COMMUNITY ECOLOGY CFR 501
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ethelyn Rempel IV on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CFR 501 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/192223/cfr-501-university-of-washington in College Of Forest Resources at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Fire Regimes of the Paci c Northwest 111708 Modi ed ham lllstahe hm Ages lertures Topdown 0r Bottomup in uence on re and re regimes Whether the weather is cold 0r whether the weather is hot We must weather the weather Whatever the weather Whether we like it or riot unknown limerickiAgee 1997 Northwest Science 71 153 1 56 Topdown coarsescale in uences usually climate Bottomup nescale in uences usually fuels andor topo ap t2 w u s verag w w Frequency 4 am tszu zlavalm lmalels A L Wmulmu at at same an you w tznnm mama wws Outline Examples of PNW Fire Regimes 7 igh T SHE ixed moderateicentral OR CascadesNorthern CA 7 Low nonlethaliponderosapine Does climate control re Top down Or does pliysiography and fuels control re Bottom up Which regimes are topdown and which bottom up A Wnsl mUSansN hvasi39dS vmgrsummev mpmimu VubllshedvaAAS Fire Regime In uences rlre regime descrtpttorl ofrole that re plays m an ecosystem Age lay Fire Eta mmer e rhtehslty how much energy 15 released 7 Seasonallty whattlrhe ofyear r Extent how large 7 Sevaltyecologlcal in the same re reglrhe weather Lopogaphy and fuels have an ln umce Fire Regimes Vary by Environment Fire Regimes 3 Warm g L Wesrem Maggi 917 swim 2 g B J 0 Fire Characters frequency intensrty extent 9 a 39 7 c lounging m Viv E 734 season synergism F 5 war I 5 E H H 39 0 Three major fire regimes ru n Cold 5mm my MOisTUPE STRESS INDEX Wet Dry AgeeJK i992 NanhwzslScizme 722434 Historical Fire Regimes of the Pacific Northwest 0 Severity is the effect ofFire on system 7 Function of plant adaptations re characters 7 High Lethal Severity Infrequent 100 yrs and standreplacing 7 Mixed Moderate Severity Less frequent 2575 yrs and a mix of severities 7 Low N onlethal Severity Frequent 515 yrs but low intensity Mam i992 NanhwestSciznce Historical Natural Fire Regimes nninn 2mm Three Forest Examples vrwzwm mm mm Mam ms 5r Tsuga heterophylla Zone I Warm and weti summer drought 7 Increasing drought H19OR 7 Usually too moist to burn I High severity re regime 200400 yr re return interval Fire Kill Essentially All Trees I Drought lightning and east wind I Severe surface plus I Only 15 biomass consumed I Opens growing space for Douglas r Age 100 Dense Canopy I Stern Exclusion Selfthinning Simple structure Low plant animal diversity Large scale res are rare 39YacoultFire 1902 WA bumed 1 million ac 39Tillamook Fire 1933 OR7 300000 ac 391848 r Nestucca Fire 290000 acres burned in Oregon 391849 r Siletz Fire 800000 acres burned in Oregon 1853 r Yaquina Fire 484000 acres F39 quot 15 1865 e Silvaton Fire 988000 acres Mona iNPurs burned in Oregon Longsxerm drought Shunlnr u m 1868 e Coos Bay Fire 296000 acres OR htip wwwgskiyunmgissilzsfin iisnnumnwuarnes cfm Age 20 Douglas r I The only period that Douglas r establishes I Need open growing conditions I 7501000 years so canopy dominant the whole time o 317 Age 200 I Old growth stands blending I Douglas r still dominant Age 200 Gaps created by treefall allow light y r to reach forest oor Shadetolerant un ers ory hemlock responds Topdown or Bottomup I Climate appears to overwhelm other fire regime in uences 7 more topdown in the moist Douglasfirwestern hemlock forests I Are massive fires common due to infrequent events or build up of stand structure m 2mm gumm Rananhs mam shawlmud m 23mm MW Mammalquot Age 500 Classic Old Growth 5 CFR 526 F 230420 022 Old school vs really old school What Causes Massive Fires I The 1700 quake magnitude 9 I Quakethrown timber then big re we 2mm Consavvanon Tree rings to date the events I Date established from crossdated cedars I Those that were sunk compared to those that lived I Last Year of Growth l 699 mum Km Yamaguchl etal 1997 Name 3897390 Fire Regime Shifts to more moderate rmquot South I Mesic forest 7 ABLA 7 ABGR I Dry forests szrdahletal 2mm 501008266U7678 Moderate Severity Mosaic High Black Moderate 7 Vertical stri e P Low 7 dotted 7 Over a century near H J Andrews forest Mumsun anSmnsun 199m FNW GTRVZSA Warner Creek Fire Moderate m lmnana Tucanrmn Fires bumed Zx mure sequenuy suuth dnEr r c Baker me suppressmn 16m t uoc mun mu Year Tupugzphm m umce lmpu anl at ml 13 um 1r 39 a steep slupes Year hammm mad Heyudahletal 2mm Ecology 22551572 Fire Regime Shifts to South I Central Oregon Cascades into Northern California I Mixed Severity Fire 39 Regime Douglasfir forest I Note patch size smaller and severity is Wamer Creek Fire Variable across the landscape Fuel Limits on Fire Spread Mixed severity re regime 7 red r not Douglas r Fires butt into Each other and m n Go out 39 Mixed severity regimes Topdown or Bottomup I Regional gradient in drought topdown I Local in uences topographically in uenced so bottomup I Fuel differences a bottomup in uence but subordinate to topography and weather Historical Conditions I Small Evenaged Groups I 50150 treeshectare I Oldest groups see arrow killed by bark beetles Examples of Historic Pine Forest Small trees ar result of re exclusion Ponderosa Pine Low Severity 1m rm GYL WVH mm w gr ma mm ANDEK Western Pine Beetle I Small Group Tree Killer I Attacks Trees of Low Resistance I In historical foresw these Were the oldest groups What Maintained Open Structure w I Frequent Low Intensity Forest Fires I Leave History with ire Scars I Up to 30 Scars on One Tree Thick bark protects must ur Cambium um I s m m 739 mu n u quot2 H m 2w l Imm in u m M mam uva u mnmmmmm W m quot mm m 39mw JJLUI 111mmmm mm W m yquot mu m um mom mm unz mm j mm low w 0029 wquot 15 m mnm w
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