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by: Kurtis Spencer I


Kurtis Spencer I
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Class Notes
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This 46 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kurtis Spencer I on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING 461 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/192181/ling-461-university-of-washington in Linguistics at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 09/09/15
February 24 2004 Review Chapters 34 Overview 0 Return and go over HW 4 0 Outline of midterm a Review 0 Properties ofpmarkers trees 0 Features 0 Internal structure 0st Homework 4 Exercise VIII 17 0 Testing Whether 15 different verbs are auxiliaries and if so modals o All modals are auxiliaries so if a yerb s de nitely not an auxiliary there s no point in testing it for modal properties a The assignment especially as per the web site asked you to apply all relevant tests 3 for auxiliary status and 4 for modal status where relevant Homework 4 Exercise VIII 27 a The hard part was coming up with test sentences that applied the test fairly o Avoiding any confounding sources of ungrammaticality Sticking with the same verb H W 4 Exercise VIII 37 For the aux tests the important thing is to keep the complement of the verb the same Part of the point of the exercise was that there are homophonous verbs taking different kinds of complements with different AUX and M values For the modal tests one has to change the verb form still keeping the complement the same It is important to make sure that you re using plausible forms of the verb in plausible contexts The bare in nitival test can be applied by simply observing Whether or not the complements are bare in nitivals given the parameters of the problem H W4 Exercise VIII 4 7 0 What s wrong with this test a John is to leave for Paris tomorrow 0 Passes the tag test so 2 he H W4 Exercise VIII 5 7 What s wrong with this test John is working hard Passes the en test gt John isen working hard Recall that passing the en test for M involves not having 21 en form H W4 Exercise VIII 67 0 What s wrong with this test a John is working hard 0 Passes the en test gt John been working hard H W4 Exercise VIII 7 7 0 What s wrong with this test a John needs to think about it o Passes the negation test John needn t think about it H W4 Exercise X 13 0 Determine Whether the generalizations described could be captured by the feature system a Note that the feature system predicts that some groups of categories will function as natural classes while others won t n Thus the question is do those generalizations follow the predicted natural classes or cut across them H W4 Exercise X 23 0 Features V V N N A N P V a Natural classes N A P V N P A V a Not natural classes R A N V N P A H W4 Exercise X 33 Follows the natural classes In Russian only As and Ns bear case Doesn t follow In Italian Ns As and Vs in ect for case not Ps or ADVs Could say N or Vs in ect but that s somewhat less straightforward Also doesn t say anything about adverbs which either aren t covered by the feature system or are con ated with adjectives per Radford Midterm structure Open book open notes Covers chapters 3 and 4 directly Some of that may rely on your understanding of Chs l and 2 Similar overall structure to midterm l Properties of trees What are each of the following and Why are they relevant Precedence Dominance Ccommand No crossing branches Features How are features useful for creating more negrained categories What is an example How are features useful for talking about supercategories What is an example Internal structure OfNPS How do we distinguish structurally between a complement and an adjunct or attribute How do we distinguish empirically ie with tests between a complement and an adjunctattribute Why do attach the D with a separate rule How is optionality handled for determiners complements adjuncts and attributes Complementdaytime di erences Find an example 0 Semantic 0 Semantic Semantic 0 Semantic o Syntactic o Syntactic o Syntactic o Syntactic of each of properties predicated ambiguity cooccurrence restrictions recursiVityiterability ordering coordination extraposition preposingextraction More practice with trees 0 Draw trees for each of the following sentences 0 Find evidence for treating particular nominal dependents as complements or adjunctsarguments o The parking garage behind Padelford may be full 0 The cat on the mat by the door might sleep 0 Toby would hear the story about the grape Overview 0 Return and go over HW 4 0 Outline of midterm a Review 0 Properties ofpmarkers trees 0 Features 0 Internal structure 0st rtclass exercise if time Ch 4 Ex X 12 a the English king a the king who is English b the king of England 0 Structural analysis in a English is an attribute in b it is a complement a Pragmatic analysis always an attribute exact relationship underspeci ed Inelass exercise if time Ch 4 Ex X 22 0 Use the following examples and their possible interpretations to argue for one analysis over the other Why do philosophers always use examples involving a bald French king instead of a bald English one There s not much to choose between the present English and French kings except that the French king is less bald