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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chadrick Ebert on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART 483 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/192204/art-483-university-of-washington in Art at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
robotics mindstorrns perception cognition action lecture segment 1 axel roesler 8 andrew davidson interaction design division of design university of washington contact roesieru Washington edu adaVid7u washington edu DRAFI39 01162007 do not distribute without permission by the authors art 483 fundamentals of interface design Fundamentals of Interface Design Interface interface between two faces a boundary quota line of demarcation to aportion blame An In between mediating between people and technology Design mediating between what is desirable from a human perspective with what is possible as technology directed into the future Robots To work concerned with work about work helpers assistants servants threats super humans Tools human like bio mimicry humanoid robots robotic platforms What is a robot A person with an identity a name a face a past a future a role capable of criticism able to change able to adapt curious selfmotivated autonomous dependent emotional aware context sensitive doubtful playful unpredictable intuitive passionate sentimental romantic aggressive very very complicated yet so well documented but still a mystery Why is this Why are we fascinated with robots Robots become stand ins extension of human capabilities Robots as helpers friends Robots become a model of what we know about the human mind the body and interactions with others in our environment they become proof of our concepts about knowing and acting because we can build them control them and they work as expected We tend to overinterpret robots because we don39t know what we do not know Robots become test bed platforms in our technologicial exploration into what makes us human robots as exploration Robots and Society Robots as escape Robots as evidence Robots as dreams as projection of wishes and fears Robots as a medium to model explore and experiment Robots as tangible computing robotics and motivations One direction in computing is concerend with developing a model of mind39 and the representation of thought as processes that can transform data in meaningful and intended ways Data is an abstract representation of states in the world People can relate data to observable states in the physical world and manipulate physical properties in the world in order to change data Simulated Cognition Motivated by curiosity or following a plan we interact with the world coupled to the environment around us and guided by Perception How do we pick up data in the form of stimuli detecting change and directing attention as Cognition How do we interpret data as information understanding as integrating data with context in order to engage in Action How do we relate information to the world around us in order to test hypotheses by manipulation conditions in the world in order to evaluate if what we expected is 39true39 If the outcome was different we modify our plan the perceptionaction cycle How does this work in your mindstorms robot Sensors pick up changes in the environment Mindstorms 39brick relates sensor readings with motor control lts logic is the program you have written the operations of the 39bricllt39 constrained by how this program runs in the hardware of the 39brick39 and how it is wired to the sensors and motors The 39brick39 computes a command that is sent to the motors The motors propell the robot relative to its physical environment untill the sensors pick up a salient change in the environmental conditions The motion of the robot changes the relationship between sensors and environment sensing computing action This is a compact description of the perceptionaction cycle This by the way is why we re working with mindstorms The underlaying principles are very important for our view on the prospects of computers in the near future Sensing the environment detecting change perception detect and register stimuli 51 senses visual vision two eyes aural sound two ears tactual touch nerves across entire body oral taste mouthtongue olfactoral scent nose vestibular balance inner ears body movement accelerationmotion add to all head and body movement plus re location in the environment 51 modalities a path of communication between human and environment note how these processes almost always are engaged simultaneously major modalities seeing or vision modality hearing or audition modality haptic modalities touch tactile or tactition modality the sense of pressure proprioception modality the perception of body awareness other modalities taste or gustation modality smell or olfation modality thermoception the sense of heat and cold nociception modality the perception of pain equilibrioception modality the perception of balance in perception senses capture and modalities transfer change In the enVIronment the change that causes a sensory stimulus is either cause by the enVIronment relocating or transforming relative to the observer I waves coming towards you at a beach or is a result of the observer relocating and redirecting relative to the enVIronment you watching the landscape passrng by from a train in motion change is always dynamic and unfolds over time change is a relational property and captures the relationship between entities or objects a mutual relationship Understanding Change requires that both observer and changing condition are situated in a shared environment In reality an observer is directly coupled with the environment where a change of conditions is situated In virtual and remote environments this direct coupling is not given As a result perception cognition and action across a distance or in a virtual environment are very complex This applies to computers that can not physically assess and manipulate their environment understanding change the environment is always there you are always surrounded by it see James J Gibson The ecological approach to Visual Perception 1979 the environment is composed of medium substances and surfaces it encompasses meaningful inanimate static and animated kinetic objects As the observer in your environment you are an animated observer you can change your location and orientation Light and weather are animated conditions in the environment that can render inanimate objects to appear animated play of light and shadow on a building all physical entities in your environment are subject to time You perceive your environment and direct observations into that environment based on what you know about the environment and what you want to explore Explanations of your environment that your formulate are informed by your observations that result from directed perception You actively explore your environment by relocating your point of observation and shift perspectives into your surrounding people can see you in their environment as you can see them in yours In your shared understanding with them you experience the same environment yet no person can be at two locations at the same time nor can one location be inhabited by two observers at the same time ecological perception Cognition is concerned with knowledge explanations and representations cognitive work can take these forms locating yourself and others in an environment collaborate with others formulating goals identifying tasks knowing where to look at and what to do knowing what will likely happen next making decisions for action evaluating outcomes of action learning from results capturing and representing insight as knowledge represent knowledge for sharing with others designing Themes in the study of cognitive work are How do we identify goals and formulate plans and strategies How do we understand complicated conditions and relationships How do we predict changing conditions How do we make decisions fora best courses of action How do we adapt plans ourselves to changing conditions How do we learn How do we represent store and retrieve knowledge How do we engage in creative search How do we diagnose problems How do we solve problems How do we train and coach others in acquiring knowledge cognition themes cognition knowledge a plan directs perception observations perception findings modifies cognition plan cognition outcome of reasoning decision adapts action manipulation of physical environment or change in perspective of observation in physical environemnt so that new observations inform cognition perception cognition and action are coupled and situated in the environment the perceptionaction cycle engages the observer to relocate and reorient himherself in the environment 39mind need 39body to do this cognition and reality The design of robots is a powerful approach to learn and understand more about the mutual relationships between reasoning and action as these apply to computational representations of behaviors computer algorithms that describe sensormotoric interactions The design of a robot s behavior constrains the physical structure of the robot This physical structure in turn constrains the performance of the robot and the types of 39behaviors the robot is capable to perform The robot39s instructions as program define the robot39s 39logic39 and relate physical structure with 39behavioral plot designing behaviors
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