flower is engendered When Zephir also With his sweet breath Has inspired in every grove and heath httplwwwvmieduenqlishaudioGPOpenindram LING 200 McGarrity 12 Middle English 10661500 Canterbury Tales The tendre oroppes and the yonge sonne Hath in the Ram his halve oours yronne And smale foweles maken melodye That slepen al the nyght with open ye So priketh hem Nature in hir corages Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages The tender crops and the young sun Has in the Flam his half course run And small fows make melody That sleep all night With open eye 80 pricks them nature in their hearts Then long folk to go on pilgrimages LING 200 McGarrity 13 Sound change III A change in pronunciation over time I Conditioned a sound changes only in certain environments eg ModE Kinn n gt chin tan ld gt U i 1 ku ku gt 00Wkou I Unconditioned all instances of a sound change regardless of environment eg Great Vowel Shift LING 200 McGarrity 14 Great Vowel Shift in brief Unconditioned sound Long vowels changein k u pronunciation of I I vowels between V V MidEng and ModEng 9 0 Respons efor OI 0U many of the spelling peculiarities of o EngHsh LING 200 McGarrity 15 Great Vowel Shift in brief III Long vowels undergo shift MidE ModE bathed bathed booed beIod o 9 e1 sweete sweet swete swit e 9 i roote root rote rut o 9 u shires shires jires01rz i 9 GI shoures showers Uures Ioorz u 9 cm LING 200 McGarrity 16 Semantic Change El Changes involving the meanings of words I Extensions meaning is extended to new referents OIdE docga a breed of dog gt ModE dog any dog Reductions meaning is narrowed to fewer referents OIdE hund any dog gt ModE hound type of dog Elevations meaning is elevated to be more positive OIdE cnight youth gt ModE knight man of royal status Degradations meaning becomes more negative MidE wench female servant gt ModE wenoh lewd woman LING 200 McGarrity 17 Morphological change El Change in the morphology over time MidE ModE combklom gt climbed kloImd El Proportional Analogy a form changes to be more like another usually to make a pattern more regular time 9 timed rhyme 9 rhymed climb 9 11 Acronyms Blends Clippings Conversions Eponyms LING 200 McGarrity 18 Modern day Morphological Analogy El Plural mouse 9 mioe computer mouse 9 life 9 lives lowlife 9 leaf 9 leaves Maple Leaf 9 III Past tense fly 9 flew fly out baseball 9 flied out stand 9 stood grandstand 9 grandstanded LING 200 McGarrity 19 Announcements Bender guest lecture POSTPONED till March 9 final day Today Pidgins and Creoles Friday 32 Historical Lx 1 Monday 35 Historical Lx 2 Wednesday 37 Final Exam Discussion and Review Friday 39 Computational Lx Bender Today Language contact Pidgins and males Readings 111113 Language contact Situation in which groups of speakers of different languages come into contact with one another eg geography conquest Wade Language ContactOutcomes What happens when cultures with different languages come into contact A Widespread bilingualism usually with code switching B Selection Of a lingua franca Any language used to enable communication between groups of people with differing native languages natural or constructed languages Two possible strategies 1 Employ an already existing language a natural eg Swahili English b artificial eg Esperanto 2 Form new language Terminology Adstrates languages in contact that have equal prestige Adstrate Adstrate English Norse Superstrate language of dominant group Lexifier language the input language that provided most of the basic vocabulary or lexicon aka quotsuperstratequot Substrate language of the less dominant or subordinate group Typically provides most of the phonological and usually grammatical features Superstrate gt Substrate English Native Am Langs Pidgin One type of lingua franca A language which arises to fulfill restricted and ongoing needs for communication among people who have no common language Often arises when there is a longterm need to communicate ie in tradebusiness eg Chinook Jargon Not the primary language of their speakers ie learned as 2nOI lang Structural features of a PIDGIN x no strict word order single set of pronouns x no complex sentences x no determiners x no grammatical