Chapter 7 Vocab
Chapter 7 Vocab Psych 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at James Madison University taught by Dr. David Daniel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Chapter 7 Vocab: Learning Learning: the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (operant conditioning) Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Neutral stimulus (NS): a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response (UR): an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salvation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth) Unconditioned stimulus (US) a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response Conditioned response (CR): a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) Conditioned stimulus (CS): an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) 5 major conditioning processes: Acquisition: the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of the reinforced response Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant condition when a response is no longer reinforced Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Generalization: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses Discrimination: the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus Law of effect: Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Operant chamber: a chamber, (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a good or water reinforce; attached devices record the anima’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking Reinforcement: any event that strengthens the behavior it follows (can be + or -) Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers—a positive reinforce is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli—a negative reinforce is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (negative reinforcement is NOT punishment) Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need Conditioned reinforcer (secondary): a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced Partial (intermittent) reinforcement: reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Fixed-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses Variable-ratio schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed-interval schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed Variable-interval schedule: a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Punishment: an event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows Respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences Shaping: reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior (target behavior) Behaviorism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2) Cognitive map: a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment—for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment Observational learning: learning by observing others Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Mirror neurons: frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy Prosocial behavior: positive, constructive, helpful behavior (the opposite of antisocial behavior)
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