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by: Kurtis Spencer I


Kurtis Spencer I
GPA 3.56


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Class Notes
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kurtis Spencer I on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 471 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/192178/ling-471-university-of-washington in Linguistics at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
April 12 2004 Semantics Overview 0 Leftovers Redundancies 0 Semantic representation 0 Semantic composition Apparent redundancies lexical item designators and orthographies ARGS and SPIUSUBJCOMPS head types and exitem types SPEC and SPR Lexical item designators and orthographies cat noun 1ex amp STEM lt quotcatquot gt cat noun 1ex amp STEM lt quotcatquot gt SYNSEM LKEYS KEYREL Catnrel o What does each instance of the string cat in that code dd 0 Which could be spelled differently Without loss of functionality and Why ARG S and SUBJCOMPSSPR 12 noun 1ex basic noun lex amp basic one arg amp SYNSEMLOCAL CAT HEAD noun VAL SPR lt spr gt COMPS lt gt SUBJ lt gt SPEC lt gt ARG S lt spr gt o ARGS gives all the arguments of a head a ARGS is a locus of crosslinguistic statements of syntactic and semantic linking ARG S and SUBJCOMPSSPR 22 noun 1ex basic noun lex amp basic one arg amp SYNSEMLOCAL CAT HEAD noun VAL SPR lt spr gt COMPS lt gt SUBJ lt gt SPEC lt gt ARG S lt spr gt o In the HPSG literature ARGS is also the locus of the binding theory a The valence features specify the particular grammatical function associated with each argument head types and exitem types The subtypes of head values of HEAD give partof speech information They are the X in Xbar theory the information that mothers share with headdaughters The subtypes of exitem basichouhZex etc are classes of lexical items Subtypes of exitem express generalizations about the syntax and semantics of word classes Do we eXpect to have more subtypes of head or of exitem in a large grammar Why SPEC and SPR Heads select for subjects complements and speci ers Subject and complements do not also select for heads Speci ers do for semantic reasons A subject is a distinguished argument which is not the semantic head of its phrase A speci er is a distinguished argument which is the head of its phrase Subjects canonically are linked to a semantic role of the selecting head Speci ers canonically are not Summary Apparent redundancies lexical item designators and orthographies ARGS and SPIUSUBJCOMPS head types and exitem types SPEC and SPR Semantic representations or the meaning of life is life The cat chased the dog theX catX they d0gy chaseexy paste What s the point gt linguistically gt computationally Minimal Recursion Semantics A semantic formalism designed for CL applications including MT Fully speci ed representations are equivalent to rstorder predicate logic with generalized quanti ers Designed for expressivity scalability computational tractability underspeci cation Guiding principle The semantic representations produced should include all grammatically relevant distinctions while remaining as concise as possible Expressed in feature structures how convenient MRS example PRED defqrel LBL h3 ARGO x4 BODY h6 RSTR h5 RELS PRED chasevrel LBL h8 ARGO 69 ARGI x4 ARG2 x10 qeq qeq HCONS LARG h7 PRED LBL ARGO PRED LBL ARGO BODY RSTR HARG h5 HARG39 h12lgt HARG l 4 catnrel h7 x4 defqrel h x 0 h13 h12 7 PRED d0g11rel LBL h14 ARGO x10 0 Semantic compositionalily a Each word speci es the relations it contributes and how its syntactic arguments relate to those relations a Each word or phrase eXposes just enough information for further composition the rels and hcons collected so far plus the HOOK a local top handle and 12 indices 0 The phrase structure rules ensure a The CONT value of the mother is built up appropriately from the CONT values of the daughters a The HOOK value of the selected daughter is made available to the selecting daughter Example The cat Slept basicverblex the single relation is an eventrel and its handle LBL and event variable INDEX should be exposed for further composition transitivelexz tem identi es the INDEX of the single item on ARG S with the ARGl role of the key relation intrans verblex the single element of ARG S is identi ed With the single element of SUBJ basichead subj phmse identi es nonhead daughter s SYNSEM with the synsem on the SUBJ list of the head daughter Appends the RELS and HCONS values of the two daughters to give the RELS and HCONS value of the mother INDEX and LTOP come from the head daughter So what 5 leftfor you to do Lab 2 Add predicate names for each relation FRED values Make sure that quanti er relations are being introduced properly either by overt determiners or by a nonbranching rule for determinerless NPs Try parsing sentences and then generating back from the semantic representations Prune any overgeneration that that exercise turns up Add vocabulary Check the web page for the prep instructions posted by noon tomorrow Overview 0 Leftovers Redundancies 0 Semantic representation 0 Semantic composition


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