INTELL FOUNDATIONS INFO 200
Popular in Course
Popular in Informatics
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brennan Schmeler on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INFO 200 at University of Washington taught by Michael Eisenberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/192215/info-200-university-of-washington in Informatics at University of Washington.
Reviews for INTELL FOUNDATIONS
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/09/15
Terms ltaVistaquot One of ifnot the most powerful search engine back in the 9039s before Google not the first though Yahoo was ARCS Model A motivation theory Attention Relevance Con dence ahal moment and Satisfaction Cloud Computing Basically accessing an online application using aweb browser where all the data and software is stored on servers and the processing is done in quotthe cloud This means that users can access from any device but they also put their data at risk for being monitored by the host compan Software as a service SaaS An application or service based in the cloud for user access Platform as a service PaaS Providing certain limited language pack for a developer to work with on their server Infrastructure as a service IaaS Typically a platform virtualization environment Dropbox Amazon Cloud Crawler a computer program that collects online documents and reference links Database 7 a collection of data Document Processor Tums a webpage or other document into a form usable by an indexing service most likely that of a search engine through multiple steps Freemium Offering a basic service for free but charging a premium for advanced features Information Encounter bumping into useful information when you were not looking for it Information Ground a place you go to for a particular reason but also share information that is not necessarily related to the purpose of going to the place Information Spectrum Data gt Information gt Knowledge gt Wisdom Internet Internetworking a global interconnection of computer networks Inverted Filequot an inverted file is an index it is where you take the terms that are in the main file and quotinvertquot it When you search in Google you are searching the quotindexquot or quotinverted filequot Metadata literally quotdata about dataquot the data provides information on one or more aspects of the data Ex tagging Metcalfe39s Law States that the value of a network increases in proportion to the square of all its connections Moore39s Law The theory that computing power will double every 18 months Packet Switching Information is broken up and sent to another user by dispersing it over many different paths Not a direct connection unlike circuit switching Page Rank Google s patented system that organizes search results by the quality ofthe webpage and how closely it is associated to the search terms Query Processor Similar to the Document processor except it is used on the input search words or other input given by a user This processor takes the search given my a user and turns it into a form which is easier to understand and use by the searching system Relevance Feedback Information from the users about how well a site matched the user39s query Stemming Adding prefixes and suffixes to broaden search results to include related items Term Stemming 7 removal of prefixes or suffixes in Search Sto Wordsquot Words that search engines ignore because they hinder searches such as quota an but and or Taylor39s ValueiAdded Model Explains why various systems and system values are use il or not The model consists of three lists containing user criteria of choice interface values added and system I Several I 39 to values added which then corresponds to auser criteria of choice Umwelt To put yourself in someone else39s perspective Domain Name System DNS Changes an IP into googlecom Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP A networking protocol for distributed collaborative hypermedia information systems Internet service provider ISP is a company that provides access to the Internet Internet Protocol version 4 IPv4 is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol IP and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely deploye Internet Protocol version 6 IPv6 is a version of the Internet Protocol IP that is designed to succeed Internet Protocol version 4 IPv4 Packets a formatted unit of data Packet sniffing a computer program that can intercept and log traffic passing over a network Static IP addresses A network administrator decides how to allocate those numbers on their local network and each device is setup manually An IP address that never changes a DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol a device requests an IP address and is leased by one the ISPs Information Perspective Information s ubiquitous Information attributes and behavior are continually changing Hierarchy of information the information spectrum data information knowledge wisdom action can be taken at any level Skills in information problemsolving are essential ARCS teaching model Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction Yahoo First search engine attempted to create a directory of the Internet organized into categories released March 1 1 95 Alta Vista The rst good search engine before Google Search relevancy went from around 30 to 60 with Alta Vista Two key participants were Louis Monier who wrote the crawler and Michael Burrows who wrote the indexer MosaicFirst Graphic Web Browser eventually became Netscape released 1993 E Marc Andreessen Coauthor of Mosaic the first graphical web browser 1993 Mosaic eventually became Netscape navigator Tim BernersLee founder of WW Sergey Brin amp Larry Page Cofounders of Google Susan Dumais Inventor of Windows Desktop search Buckland Information Informationas process the act of informing Ex Telling somebody something the sky