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by: Adrain Lebsack


Adrain Lebsack
GPA 3.54

Timothy Nyerges

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Timothy Nyerges
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adrain Lebsack on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 360 at University of Washington taught by Timothy Nyerges in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/192238/geog-360-university-of-washington in Geography at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
Geography 360 Nyerges wwzw Project 2 Dot Density Mapping amp World Population Distribution Learning goals 1 How is the world s population distributed 2 What are the characteristics of various map projections and how do these in uence the display of spatial data 3 How does dot density mapping work What issues do we need to think through when making a dot density map Files you need 1 Copy of the worldpop shapefrle from the Pgeog360s08project2data folder Turn in 1 Two 2 maps 2 A copy of the answers to the questions posed at the end of this assignment Tasks amp Steps Introduction In this project you will make a dot density map showing the distribution of the world s population by country In addition to exploring the various issues involved in dot density mapping you will also investigate the effects that map projections have on displays of spatial information Copy the Lab Proiect Data to your personal folder Login to the computer using your UW Net ID and password set in the previous lab Click on Start on the bottom left of the screen and run the My Computer application Using the icons browse to the P drive Enter the Pgeog360s08 folder Rightclick on the project2 folder and select the Copy option Now browse to your own student folder S Rightclick on the empty space and select the Paste option A folder named project2 should appear which includes all data instructions and answer sheet for this lab assignment wsgweww Add the shape le for world population by country to your map 1 Login and start ArcGIS ArcMap 2 When the start window appears Start using ArcMAP wit select the radio button for A new empty map Click OK Page I of 9 E 4 gt19 509 Click the File dropdown menu and choose Add Data or click on the Add data symbol You ll need to map the data directory on the S to your project so click on the symbol with the lobe and a1row which says Connect to Folder when you put your cursor over it E Find the S drive and doubleclick on it Find your student folder click on it once to highlight it click OK You have now mapped the data folder to your project This will allow you to manage the data easily Open the Spr0ject2data folder by doubleclicking on it Highlight the file named worldpopshp and click on the Add button The Add data dialog box will close and a map of the world will appear on your screen You have just added a shapefile that contains information for all of the countries of the world with some exceptions This shapefile and the population data that it contains were created by ESRI in 1994 You could take a few minutes to explore what this shape file represents space time attribute using some techniques you learned in exercise 1 Save your work 1 You should save your work periodically in your personal folder in S To save the current map document in your folder click on the File dropdown menu choose save as The dialog box asks which folder you want to save the current map document in Navigate to the S drive by clicking on the down arrow on the right side of the white display rectangle to the right of Save In 3 Open your projeth subfolder and give your map document a name Project2Map might be a good choice 4 Notice that the file extension ArcGIS gives your document is mxd N Open the attribute table for the worldpop shapefile l 9 4 Right click on the word worldpop in the table of contents to bring up the drop down menu Select the option open attribute table The attribute table for worldpop should open Scroll through the table to acquaint yourself with the various fields and records in the table Note that there is one field labeled POPULATION this is the attribute that you will map Close the attribute table by clicking on the X in the upper right hand comer of the table Symbolize your attribute 1 Open the Layer Properties dialog box by double clicking on the word worldpop in the table of contents Page 2 0f 9 N E 4 V39 0 gt1 9 0 O Click on the Symbology tab This dialog box allows you to assign symbols to the attribute that you choose to map On the left side of the window where it says Show choose Quantities population is a quantity Now you should have a list of different ways to show quantities graduated color graduated symbol proportional symbol and dot density Click on dot density Notice that in the view box below ArcMap shows you an example of a dot density map In the Field Selection frame two fields come up AREA and POPULATION Those two fields appear because they are the only fields or attributes in your attribute table that show quantities Since we want to map population click on the word POPULATION to highlight it Now Click on the little arrow next to the field selection frame to send it to the empty frame on the right Notice that ArcMAP gives the symbol a dot a color You can change the color of the dot by right clicking on it A color palate will appear and you can choose any color you like simply by clicking on it Remember that we will be printing in black and white so you should choose either black or a dark color Notice the densities frame below the field selection frame You can change the dot size by typing over the default size here 2 or by moving the scroll bar along the side of the dot size frame The Dot Value window tells you how much each dot represents In the case above each dot represents 6000000 people The Min Mean and Max windows show you how much coalescence you will have in countries that have the minimum the average and the maximum values that should help you to determine how to set the dot value and dot size To change the dot value enter a new number and then click anywhere on the dialog box or manipulate the slide bar above the dot value display Experiment with the dot value and dot size until you think that you have found a balance between emptiness and crowdedness Go back to the readings for this week if you need more information on design issues and dot