gender x no inflectional morphology Allows either word plurals noun 3039 person pronoun order Mi bommy eat Mi eat bommy I eat the cassava 1 Creole El A language that comes about by prolOnged use and nativization usually arising when parents transmit a pidgin to their children and the pidgin becomes the child39s native language This language undergoes rapid expansion because it mUst meet all the communicative needs of the native speaken Often arises from a pidgin that is adopted as firstnative language Structural differences Ps vs Cs Pidgins Creoles x tolerates extensive grammatical vana on single set of pronouns x complex sentences determiners x no determiners t I d x no grammatical gender X no gramme 3903 gen er inflectional morphology x no inflectional mor holo p gy plurals noun 3rd person pronoun plurals noun 3rd person pronoun strict word order single set of pronouns complex sentences Jamaican Creole only one word order is allowed 139 FUT Tell 339 COMP lsg want eat DET cassava Emergence of Pidgins and Creoles Arises from Characteristics PIDGIN sudden disruption language contact 2 or more need is longterm but restricted not a first language no frills chaotic structure derivative CREOLE accelerated language change parental transmission needis comprehensive first language fully developed system stable 1 1 3 How have Pidgins and Creoles Gotten their Names Chinese Pidgin English WPC Pidgin Cameroon W Africa Creole Louisiana USA Creole Berbice County Guyana Pidgin Nauru New Zealand Creole Maharastra India Creole Jamaica West Indies Tok Pisin Papua New Guinea Sranan Suriname Afrikaans South Africa Samana Dominican Republic Bislama Vanuatu Krey l Haiti Distribution of Lexifier Languages Q How many creole languages are there in the world A 100 spoken natively by 6 million people Q What languages have combined to form the superstrate for creole languages in the world A English35 African languages17 French15 Portuguese14 Spanish7 German6 Amerindian6 Dutch5 Arabic4 ltalian3 Russian2 Jamaican Creole Sociolinguistics dialects form a postcreole continuum phonology morphology basilect A fimi buk dat A truu in a taak lexicon and syntax mesolect 1 A mi buk dat A trut shi taakin mesolect 2 Is my book dat Is trut shi taakin phonology only acrolect That39s my book She39s telling the truth A Copula verb to be Continuum examples bx Bob Marley Real Situation Check out the real situation Nation war against nation Where did it all begin Where will it end Well it seems like total destruction No real solution And there ain t no use No one can stop them now There ain39t no use Nobody can stop us now Give them an inch Lieutenant Stitchie The Cab Slam barn tank yu maam Cabl en a di nuu yutdem a demand a gran slain Siitohie and di girlClem cab service Giri pickni bruok out ina dis Listen die lliir mi nuo come lVli cab aoomeo sii mi cab acome bwai l lan go dung a mek i cab slow dung Mi cab acome sii mi cab acorne Close An di cyahrman hair draw dung Drive mi guud ya man How yu a drive mi so long Continuum examples Bob Marley Real Situation Check out the real situation Nation were against nation Where did it all begin Where will it end Well It seems like total destruction No real solution And there ain 1 my use No one can stop them now There ain t no use Nobody can stop us now Give them an inch Lieutenant Stitchie The Cab Slain bam tank yu maam Call an a di nun yuldem a demand a gran slam Stitchie and di girl dem call service Girl pickni bruok out me dis Listen dis Hill mi niio come Mi cal acome sii mi cab acome bwai Han go dung a mek i cab slow dung Mi cal acome sii mi cab acome close An di cyabsman hafi draw dung Dnve rni gLiLid ya man How yLi a drive rni so iong Announcements III Homework 4 Semantics and Language Acquisition I Posted soon on course website I Due Thursday Nov 13 III View Gradebook in MyUW or on course website to check grades LING 200 McGarrity 1 Today El Stages of acquisition I Order I Characteristics Readings 82 83 LiNG 200 McGarriiy 2 lnnateness III Language acquisition is a biologically controlled behavior I Has a critical period for acquisition El Neglected children 1 Early vs late exposure to signing in Deaf El Second language