than the English one Henry VIII is the best know English Protestant king We ve had relatively few English septuagenarian kings Boedicea was the most famous English pagan queen Henry IV was the last English French king February 5 2004 Ch 3 7 38 More on categories Pseudoguest lecture Binding theory Overview Con ating categories Decomposing categories features Conference talk on binding theory and eyetracking Midterm 1 C on ating categories We saw that some further kinds of words particle subordinating conjunctions could be assimilated to one of our existing categories preposition Could any of the existing categories be con ated Adjectives and adverbs Adjectives and determiners Advectives o Similarities Semantic o Morphological o Syntactic Morphological Similarities Many adverbs are simply adjectivesly Examples Counterexamples o Adverbs don t have a morphological comparative form of their own instead use adjective base er Examples Counterexamples 0 Some adverbs and more generally some dialects systematically allow the same form in both adjective and adverb positions Examples Counterexamples Syntactic Similarities o Premodi ers examples a Complements examples Syntactic di erence So What s the difference between adjectives and adverbs gt Distribution That is the difference in form when it occurs correlates with a difference in position This is in fact a case of complementary distribution Similar to case of allomorphs of the English plural morpheme spelled s NB This complementary distribution means that tests like coordination or distribution are going to fail Costs and bene ts Ofadvective analysis 0 Which model is better Costs and bene ts Ofadvective analysis Reduce the number of categories by one Need to add a mechanism for adding the adverb in ection when it s required Need to add a mechanism for keeping forms that are strictly one or the other out of certain positions Examples How might we do that Adjectives and Determiners Di erences o Morphological Examples 0 Syntactic Examples 0 Semantic Examples Syntactic di erences 0 Both adjectives and determiners precede nouns The big dog slept o If both are present the determiner must go rst gt Big the dog slept Syntactic di erences 22 a Adjectives stack determiners mostly don t The big red ugly dog slept gt The this that dog slept The one dog slept o Adjectives can be used predicatively determiners can t The dog is red gt The dog is the Semantic di erences a Function 0 Adjectives describe properties of the nouns they modify a Determiners serve to pick out particular members of the class of things denoted by the noun 0 Selectional restrictions 0 Some adjectivesnoun combinations give pragmatic illformedness Examples 0 Some determinernoun are also illformed but these look more syntactic or semantic count v mass singular v plural C on ating categories summary a Adjectives and adverbs are similar a Adjectives and determiners are not a It may be worthwhile to con ate adjectives and adverbs into one category Decomposing categories 0 Categories provide a classi cation of words and phrases which in turn allows the statement of general syntactic rules 0 Could we write a grammar without categories a Is one classi cation enough le might we want to be able to talk sometimes about more or less negrained categories Features So far categories have been primitives From now on take categories to be bundles of features This allows us to talk about classes at varying degrees of generality and even crosscutting classes Underspeei cation Giving values for only some features de ning a larger class Proposed features a The features in this model are all binary That is they all have two possible values and a Two binary features can distinguish four categories N N V A V N P Proposed natural classes a What do each of these share N Nouns and adjectives V Verbs and adjectives N Verbs and prepositions V Nouns and prepositions Subcategories Auxiliary verbs Going the other way we can use features to de ne classes that are more negrained that what we started with Radford proposes to group modals and auxiliaries into the category verb but distinguish them with two new features tM and tAUX iAUX is only appropriate for elements that are already V N tM is only appropriate for elements that are already AUX Three kinds of verbs o V N AUX Nonauxiliary verbs eat sleep o V NAUX M Nonmodal auxiliaries be do have 0 V NAUXM Modals can will must Tests for subcategories 0f verbs AUX o Inversion Negation Tag questions M 0 Take bare VP complement Cannot appear after to or another modal 0 Have no past participle form Have no ing form Midlevel verb categories a What do all V N words have in common a What do all V N AUX words have in common a What do all V NAUX words have in common Other subcategories Adverbs adjectives Transitive intransitive ditransitive verbs Singularplural nouns Others Features and phrases 0 So far we Ve just looked at wordlevel categories a Radford suggests decomposing phraselevel categories in an analogous way VP NP for VP etc 0 Another possibility tPhrase Features Summary 0 What is the point of features a Will we actually see much more of them in this book a If categories are bundles of features what does it mean to claim that the set of categories is universal


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