value or dot size When you are satisfied with dot size dot color and dot value click the Apply button and then the OK button D ensities Dot Sign l2 r Dot Malue BUUDUUU The Layer Properties dialog box will disappear and you will see your map with dots representing the population of each country If all of the countries do not appear it is due to a slight technical error 7 sometimes the program stops redrawing right in the middle of the process To have the map redraw click on the check mark next to the word worldpop in the table of contents I so that you take the check mark off This tells ArcMAP not to draw worldpop Then put the check mark back on by clicking on the same box this tells ArcMAP to draw worldpop The entire map should be re drawn Examine your map You may decide that you are not satisfied with the size color or value of your dots To change them simply go back to the Symbology dialog box by doubleclicking on the layer name e g worldpop Page 3 0f 9 Change the layer title 1 Because the word worldpop is a bit awkward especially for a legend change it to something that makes sense eg Population Doubleclick on the layer name worldpop to bring up the layer properties dialog box Click on the General tab Where it says Layer Name rename the layer by typing over what is currently there worldpop When you are nished click Apply and then OK Change the map projection 1 Since ArcMap organizes your various layers in a data frame all layers in a data frame should be in the same projection To change the projection double click on the Data Frame name e g Layers in the table of contents 1M In ArcMap you can have more than one data frame from the upper drop down menus you choose Insert Data Frame You can add shapeflles to this new data frame separate from your original data frame This is a useful function for map design in cases where you need a locator map or an inset map You can construct your locator or inset map in this separate data frame and then design your map layout the mxd file to show the main map and the locator or inset N E 4 V39 0 In the Data Frame Properties dialog box that pops up click on the coordinate system tab Notice that ArcMap tells you what coordinate system your current map is in geographic Go to the Select a coordinate system frame click on the folder labeled predefined Click on the Projected Coordinate Systems folder Notice that you now have many selections to choose from Since we are working with a map of the world click on the world folder For this project we want to compare a conformal projection preserves shapesangles to an equal area projection preserves size Mollweide is a good example of an equal area projection Mercator is a familiar example of a conformal projection Choose one of those projections by clicking on it Click OK You will come back to the other type of projection at a later stage in this exercise A dialog box appears with a warning Check the box Don t warn me again in this session click Yes to proceed The selections you made for your dot size and value may change Go back to Layer Properties Symbology to readjust your density selections Now your map should be drawn differently according to the projection that you selected Before you create a map layout we will add a graticule to the map so that we can see more clearly how the map projection works Add a graticule l 2 Double click on the Data Frame title e g Layers in the table of contents to pull up the Data Frame Properties box Click on the Grids tab Page 4 0f 9 3 Cllck on the New Grid button 4 Where rt says Which dn anI wanttn create39l39 leave the default settrng whlch should be Grz cule d39vrdes nnap by meridians and parallels Cllck the Nzxt39 button Under Appearance39 leave the default setung whlch should be Grzticule and labels Under Intervals39 set DEG39 to 20 degrees forboth Parallels and Latrtude the default shouldbe set for 10 degrees Nouee how the rnteryal setung ehanges the gratreule m N h major and mmor dlvlslon ueks by llckmg on the eheeked boxes ou ean ehange the tent style for the labels m thrs wlndow as well Cllck Nzxt39 when you are flnlshed h a a a a a a a 5a 539 E Cllck on eaeh button to see what the optrons are and ehoose one Under gradeule prnperu39es keep the default setung whlch should be Slnre as fixed grid that updateswlth changes tn the data frame39 Cllck Finish39 Apply39 and OK39 t asklng lf you want to eontrnue Choose yes 1 10 When the dlalog box eloses you wlll not see your gratreule you wlll have to go to the quot todothat kFrV Wl srnall lcons slde by slde at the bottorn left ofyourrnap wlndow that look llke tlus rfrt ls cllcked To return to the prevlous vlew known as the data mewquot cllck the globe e left Create annag laynut l nee you sausfred wth the way the data are represented you are ready to ereate a vlsual presentauon In order to pnntyour rnap you39ll needto frrst ereate alayout Go to me A r desenbed above Thls wlll allow you to swrteh from the Data viewto the Laynutview the e Notree also that ou haye anew set oftools at the top ofyour sereen mamlamamuam ggl d d l tFa e setup ehoose lanrlsczpe39 and cllck OK39 dragglng rt squares Lfyou don39t see thern cllckln the yrernrty ofyour rnap to aeuye thern pr 0 rtt and edst the propemes legend The legend wrzard39 asks you to Chnnsewhich layers anI want tn include in thelegend39 Slnce there ls only one layer rnake sure thatrt appears m the nght eolurnn ofthe dlalog box and cllck nzxt39 an2 sort 7 The next box allows you to create a legend title Be sure to think carefully about your legend title You can always edit it later In this dialog box you can also change the font size justification and color of your legend title When you have designed your legend title click Next If you want to edit your legend simply doubleclick on it and change the various elements according to the legend properties dialog box What elements groups of items can you add or change in your legend to make it more appealing and easy to read a 9 b c d gt0 If you want to change the legend font highlight the legend by clicking on it once click on the text tool at the bottom of the a e aa inu Inc 2 vi 7 If P I t L W 18 I B I U I I and choose a new font NOTE Notice that the layout has various elements to it The data frame is one element the legend is one element the title is one element and so on Each of these elements can be selected by clicking on it