acquisition by adults vs children I Has regular sequence of milestones or stages during development LING 200 McGarrity 3 Stages of language acquisition III All normal children go through same stages of acquisition in same order III Age at which they reach stage and rate of progression through the stages can vary LING 200 McGarrity Stages of acquisition Prelinguistic El Crying 01 month I cries burps grunts MW El Cooing 23 months I I vowellike coogoo palatal amp velar sounds W El Vocal play 34 months x Baby s vocal tract I raspberries squeals yells LlNG 200 McGarnty 5 Stages of acquisition Babbling III Babbling 412 months I CV monosvllables eg ma pa ba I Canonical babblinq repeated CVCV eg mamama papapa dadada I Varieqated babblinq different CV syllables eg badigu potaki tamaml LING 200 McGarrity 6 Stages of acquisition Babbling Biological Linguistic El Up to 610 mos El After 10 mos I All babies babble I Babies babble using same sounds only native sounds I Hearing babies of I Deaf and hearing Deaf parents babble babies of Deaf I Deaf babies of Deaf Signing Parents parents orally babble babb39e USing hands LING 200 McGarrity 7 babbling smiling nonbabbling El Babies open their mouths I wider on right than on left when babbling I wider on left than on right when smiling I equally on both sides when making other sounds UNG 2m NtGavmy a Stages of acquisition Morphology Syntax III OneWord stage 1 1 12 years I Lexicon lt 50 words avg 15 I At first words for people objects and things mommy doggie bottle I Later verbs and other useful words go mine no and holophrases oneword phrases eg gimme Whassat algone LING 200 McGarrity 9 Stages of acquisition Morphology Syntax III TwoWord stage 1 12 2 years I Lexicon gt 50 words I 2 word combinations indicate semantic rather than syntactic relations eg III baby sleep kick ball baby up Mommy book I Few function or inflectional morphemes LING 200 McGarrity 10 Stages of acquisition Morphology Syntax III Telegraphic speech 2 years I Can combine more than 2words I Speech contains primarily content words w no function morphemes ie telegraphic I Syntactically organized eg word order LING 200 McGarrity 11 Stages of acquisition Morphology Syntax III Function morphemes 2 years I Progressive ing eating Plural s blankets Past tense ed walked Possessive s baby s bottle 3rd person singular s Daddy walks Order of acquisition relates to morphological and syntactic complexityregularity LING 200 McGarrity 12 More on Morphological Development Stage 1 case by case learning eg went fell men Stage 2 overgeneralization of the rule eg goed faled mans Stage 3 Mastery of exceptions eg went fell men LING 200 McGarrity 13 Semantic Development El Complexive concepts I when a single word is used for a number of different objects with no unifying characteristic eg triangle yelllow triangle 9 red triangle 9 red curc e El Overextensions I child extends word s meaning beyond adult norm eg fly fly speck of dirt dust bread crumbs III Underextensions I a word s meaning includes a smaller set than the adult norm eg mammal dog cat horse 35 whale seal bat LING 200 McGarrity 14 Announcements Syllabus change III For Mon Nov 3 I NO Pragmatics I We will continue Semantics instead Today El Semantics I Lexical vs compositional El Reference vs sense El Semantic relations I between words I between phrases Readings 6063 Semantics 11 The study of meaning in language I Lexical semantics The meaning of words I Compositional semantics How the meanings of individual units combine to form the meanings of larger units What is meaning What is meaning III Meaning dictionary definition I Dictionaries define words using words a circularity problem What is meaning III Referent The thingidea in the world that a wordphrase refers to Reference The relationship that holds between words and things in the world Reference St Basil s cathedral Weinermobile Reference George W the president Bush of the U S The president of the U S is the Commander in Chief Georde W Bush is the Commander in Chief Reference George W Bush the president of the U S I want to be president of the United States at I want to be George W Bush


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