is blue Informatianas knowledge intelligence gained by informationasprocess Ex The sky is blue because it re ects blue light Informationas thing data documents having the quality of imparting knowledgequot Ex A picture of the s y Zhang 4 Fundamentals IiModel 1 Information Info lifecycle info org info rep classification catalogingindexing metadata 2 Technology Hardwaresoftware infrastructure application technical resources services 3 People Demographics factors cognitive factors motivational factors knowledgeexpertise 4 Org amp Society strate y no icv maria ement operation process culture Liddy Search Engine Document Processor Queg Processor Prepares processes and inputs the documents pages or sites Time vs Quality lNormalizes the document stream to a predefined format 1Tokenize query terms 2Breaks the document stream into desired retrievable units 2 Recognize query terms vs special operators 3Isolates and metatags subdocument pieces 3 Delete stop words 4 Identifies potential index able elements in documents 4Stem words 5 Deletes stop words 5 Create query representation 6Stems terms 6 Expand query terms 7 Extracts index entries 7 Compute weights 8 Computes weights 9Creates and updates the main inverted le against which the search engine searches in order to match queries to documents The Rnsenfeld articles for April 13th What an Information Architect does designs and 39 quot systems panic any DefinesWhatthe site will actually beHow the site will actually workFocuses on perspectives of both consumers and producers Consumer perspective find what they are looking for looking at information seeking consuming Producer perspective How to make it appealing make them come back for more utilize your site to the max Information Architecture Components 0 Organization Systems Categorizing information o Labeling Systems How information is presented 0 Navigation Systems A mapping of how we browse or move around a website 0 Search Systems How we search information duh David Case readings April 15th I The Internet can be a metaphor for information behavior With the advent of the Internet different channels of information newspaper radio telegraph etc have been consolidated into one 10 myths about information and information seeking higher stakes generally attracts more research to a situation cancer research vs study on something not as impact Jl An informationseeking investigation involves looking at social role occupation and demographic ofthe user 5 examples of information behavior betting at a horse race buyin Fisher April 15th Social spaces casual interactions meaning 1 exchanges an information ground typology based on the college student experience ple gather at information grounds usually for reasons other than information sharing I in the study 729 students were surveyed I Trichotomy of people place and information are three variables that create an information ground I A hostage information ground setting is where people have no choice but to be there such as bus stops train stations waiting rooms etc Anderson Chris April 15th Theweb39 L quot 39 vviii r apps I Apps provide an opportunity for a company to make a pro t I A ps provide an optimized experience for a speci c device which is better Quiz questions we know I amp e ofwhen sharing information increasesdecreases its value 0 Decrease Limited editions of certain product grading on a curve keeping answers to yourself patents intellectual property 0 Increase Firefox has open source code which means people can send bug xes point out security vulnerabilities and make a new browser or plugin without paying royalties I Good example of relevance feedback is X systemand WHY o Pandora listen give feedback receive next song give feedback relevant songs 0 Stumbleupon see a page rate it receive next page based on previous rating 0 Net ix watch a movieget a DVD rate it receive advice on what to add to queue based on plot keywords director genreetc I Knowing the difference between a database and a search engine 0 Databases stores archives and catalogues information 0 Search Engines search the database I Basic history of the Internet look at 48 reading notes 0 DARPA ARPAnet connects 4 heterogeneous computers in 1968 intranets Intemet WWW 1974 rst TCPIP protocols developed I Classifying VS Categorizing gt Does classifying assume power subordination and evaluation 0 oth are a process and endresu t Categorizing sorting stuff into categories that work in that situation Categories are speci c and personal they help you impose order 0 assifying involves sorting stuff into known xed classes I What are the differences between consumers and producers of information 0 Consumers student looking for classes online 0 Producers newspaper I What are three roles that you can have in Web Design with an Informatics major other than Information Architect I Technical Programmer Responsible for server administration and the development or integration of site production tools and web site applications I Project Manager keeps project on schedule and within budget I Graphic Designer Editor I Information Behavior Variables Donald Case 7 The Human Perspective a Seeker Person who wants to do something b Situation what the seeker wants to do c Main Motivation what drives the seeker to do the situation d Sources ofInformation friends website joumals brochures e Time Pressure low months moderate weeks high days f Degree ofthoroughness low moderate hig Brenda Dervin s myths o informa 39on more info is always better there is relevant info for every need every need has a solution time and space individual situations can be ignored in addressing info seeking and use Information Ground place you go for one speci c purpose and end up picking up other types of info while you re there Examples coffee shop bus stop classroom hallways
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'