once By default the software will sometimes position an element on top of or under another element however the display will not reveal it to you as a result of which you might not be able to select some elements easily For example it might be that when you try to insert a text element it will be positioned in the middle of the dataframe element So when you try to select the text element you might end up selecting the dataframe element because the dataframe element is positioned above the text element In order to be able to select the element that you want right mouse click on any element for example the dataframe element and experiment with the order options See the visuals provided for each option to understand each operation Once you send the dataframe element to the back you will then be able to select the text element that was originally placed under it but is now above it Also if you want to unselect any element and not select another simply click outside the neatline of the layout 10 To add a map title go to the Insert dropdown menu and select title or text Experiment with both to see which one suits your needs better What are the advantages and limitations of each tool a Title tool b Text tool Page 6 0f 9 N E 4 UI 0 gt1 Think care llly about your map title be sure to consider the three geographic information aspects time space attribute Your map title should be different from your legend title and should present your reader with the big picture What are you trying to convey with your map What is the one main message you want your reader to understand or consider You can incorporate your legend title into your map title but in simpler language Use the text tool to add additional information to your map Be sure to include a Your name b The date c Data source Depending on your map s intended use and audience there are other layout elements you may want to consider We will talk more about these when we discuss cartographic design but for now here are several elements that you include a To add a scale bar go to the Insert dropdown menu and select scale bar or scale text Try both to see what the difference is You can delete layout elements simply by highlighting them and then pressing the delete key b To add a neatline border go to the Insert dropdown menu and select neatline from the dialog box c To insert a north arrow go to the Insert dropdown menu and select north arrow If north is not at the top of your page select properties in the north arrow dialog box and change the calibration angle of the symbol d Note that you can also insert pictures into your layout When designing your layout think through visual hierarchy and intellectual hierarchy 7 what is most important second most important etc How can you make the more important parts stand out How can you make your map clear and concise H elgzul design rig in ArcMaQ If you want to modify or delete part of your legend you will have to convert it into a graphic element ie delink it from the map and then ungroup it Highlight the legend by clicking on it Right click on the legend to pull up the dropdown menu Click on Convert to Graphics Now your legend is no longer linked to the data frame it is now simply a group of graphic features Currently all the features are grouped together and if you were to delete one you would end up deleting them all Pull up the same dropdown menu and select Ungroup Now you will see that each part of the legend will act independently of the other parts You can delete parts or move them around If you mess up you can simply start over by adding a new legend with the Insert dropdown menu When you are satisfied with your map save your work by clicking on the oppy disk icon or by using the File menu then go to the File dropdown menu and choose Print A printer dialog box will appear if everything looks accurate click OK Now that you have prepared and printed out the first map switch back to the Data View from the Layout View Refer to stepl under Create a map layout section to recall how to do this step Once you have switched to the Data view you can work on changing the projection to Mollweide or Mercator depending on which projection you chose for the first map Steps in Change the map projection section should help you recall how to do this procedure Review your choice of symbology dot size and value 7 again and make a conscious decision about what choices work well with the second projection Be Page 7 0f 9 prepared to explain changes you might have made in symbology Also make sure you add graticules for this second map as well and then go on to creating a layout for this map Once again make conscious decisions about the layout design 8 When you are satis ed with your second map save your work and print it 9 When you are nished save your work close ArcMap and log off the computer Page 8 0f 9 INTERPRET INFORMATION FROM DATA ANALYSIS Answer the Following Questions On a separate sheet of paper provide a typed response to each of the following questions You can either retype the questions below or use the Project Two Answer Sheet that is available on the course website Be sure your name is on the typed page of answers and on your map Keep in mind that the required readings for this exercise will help you answer these questions N E 4 V39 0 What is the geographical spatial temporal and thematic topic addressed in this assignment In a onetomany dot map how does the unit value of the dot e g if one dot equals 100 100 is your unit value affect the mapreader s ability to recover the original data With regard to map design how did you determine what unit value to set each dot equal to What about dot size What effect does the enumeration unit have on the display of information for a oneto many dot map in this project your enumeration unit was the country What would happen if you had a smaller enumeration unit a larger enumeration unit How would you interpret the data if all the enumeration units were of the same size for example 2000 square miles What issues did you consider when designing your legend Which projection seems more appropriate for this attribute and mapping technique ie dot density Why Using the map that you found most appropriate describe in your own words what patterns spatial relationships of world population distribution can be interpreted Page 9 0f 9


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